Atrium in medium-sized office buildings. Atrium is the word referring a large space — a vacant area inside a building. It is a common architectural element in ancient Roman buildings. That often provides light and ventilation for the interior. Modern atrium was developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
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Chapter 5. The design of market buildings and infrastructure. Contents - Previous - Next. This chapter discusses the types of fixed elements, such as buildings and infrastructure, that occur in most markets. They are demonstrated by using drawings or illustrations of actual market projects, supplemented with general descriptions of the organization of market buildings, typical materials, structures and servicing arrangements.
General design principles. The overriding consideration in the design of most markets is that the most cost-effective solution should be found However, there are a number of basic design principles that will need to be considered when preparing proposals for market infrastructure These factors include space standards, the choice of materials and structures and the impact of the climate rainfall, temperature' wind on design. The use of space in markets will vary substantially with the type of function it contains The standards indicated in Chapter 3 see Box 6 provide a basis for estimating overall space needs However, at the detailed design stage it will be necessary to develop more precise descriptions of the different sections of a market, distinguishing between.
There is generally a wide variety in the overall number of stalls, ranging from relatively small suburban street markets with, say, 50 stalls to main urban covered markets with, for example, over 2, stalls. A typical distribution of stalls, based on observations in medium-sized covered markets in Bratislava Slovak Republic and Kuwait, is shown in Table 5. In these cases some 60 to 80 per cent of the stalls are used for fruit and vegetable sales.
In contrast, the fruit and vegetable stalls in some urban markets may only represent a small proportion around 15 30 per cent of the total number of stalls available. Figure 41 illustrates how a wide range of functions are distributed within the market area of a small rural town and the use of a simple standard fixed stall unit which is appropriate for the sale of a variety of produce.
A basic issue to resolve in the detailed design of a market will be to determine the number and distribution of sales spaces required and whether these need to be accommodated in open air stalls or within purpose-built market buildings. The facilities needed and affordable by fruit and vegetable sellers, for example, will be much simpler than those of traders with higher-value goods such as clothing who will invariably demand lockup facilities.
There has to be a clear relationship between the rent or fees charged and the type of facilities provided. However, even within one category of goods there may be a wide range of needs in terms of size and amenity standard of sales space.
At the simplest level, some sellers may only be trading in a sack of fresh produce say 25 to 50 kilograms on any one day. In this case, renting open space on a daily basis to erect a small uncovered trestle table would be the most appropriate solution.
Even seemingly quite busy lock-up stalls in covered markets, with an overall stall area of 4 to 12 square metres, are only likely to be selling to kilograms of fruits and vegetables daily. There will also be a need for large stalls in markets, but this is usually very limited e. Project for a new market, Onitsha, Nigeria.
Source: Maxwell Fry, E. Tropical Architecture in the Humid zone. Batsford Ltd. BOX 9 Procedure for determining detailed space requirements in open and covered markets. Estimate the total number of sales spaces required based on the projected turnover of the market and the likely range of turnovers e.
Decide, for each different type of user, on the distribution between open and covered spaces based on an assumed for new markets or observed for existing markets pattern of use e. Allocate the stalls within the market remembering that stall sizes should be kept as small as possible to minimize rents normally 2 x 2 metres to 3 x 4 metres, with sales space or table taking up per cent of the area 4. Allocate the circulation space aisle widths should be in the range of 3.
Check that there is a maximum length of 12 metres between cross aisles 6. Total the sales and circulation space and check whether it broadly corresponds to the overall area projected for the market see Chapter 3 7. Adjust the total requirements to take account of existing facilities 8.
Phase the development to take account of immediate urgent requirements and long-term needs 9. Discuss the proposals with traders if applicable to ensure their acceptability.
A typical procedure that can be followed in determining the distribution of sales space in the design of both open and covered markets is summarised in Box 9. This procedure will broadly be the same for the modification of existing markets except that the existing provision has to be taken into account. If this is adequate then the procedure only needs to be applied to the incremental change e.
If the existing market is sub-standard it is better to consider its re-design as though it were a new market and then make some allowance for existing facilities.
