The purpose of this paper is to clarify and explain current and potential benefits of space-based capabilities for life on Earth from environmental, social, and economic perspectives, including:. In what follows, we describe nearly 30 types of activities that either confer significant benefits now, or could provide positive impacts in the coming decades. The world already benefits greatly from space technology, especially in terms of communications, positioning services, Earth observation, and economic activity related to government-funded space programs. Since then, we have witnessed humans land on the Moon, flights of the Space Shuttle , construction of the International Space Station ISS , and the launch of more than 8, space objects , including dozens of exploration missions to every corner of the Solar System. In March, the US announced an accelerated schedule to permanently return humans to the Moon in Many other nations are also focused on a return to the Moon.
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- Equipment for space
- How space technology benefits the Earth
- The spectacular power of Big Lens
- Examining Planet Surface
- Telescopic sight
- Space & Scientific Instrumentation: earth observation, laser-satellite communication, astronomy
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- Challenges and Opportunities of Optical Wireless Communication Technologies
Equipment for spaceVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Looking Through The World's Largest Telescope - TIME
Scientists observing light noticed an interesting phenomenon - it diffracts when passing through water, ice, or precious stones. After this, the first instruments for optical research emerged.
In B. Dozens of scientists from various countries contributed to the development of optics. The achievements of modern optics are based upon the discoveries of the ancient astronomer Cleomedes; Arab doctor and scientist of the 11 century Alhazen; Italian mathematician of the 16 century Francesco Maurolico; French mathematician and physicist of the 17 century Rene Descartes; Dutch inventor of the 17 century Christiaan Huygens; English scientist of the 17—18 centuries Isaac Newton; and a number of other outstanding personalities.
Russian scientists joined in the development of optical science later, which is explained by the absence of technical conditions for discoveries in this sphere: for a long time there was no domestic lens production, and optical equipment was imported from abroad when it was required.
Domestic research and development in the sphere of optics is directly related to rule of Peter the Great Peter I.
Thanks to the Tsar's reforms, the country received glasses for vision improvement and domestically produced optical devices for the needs of the army and fleet. The forward-looking monarch realized that a strong country had to provide itself with strategic technical innovations, therefore optical production was established in Russia.
It was Moscow before the capital was moved to Petersburg where an optical workshop was established under the supervision of Peter I, and it specialized in the production of spyglasses for military purposes. The history of the Russian optical business is closely connected with leading scientists from various countries of Europe.
In the time of Peter I, unique conditions were created to let foreign researchers work in Russia and transmit their invaluable experience to Russian colleagues.
Intellectual collaboration between Russian and European scientists began in the 18 century and has been developing to this very day. The first Russian scientist who significantly contributed to the development of the world of optical science was Mikhail Lomonosov. In the s, Mikhail Lomonosov made a number of great discoveries that gave Russian science priority in various important spheres.
It was he who recommended the use of colored glass photo filters to produce a high-contrast image, developed an original method for the production of ultra-thin mirrors by means of polishing glass surfaces, and discovered a formula and developed a method for melting optical glass and smelting alloys for metal mirrors. In , Lomonosov wrote his famous "Letter on the Use of Glass.
In the 19 century, Russian scientists continued studying the nature of optical phenomena, e. Nikolai Lobachevsky - the famous Russian mathematician and Professor of Kazan University - devoted a lot of time to such research work.
However, Russian scientists paid less attention to practical issues, since the need for optical instruments was generally covered by importation. In Europe, it was a time when glass and optical instruments made by the large Carl Zeiss company were very popular, and it was Germany that became Russia's primary supplier in the sphere of optics. Gradually, the development of capitalism and industrial growth created the preconditions for the emergence of Russian domestic optical production.
Theodor Shvabe opened his unique company in in the most prestigious trading place in Moscow. On the main shopping street, the innovative entrepreneur placed his trading company and a workshop for the production and sales of optical equipment. For the citizens of Moscow, Shvabe was not only a merchant selling glasses and pince-nez - he left his mark on the history of the capital as a humanist enlightener. One of the first astronomical observatories in Russia was also established thanks to the assistance of Theodor Shvabe.
