The first unit of a new generation of battery-trolleybuses arrived at the depot Alpenstrasse in Salzburg, Austria, on 27 August The articulated bus numbered is a trolleybus with additional off-wire capacity. It uses powerful traction batteries while driving on the streets without overhead wires and recharges the batteries once it runs under the existing trolleybus overhead network. By this means trolleybus routes can be extended beyond existing termini without installing new wires.
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New Flyer E40lfVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Chicago Trolleybus Scenes
The trolleybus is an electric passenger transport vehicle. Although it resembles a diesel bus, it is not powered by an internal combustion engine, but by an electric motor. This distinguishes trolleybuses from other electric buses that run on batteries. Many trolleybuses are fitted with an auxiliary engine, so they can move at reduced speed in areas without overhead lines, for example when diversions are necessary due to road works, or during parking manoeuvres. Currently, there are about trolleybus networks in operation worldwide.
Trolleybuses are sometimes called "trolleys. One year after the introduction of the first electric tram, Werner Siemens produced an electrically operated small wagon. The wagon was supplied with current by a small carriage suspended by two overhead lines.
The carriage was connected to the vehicle by a flexible cable. Elektromote pre-dates the first petrol-powered bus, built in by Carl Benz.
There was no further development of trolleybuses in Germany for the next twenty years, although some trials did take place in the United States. The development of trolleybus services dates from the first decade of the twentieth century, when trolleybuses seemed to be a natural midpoint between trams and petrol-powered buses. At this time, trolleybuses were used not to replace trams, but to connect areas without trams to the tram network.
In the interwar period, several cities in North America and the UK converted tram lines to trolleybus use so that the overhead lines could continue to be used even though the rails beneath had worn out. This was because funding for infrastructure was scarce and so that municipally-owned power plants could continue to sell electricity to municipal transport departments.
In the s, the rapid development of diesel buses and a reduction in petroleum fuel prices contributed to the scrapping of many trolleybus lines and their replacement with diesel buses. Trolleybuses are particularly useful in hilly towns where an electric motor is more effective for climbing hills than a diesel engine. Trolleybuses are also useful where there is cheap electricity such as occurs in places like Switzerland and Austria where there is plentiful hydro electric power.
When standing still, trolleybuses do not consume electricity, and in winter, the electric motor starts easily even at below-zero temperatures. In addition, at high altitudes, the electric motor starts easily on occasions when diesel engines struggle due to rarefied air and therefore less oxygen. Another advantage of trolleybuses is that they can generate electricity from kinetic energy when slowing down, in a process called regenerative braking.
This is a benefit also shared by trams and battery-powered buses. In order to make use of the kinetic energy from regenerative braking, either the trolleybus must be fitted with a battery, or there must be another trolleybus on the same electrical circuit which can use the energy. Trolleybuses, like all electric vehicles, are often seen as more environmentally-friendly than diesel buses.
But this is only true where the electricity source is relatively clean. It is not generally the case in Europe where most electricity is derived from burning hydrocarbons.
Ever since its introduction, the trolleybus has been in direct competition with both the omnibus and the tram. In this context it is sometimes criticised as combining the disadvantages of both. So, only a relatively easily defined niche market is available to the trolleybus, namely on routes with passenger volumes that are not high enough to justify construction of a tram system, but high enough to render the operation of an omnibus service inefficient.
The most frequent criticism of the trolleybus is the higher operational costs compared to diesel or gas-powered buses. Due to the high cost of vehicles and the cost of overhead lines and substations, it is economically inferior to the omnibus.
The trolleybus shares with rail systems the restrictions of a physically defined route. Re-routings, temporary or permanent, are not usually readily available outside of "downtown" areas where the trolleybuses may be re-routed via adjacent business area streets where other trolleybus routes operate. This problem was highlighted in Vancouver in July ,  when an explosion closed several roads in the city's downtown core.
Because of the closure, trolleys were forced to detour several kilometers off their route in order to stay on the wires, leaving major portions of their routes unserved and service well off schedule.
Without additional overhead infrastructure it is also impossible to run detours or shortened routes during less busy periods, as is usually the case in many cities with omnibuses during the evenings, at night and on weekends. In Solingen six regular trolleybus lines are replaced overnight by six night-express omnibus lines, all serving routes which deviate from their daytime service.
This sometimes leads to confusion among passengers . Furthermore the operation of school services for both the start and the finish of the school day is not feasible if these deviate from the regular route.
The same applies to servicing industrial sites at the times of shift changes. They are used only once or twice a day and have the additional disadvantage of being unsuitable for any class outings which are outside the cabled route.
Consequently they cannot be used away from the regular route on school trips, club outings or any other such, and are thus precluded from bringing the operator any revenue from non-scheduled services. Another cost factor is the provision of diesel buses as an operating reserve in order to run an emergency service in the event of disruption to the infrastructure.