It is strongly recommended that this exercise be undertaken in collaboration with traders. Even with rural markets it is necessary to determine the number of sellers who will be provided facilities under cover and those who will prefer to sell in the open air or provide their own facility. Figure 42 illustrates a simple village market' located on a sloping site in which the majority of the permanent traders are accommodated in open sheds and a small section of the market is reserved for casual traders.
The choice of materials and construction techniques for markets involves balancing the need for robust and simply maintained structures against the need to minimize expenditure.
Additional costs should only be incurred if this can be justified on the basis of the returns obtained from market fees. Other issues that will have a hearing on the choice of materials and structures will include the span of the structures consideration of how a project is to be Implemented whether contractor built or by means of self-help programmes and the extent to which standardised components can be used e.
FIGURE 42 Design for a small rural village market on a sloping site, with covered stalls and room for casual traders against outside walls. Source: Alcock, A. How to plan your village. Longmans Green and J. FIGURE 43 Typical designs for blocks of around 20 fixed stalls in a rural village market, integrating rainwater collection and drainage. How to plan your village Longmans Green and Co. In general, the materials used for market construction are those conventionally adopted for other simple building types such as industrial and farm buildings, i.
The choice of construction technology will depend on a range of factors, including whether indigenous materials are available and what methods of construction might be appropriate. What is appropriate for an urban covered market e. The general appearance of a market is an important issue as it will depend on this feature to attract custom. There is a clear need to choose the colours so that they promote the appeal of the products.
In general, paler materials are preferred as they reflect light, providing brighter surroundings, and suggest hygienic conditions. The use of colour will depend on the type of produce being sold and the following colours are usually adopted, particularly for the walls dividing sales outlets:. In areas with extreme climatic conditions, such as cold weather, high rainfall and intense sunshine, there are distinct advantages, for both sellers and customers, in constructing enclosed market buildings.
Traditionally, such structures are very characteristic of France, Britain and Spain. As was discussed in Chapter 2, many markets were built in the 19th century, but some date back to Mediaeval times. In the 20th century, this building form has been extensively adopted in South-East Asia.
For convenience of market operations, single-storey market structures are preferable, but where markets are located in high density urban areas the building may need to be two to three stories high. In arid climates, and to some extent the tropics, it may be appropriate to use internal open courtyards within market buildings.
This provides a way of improving comfort conditions by allowing cross-ventilation. If the courtyard is too enclosed there is probability of it being "dead" and this can be avoided by opening it up to the activities of the building. The spaces can be used as sitting areas, overspill selling spaces or the courtyard can form part of the entry to the building.
Many traditional Arab suqs use this type of plan very effectively. The design of buildings and stalls. There is, in essence, relatively little difference between the organization of a rural market and that of an urban market, or of an open market compared with a covered market.
The plan form may be virtually identical i. The differences arise because of the degree of enclosure, the different intensity of use of the spaces a rural market would not expect to be used as efficiently as an urban market and the site-specific circumstances. The latter, which would include factors like the shape and slope of a site, its relation to surrounding land uses and road systems, is often the greatest influence on the shape of the development.
The following section highlights the design features of a range of market building types. Layout of small rural market, located around an existing shade tree. Source: Drew. Maxwell Fry, E. Village Housing in the Tropics. Lund Humpries, London. Temporary and mobile facilities. For most small-scale rural markets and for urban street and open markets, where the space is also used for different purposes at other times e. These are normally left up to the individual stallholder to provide.
They often take the form of umbrellas' barrows with integral roofs or a simple demountable structure, with a canvas awning or plastic-sheeted roof spanning between a timber, bamboo or steel framework. In these cases, the market stalls are not subject to any design control by the market authority and are the property of the individual stallholders. Alternatively, the market authority might provide standard prefabricated stalls on an individual or group basis, the rent charged for them reflecting the hire of the stall as well as the space.
Typical examples of such "temporary" or mobile structures, appropriate for urban and rural street markets.
FIGURE 45 Plan, elevation and cross-section of roofed stalls with concrete tables for sale of fruit and vegetables - located on a sloping site. Fixed stall designs for rural markets can either be accommodated in single-sided buildings ranged along the external wall of a market or in double-sided blocks.
With the latter, access can either be from the perimeter or stalls can be approached from a central buyers' walk through the centre of the building. This is particularly important when protection from weather conditions is a major consideration. Figure 43 shows some typical arrangements for rural market buildings. An ideal arrangement for creating a small-scale rural market is to locate it around an existing shade tree.
Figure 44 illustrates an example of such a market, with a shaded open area in the centre for visiting traders and covered stalls provided on the perimeter. The internal arrangement of a small rural market building with open stalls is illustrated in Figure In this instance, traders are provided with fixed concrete tables see also Figure 83 , behind which the produce can be stored under cover.
Rural markets may form part of a comprehensive improvement programme. Figure 46 shows work undertaken in Bangladesh, as part of a nation-wide programme, which includes the provision of open sheds for fruit and vegetable sales, and for meat and fish sales, plus simple infrastructure, such as drainage, paving and water supply.
Charles Correa. Mimar Book, Concept Media, Singapore.
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Atrium in medium-sized office buildings
Long-span buildings create unobstructed, column-free spaces greater than 30 metres feet for a variety of functions. These include activities where visibility is important for large audiences auditoriums and covered stadiums , where flexibility is important exhibition halls and certain types of manufacturing facility , and where large movable objects are housed aircraft hangars. In the late 20th century, durable upper limits of span have been established for these types: the largest covered stadium has a span of metres feet , the largest exhibition hall has a span of metres feet , and the largest commercial fixed-wing aircraft has a wingspread of In these buildings the structural system needed to achieve these spans is a major concern. Structural systems for long-span buildings can be classified into two groups: those subject to bending, which have both tensile and compressive forces, and funicular structures, which experience either pure tension or pure compression.
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The early skyscrapers were a range of tall commercial buildings built between and , predominantly in the American cities of New York City and Chicago. Cities in the United States were traditionally made up of low-rise buildings, but significant economic growth after the Civil War and increasingly intensive use of urban land encouraged the development of taller buildings beginning in the s. Technological improvements enabled the construction of fireproofed iron-framed structures with deep foundations , equipped with new inventions such as the elevator and electric lighting. Their numbers grew rapidly, and by they were being labelled skyscrapers. Chicago initially led the way in skyscraper design, with many constructed in the center of the financial district during the late s and early s. Sometimes termed the products of the Chicago school of architecture , these skyscrapers attempted to balance aesthetic concerns with practical commercial design, producing large, square palazzo -styled buildings hosting shops and restaurants on the ground level and containing rentable offices on the upper floors. In contrast, New York's skyscrapers were frequently narrower towers which, more eclectic in style, were often criticized for their lack of elegance. A new wave of skyscraper construction emerged in the first decade of the 20th century.
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Good, appropriate lighting makes all the difference whatever the type of building, and steel buildings are absolutely no exception. In this article, we take a look at how LED lighting can be used to help your metal buildings reach their full potential. These factors as well as others make them a fine option for illuminating steel buildings. A popular option for steel structures, due to their cost effectiveness and ease of replacement, these lights also readily utilize LED bulbs. If the work done in your steel structure demands attention to detail and thus some especially good lighting, you may want to supplement some of the aforementioned lighting options with mobile LED lights on stands. Also a good option for steel buildings, LED panel lights are found in offices, warehouses, stores and sports facilities as seen below. Indeed, due to their natural lighting effects, cost effectiveness and longevity, LED panel lights are one of the most suitable options out there for a metal building. No matter where you are in the process of building, General Steel has a solution for you.
Civil Engineering and Urban Planning III addresses civil engineering and urban planning issues associated with transportation and the environment. The contributions not only highlight current practices in these areas, but also pay attention to future research and applications, and provide an overview of the progress made in a wide variety of topics in the areas of:. Including a wealth of information, Civil Engineering and Urban Planning III is of interest to academics and students in civil engineering and urban planning. Kouros Mohammadian , Konstadinos G. CRC Press , The contributions not only highlight current practices in these areas, but also pay attention to future research and applications, and provide an overview of the progress made in a wide variety of topics in the areas of: - Civil Engineering - Architecture and Urban Planning - Transportation Engineering Including a wealth of information, Civil Engineering and Urban Planning III is of interest to academics and students in civil engineering and urban planning.
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В кромешной тьме вокруг ей виделись чьи-то лица.
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