On the roof of the building where this company was located, there was a small astronomical tower with hatches in the dome, and from those hatches people could observe the stars with the help of spyglasses. From the very first years of his activity, the talented entrepreneur Theodor Shvabe managed to gain the citizens' respect. His company became a place where people came not only to improve their vision, but also to acquaint themselves with the state-of-the-art inventions of the time.
In the mid 19 century, Shvabe Company produced all types of optical devices known at that time. The customers were offered not only glasses and magnifying glasses, but also a wide variety of goods for photography and daguerreotype: objectives, lenses, folding tripods, daguerreotype plates, photographic paper. In , Shvabe Company took part in the Russia-Wide Manufacture Trade Show displaying a large telescope, a number of microscopes, scales, and sundials.
Since then, Shvabe Company regularly took part in industrial exhibitions. Kuznetsky Most street, where Shvabe Company was located, became the first Moscow street with gas lighting.
It was the end of , and in , electrical street lighting came to the streets of the capital. It is interesting that today one of the spheres of Shvabe Holding's activity is the production of lighting equipment for the urban environment. In , Shvabe Company was transformed into the Th. Shvabe Merchant House. By , people worked at the optical company, and its annual output was worth , rubles. At that time, this was a huge amount the average wage of a worker in Russia was 15 rubles.
The company presented its products in two exhibition sections: "Scientific devices and instruments" and "Medical accessories," and today both of these spheres are the leading areas in the activities of Shvabe Holding. Shvabe company was awarded the right to display the national emblem on its products and banners. Thus, in the late 19 century, Th. Shvabe Merchant House was an innovative company and manufactured state-of-the-art products at that time - and to this day the company presents modern equipment at specialized international exhibitions.
At the turn of the 20 century, Russian optics are actively developing. Pyotr Lebedev - Professor of Moscow University and an internationally acclaimed scientist - was the most significant figure among the theoreticians of the time. He set a goal to experimentally prove Johannes Kepler and Leonhard Euler's hypothesis of the existence of light pressure. He did succeed. In , Lebedev presented the results of his experiments at the Congress of Physicists in Paris.
According to witnesses, his proofs of the existence of light pressure produced an impression on the scientists of the world just as strong as Marie and Pierre Curie's report on the discovery of radium. The unique research by Dmitry Rozhdestvensky laid the foundation for the study of light dispersion. In , being a practical optics enthusiast, the scientist founded the production of optical glass in Russia, and after October , he became the head of all optical production in the country.
Abram Ioffe, another outstanding scientist, is considered a pioneer of semiconductor research. In youth, the scientist became interested in the study of the photo-electrical effect. Ioffe's works not only revealed the essence of this phenomenon, but also presented clear evidence of the quantum nature of light and the atomic structure of matter, which played an important role in the further development of the science of light, electricity, and properties of matter.
The early 20 century was marked by the accelerated development of science and optical production. The establishment of that production was motivated by the needs of the army: both naval artillery and coastal defense artillery required new, advanced sighting systems. Before that time new sights had been ordered from abroad, and after the emergence of domestic production there was no more need to collaborate with foreign partners and spend substantial sums. In , the workshop started producing several types of optical artillery sights at a considerably higher level than that of foreign counterparts.
The workshop's specialization did not change afterwards. It continued manufacturing optical instruments for military purposes: prism field glasses and binoculars, stereoscopic telescopes, directional theodolites with optical sights, etc. In , the workshop opened a specialized department for repair, adjustment, and zeroing of distance gauges and rangefinders.
In , the famous German companies Carl Zeiss and C. Goerz opened their workshops in Riga it was a Russian city at that time. They produced non-standard binoculars, Goerz panoramas, and large and small stereoscopic telescopes. After World War I began, the companies were nationalized, moved to Petrograd, and merged. In the next decade, that plant renamed plant number 19 changed its location several times: Voronezh, Perm, Podolsk, and eventually Banki in the Pavshino District of the Moscow Region today Krasnogorsk.