In La Chaux-de-Fonds, for example, there are 15 such disruptions annually which necessitate a replacement bus service. Trolleybuses cannot overtake one another in regular service unless two separate sets of wires with a switch are provided or the vehicles are equipped with off-wire capability.
The video on the right shows a trolleybus becoming dewired when it overtakes another trolleybus. The inability to overtake in regular service prevents the provision of express services.
This means they cannot for example, use bypass roads but must follow the regular route. To avoid this, in some towns extra route bypass infrastructure is provided. These in turn are comparatively expensive to maintain because of their infrequent use and lack of revenue generation from fares. Passenger direction-dependent services - for example, in the morning on the regular route into the city and then empty as fast as possible back to the start and vice versa in the afternoon, are also difficult to achieve with trolleybuses without complex additional infrastructure.
An example of this is the Zurich line 46, where the frequency is increased by means of diesel buses. By contrast, an omnibus can turn at any major intersection.
Furthermore, trolleybus services cannot be supplemented by the use of any extra units to cover demand at major events, because the capacity of the substations is usually designed for regular operation only.
In St Gallen, a new substation had to be built when the local transport operators introduced double articulated trolleybuses on the regional network. Transport operators who use both trolleybuses and omnibuses have complex issues of personnel disposition as there need to be separate rotas for drivers with, and drivers without a trolleybus licence. In certain circumstances this can lead to omnibuses having to be used simply because there are no drivers available with a trolleybus licence.
This is the case for example with the Esslingen Municipal Transport Company  even though they operate about three times as many omnibuses as trolleybuses. For technical reasons not every bus line can be electrified: Level crossings with electrified railways or particularly low underpasses both exclude trolleybus operation.
An example here is the underpass at the Wuppertal-Vohwinkel station. This prevented the extension of the Solingen line since the necessary lowering of the roadway would have cost around four million euros. Also trolley buses have unique operating characteristics, such as trolley drivers having to slow down at turns and through switches in the overhead wire system. Dewirements—when the trolley poles come off of the wires—sometimes occur, especially in areas subject to heavy snow.
After a dewirement, trolleybuses not equipped with an auxiliary power unit APU are stranded without power. When approaching switches, trolleybuses usually must decelerate in order to avoid dewiring, and this deceleration can potentially add slightly to traffic congestion.
In the case of a dewirement, an entire junction may become blocked. Some trolleybuses are fitted with an auxiliary engine, so they can move in areas without overhead contact lines, for example when diversions are necessary due to road works, or during parking manoeuvres.
A consequence of this is reduced speed. Trolleybus networks are divided into sections each of which is supplied with electricity by a nearby electrical substation. A trolleybus system does not allow multiple branch routes from rural suburbs to be integrated into high frequency central area corridors, as the infrastructure required is unjustifiably expensive. If it is desirable to run an exclusively trolleybus system in the central area, then passengers from these suburbs will be obliged to change vehicles.
The problem is similar for single routes that run less frequently at the periphery than in the centre. Trolleybuses only have a valid claim to being environmentally friendly when the electrical power used is generated from renewable energy sources. If on the other hand it derives from coal-fired power plants, steam power plants, oil-fired power plants, gas turbine power plants or waste incineration plants, then the emissions are merely shifted to another location.
If the power source is a conventional coal power plant, the carbon footprint of the trolleybus is actually larger than that of the diesel bus.
In the immediate vicinity there is the problem of electromagnetic pollution. A negative example here is the trolleybus in Tallinn. As late as the primary energy source in Estonia was still shale oil. On the other hand, diesel buses have also become more environmentally friendly over recent decades, partly as a result of stricter emission standards - such as the Euro-standard in the European Union - and also through improved noise encapsulation of the engine.
This further diminishes any environmental advantage the trolleybus may have had. Additionally, as a result of further future tightening of standards, we can expect a marked reduction of polluting emissions from diesel bus engines. This is especially true for complex cable arrangements at branches and intersections. Intersections often have a "webbed ceiling" appearance, due to multiple crossing and converging sets of trolley wires.
The same goes for the often massive catenary masts, especially if they have to be placed in the middle of pavements. Additionally the overhead cables must always be adapted to the new traffic conditions during road alterations often with high associated costs, even if this only entails re-labelling of traffic lanes. The demolition of buildings adjoining the route may necessitate the catenary rosettes being replaced at the expense of transport companies by temporary poles.
This is especially true in respect of catenary installation in rural areas. Due to the long service-life of trolleybuses, innovations in vehicle construction cannot be implemented as frequently as with diesel buses. This is illustrated by the fact that many cities still operate high-floor trolleybuses, where the omnibus fleet has long since been converted to low-floor vehicles.
Another example is the development of passenger information displays, which has left many trolleybuses operating roller-blind displays which are now considered outdated.