In , a branch of Th. Shvabe Merchant House opened in Irkutsk. After that, the company purchased a land plot in Sokolniki a district in Moscow and started the construction of a plant there. Simultaneously, a four-storey house on Kuznetsky Most street was built. By that time the physical and mechanical production of the company had become one of the largest in Europe, and the number of workers increased to In , in order to increase production, Th.
Shvabe Merchant House was reorganized into a Th. Shvabe joint stock company with a registered capital of 1 million rubles. The range of products produced by the company exceeded 4, On the eve of World War I, Th. Shvabe joint stock company received an order to produce an anti-aircraft sight. Military engineer staff captain Vasily Chetyrkin considered the Shvabe plant an ideal place to realize his idea. The anti-aircraft sight was produced in a very short timeframe, and its characteristics attracted the attention of the Defense Department.
The device was eventually called Captain Chetyrkin's Rangefinder. During World War I, the joint stock company actively functioned and produced surgical, geodesic, surveying, physical, optical, chemical tools and instruments, as well as disinfection equipment and orthopedic devices required during the war.
At that time, Shvabe received orders from the General Military Technical Directorate, Kazan and Shostka gunpowder factories, Second Engineer College of Kiev, sanitary institutions of the country, including the Red Cross, military hospitals and numerous educational institutions.
On August 31, , Th. The capital assets of the company equalled 2,, rubles. The material strength of Geofizika JSC and its skillful management allowed the company to survive the hard revolutionary times. In late , the company was nationalized, and the primary specialization of the plant became geodesic instruments and microscopes. From the very beginning, the Government of the Soviet Union paid significant attention to the development of optical science and the production of optics.
In , the Government invested considerable funds in the purchase of optical devices and equipment abroad, and the purchasing committee worked abroad for two years. The devices were imported "in hundreds of boxes," as Dmitry Rozhdestvensky said. By , SOI reached the level of the top world's institutions with its state-of-the-art equipment and soon earned international acclaim. The group of scientists undertook a number of important studies in the SOI that contributed to the further development of Russian optical science.
In , an optical club was established on the basis of the SOI, which in was reorganised into the Russian Optical Society. Its primary objective was to unite specialists working in the sphere of optics. In the following decade, the development of State Optical Institute continued.
When SOI was just established, there were 24 scientists working at it, and by their number increased to In , the total number of the Institute's employees reached At the same time, the companies of the optical industry experienced structural changes.
Shvabe , Metron E.
The Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 satellites of Copernicus, the European Commission's Earth observation programme, are equipped with laser communication terminals that will significantly accelerate the delivery of large volumes of time-critical data to Earth monitoring centres within Europe. SpaceDataHighway represents a step change in the speed of space communications. Ultra-broadband laser communications and the geostationary orbit of the relay satellites combine to deliver a unique, secure, near real time data transfer service, making data latency a thing of the past. This makes it ideal:.
How space technology benefits the Earth
Remember Me. For optical systems used in communications and instrumentation applications in space and on the ground, eliminating vibration can be a difficult task. Left Hand Design Corp. Missile interceptor seekers must rapidly point their optical systems at different targets in a dense cluster, a sufficient challenge without the added problem of vibration caused by other moving components on the vehicle.
The spectacular power of Big Lens
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Research in optics has a long and distinguished history, dating back even further than the work of Galileo and Newton. In recent decades, optics research has blossomed with the invention of the laser, an increasing interaction between optics and electronics, the development of new materials with unique optical properties, and other extraordinary advances. The first part of this chapter highlights some examples of research areas that hold special promise for further discoveries. This is a time of great excitement for all optics researchers, whether in universities, industry, or government laboratories. The second part of the chapter discusses the state of optics education.
Active on the engines, aircraft interiors and equipment markets, Safran offers a comprehensive range of solutions to civil and military airframers as well as airlines. For more than 50 years, Safran has been facilitating access to space, a strategic sector for State sovereignty. Through a wide range of products, Safran caters to the needs of air, land and sea armed forces in numerous countries worldwide. As a high-tech industrial Group operating on all continents, Safran is a key player in the propulsion and aerospace equipment, space and defense sectors. Innovation is in Safran's DNA! Safran develops cutting-edge technology, anticipating customer's needs while being mindful about our planet. Fully aware of its societal, social and environmental responsibilities, Safran implements a CSR policy that factors in the expectations of all its stakeholders: customers, shareholders, suppliers and employees.
Examining Planet Surface
Thank you for registering with Physics World If you'd like to change your details at any time, please visit My account. Nine other achievements are highly commended in the Top 10 Breakthroughs of including devices that translate brain activity into speech, an extremely powerful magnet and the first antimatter double slit experiment. This now-iconic image shows the doughnut-shaped ring of radio emissions surrounding a supermassive black hole that lies at the centre of a galaxy 55 million light-years from Earth. This was done by combining the outputs of eight radio dishes in six different locations across the globe, which itself is an engineering triumph.
TNO cooperates with companies, the public sector and other organisations, to apply our knowledge and expertise with and for others. TNO offers you the chance to do groundbreaking work and help customers and society with innovative, practical and smart solutions. On TNO Insights you can read in-depth interviews and articles. From ground-breaking climate research and satellites for observational systems, to non-invasive medical research and semiconductor production: we have a lot to thank optical scientific instruments for, including their use in space technology. The Netherlands has a strong international position in the development and implementation of innovative and optical instruments for use in space and science. Ever since its foundation, TNO has been active in the field of advanced optical instruments, and for over 50 years has been developing instruments for use in space, astronomy, scientific research and manufacturing industry. The measuring instruments contribute to dealing with important social issues, spur on science and form the basis for hi-tech industry and job opportunities in the Netherlands. Over the years, dozens of satellites as well as ground-based telescopes have been equipped with systems that TNO has designed, built and tested.
How one giant company will dominate the way the whole world sees. By Sam Knight. Thu 10 May I f you have been wearing glasses for years, like me, it can be surprising to discover that you perceive the world thanks to a few giant companies that you have never heard of. Worrying about the fraying edge of motorway lights at night, or words that slide on the page, and occasionally spending a fortune at the opticians is, for many of us, enough to think about. And spectacles are unusual things.
Space & Scientific Instrumentation: earth observation, laser-satellite communication, astronomy
Scientists observing light noticed an interesting phenomenon - it diffracts when passing through water, ice, or precious stones. After this, the first instruments for optical research emerged. In B. Dozens of scientists from various countries contributed to the development of optics. The achievements of modern optics are based upon the discoveries of the ancient astronomer Cleomedes; Arab doctor and scientist of the 11 century Alhazen; Italian mathematician of the 16 century Francesco Maurolico; French mathematician and physicist of the 17 century Rene Descartes; Dutch inventor of the 17 century Christiaan Huygens; English scientist of the 17—18 centuries Isaac Newton; and a number of other outstanding personalities.
Looking for other ways to read this?
We design, develop and manufacture optical, optronic and precision-engineered products for military, civil and security applications. These optronic products are used globally by armed forces and security personnel for monitoring, identification and classification purposes, as well as for highly precise measurement, evaluation, targeting and self-protection. They are deployed on various platforms, including submarines, armoured vehicles, manned and unmanned aircraft and satellites, for land, air, sea and space missions. We develop and manufacture airborne electro-optical sensors and systems for integration into aircraft, unmanned air vehicles and helicopters.
Challenges and Opportunities of Optical Wireless Communication Technologies
Strategy is the art of thinking about war before it occurs. The book defines extra-atmospheric space and focuses on its varying features and constraints. By exploring the opportunities for action provided by different strategic positions, the book analyzes the most plausible combat scenarios from, against and within space.
Especially, the best mission performance capability is maintained in the various combat environments such as night and weather deterioration. It secures the stability possibly adjusting to the extreme space environment to enable the high resolution image transmission. It is fabricated with the single silicon carbide material with the good non-rigidness and heat conductivity to strengthen the functionality.
In this chapter, we present various opportunities of using optical wireless communication OWC technologies in each sector of optical communication networks. Moreover, challenges of optical wireless network implementations are investigated. We characterized the optical wireless communication channel through the channel measurements and present different models for the OWC link performance evaluations.