The long life of a vehicle fleet can be detrimental to passenger satisfaction. Modern trolleybuses no longer have the life expectancy of the technically simpler but robust classic old timers hence a further loss of advantage over the omnibus. In contrast, omnibus and coach engines have become more reliable over the decades, and accelerate faster than previously. Furthermore, the higher unladen weight of a trolleybus affects the maximum permitted number of standing passengers, which is determined by the combined mass of vehicle and passengers.
In Germany for example, a three-axle articulated vehicle must not weigh more than 28 tons. So the vintage kg articulated trolleybuses of the Offenbach municipality were only allowed standing places compared to standing places for the structurally identical diesel bus equivalent.
Due to the high voltages and currents necessary for powering the trolleybus, there is a risk of fire in the electrical system. A certain amount of this risk is due to voltage surges caused by lightning strikes to the overhead cable. Consequently, thunderstorms often bring with them significant operational disruption.
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Trolleybus renewal: Ukrainian update
Electrobus model E — modern and eye-catching design to ensure maximum electrical safety for passengers. Comfort for the passengers. Company mission: To contribute to the improvement of the modern city image, introducing effective transport solutions with care for people and the environment. BKM Holding is a state-owned enterprise established by Minsk city executive committee. The authorized fund is formed by the sources of their own funds, without the participation of the state, foreign and other participants. Modern production facilities and highly qualified personnel allows the company to remain in a leading position among manufacturers of urban electric vehicles of the Eastern Europe countries. First trolleybus was repaired at the factory.
First prototype was manufactured in China recently and the company CSR Sifang Quingdao begins to offer this modern vehicle on the local market. We can now announce that the tram manufactured in China is prepared for presentation to potential clients. There are more than cities in China with more than one million of inhabitants. These cities plan great investments into the development of their infrastructure and rail vehicles are to form the backbone system of public transport. That is why we are very proud in our company that we were able to sell them the licence for production of trams ForCity last year. Each of the phases of these trainings were focused on some of the crucial areas of a production of a tram, so today the Chinese are prepared to offer the tram ForCity in tenders issued by Chinese towns. It is a fully low-floor tram with individual drive for all wheels and unique rotating chassis.
Salzburg: The new HESS battery-trolleybuses
Not only do travellers place demands on our coaches in terms of reliability, design and sustainable solutions, such as fuel-saving lightweight constructions, luxury and comfort are also becoming increasingly important: is there on-board Wi-Fi, does my seat have a USB port, can I watch a film? Like the new generation of passengers, we consider the bus to be the mode of transport of the future when it comes to long-distance travel. The challenge of working together to create a healthy living environment and a clean city has never been greater. In the pursuit of future-proof, sustainable mobility for people, society and the environment, zero emissions is the new standard.
Definitions of coast mountain bus company, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of coast mountain bus company, analogical dictionary of coast mountain bus company English. New Flyer worked with Vossloh Kiepe to integrate their electrical equipment into the bus. It has been requested that the title of this article be changed to NFI Group. Oct 27, Explore mitchelllibby63's board "trolleys, etc. Pilot bus their word delivered March 30, , and production buses delivered October 17, through March 28, However, with the arrival of several New Flyer and Nova Bus orders starting in , it remained an active support facility, conducting retrofitting on these vehicles in preparation for revenue service. Contents 1 The Four Phases of Ballard. In the mids, the remaining Tmodel trolley buses were retired, and in their place 50 new trolley buses were acquired from Flyer Industries. The page should not be moved unless the discussion is closed; summarizing the consensus achieved in support of the move. Zippia gives an in-depth look into the details of New Flyer of America, including salaries, political affiliations, employee data, and more, in order to inform job seekers about New Flyer of America.
Fully electric city buses for environmentally friendly short-haul transport
The Dushanbe trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network of Dushanbe , the capital and largest city of Tajikistan. In operation since , the system presently comprises eight routes. The development of electric transport in Dushanbe then called Stalinabad was authorised on 6 April , when, according to decision no of the Stalinabad City Council executive committee, a trolleybus management agency was established. On 1 May , amidst great festivities, the first city trolleybuses operated the inaugural services along the main thoroughfare of the republic - then named Lenin Avenue now Rudaki Prospect. In , line no 2 was opened, and in line no 3. There were nine routes, 65 trolleybuses, and workers. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and disruption of oil supplies that periodically occurred in Tajikistan in the s, urban transport in Dushanbe experienced significant problems. The fleet of conventional buses all but ceased to exist, and therefore the main forms of passenger transport in the streets were trolleybuses. During the oil shortage, all the existing electric rolling stock was pressed into service, including maintenance trucks and KTH-1 trolleybuses produced by the Kiev electric factory.
The trolleybus is an electric passenger transport vehicle. Although it resembles a diesel bus, it is not powered by an internal combustion engine, but by an electric motor. This distinguishes trolleybuses from other electric buses that run on batteries.
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Account Options Connexion. Electrical Engineer's Reference Book. Elsevier , 22 oct. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity.