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The essential ingredients for great breadVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: BakeryTechChina; industrial solutions for the production of high quality and safe bakery products
In modern industrial practice, bakeries are establishments producing bread, rolls, cakes, pies, and other sweet goods; however, those producing cookies and crackers are not. Restaurants and eateries that bake their own goods for consumption on the premises are also excluded from the bakery category. The U. A single company can and sometimes does participate in all three of these segments simultaneously.
Retail bakeries, the original of all bakeries, were making a major comeback in the United States in the early twenty-first century. In these establishments bread and rolls are baked on the premises from flour not from purchased dough and are sold in the shop up front.
If such an organization packages some of its product and delivers it to grocery stores for sale there, it must report that portion of its business as commercial baking. If some of the company's sweet products are frozen for later sale, the company is also participating in the frozen industry. These companies also make most of the frozen cakes, pies, and pastries.
By contrast, the U. They sell locally or, at best, serve a major metropolitan area. They specialize in more expensive products and serve a predominantly affluent market, although that pattern was changing in the early s.
Large grocery chains may also participate in retail baking when they bake bread, rolls, and cakes on the premises. A hybrid form, partial baking or par-baking, exists as well, where, for example, a distant bakery specializing in making French baguettes, will produce the dough, partially bake the bread, and ship this product to distant retailers in frozen form.
The par-bread is put in the oven on the grocery store's premises and baking is finished on site for sale as freshly-baked bread to the customer. Beginning in the s and continuing in the first decade of the twenty-first century, the bakery products sector was experiencing shocks and undergoing transformations owing to demographic, health-related, and life-style changes in the United States.
For this reason it is illuminating to look at bakery products in the context of other food industries that also convert basic grains into food. Eight major industries are involved, with bakery products representing three of the eight. The others include breakfast cereals To provide perspective the performance of bakery products will be compared to the products of these other industries. Depending on how it is manufactured and packaged, pizza is sometimes included under Flour Mixes and Dough Manufacturing, sometimes under Frozen Foods Manufacturing which excludes frozen sweet bakery products , and other times under Food Manufacturing, Not Elsewhere Classified.
Doughnuts are included under commercial bakeries under a category known as Other Sweet Goods. After that date hard pretzels were classified as snacks but soft pretzels continued to be part of bakery products produced either by commercial or retail bakeries. Grains are the chief source of energy in food. As our cars burn hydrocarbons to move us around, our bodies burn carbohydrates. Both of these fuels are rich in carbon and hydrogen, but carbohydrates also incorporate oxygen.
Ideally 55 to 75 percent of food energy should reach us in the form of carbohydrates, and grains are rich in this form of energy. Wheat is the principal grain in the U. In wheat represented 80 percent of all grain consumed in the United States, corn 9 percent, and rice 6 percent. Contrast these numbers with and wheat still tops the list at 70 percent, though with a 10 percent decline, while corn consumption rose to 16 percent, rice rose to 11 percent, oats, barley, and rye round out the remaining 3 percent.
Grains are complex packages devised by nature in which the species that produce them carry their unique genetic codes. The three parts of all grains are: 1 the outer hull or bran, 2 the inner structure that holds the DNA, the germ, and 3 the intermediate mass of the grain, called the endosperm or kernel. The bran is rich in minerals, fiber, and three vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin B1, B2, and B3.
The germ carries the same vitamins plus vitamin E, proteins, and fat. The kernel holds most of the grain's mass in the form of carbohydrates and proteins. In obtaining refined flours producers remove the bran and the germ.
White flour comes from refined grains. The word enriched is sometimes used because vitamins removed in processing are added back in. Bakeries refined flour in efforts to improve the taste, texture, and appearance of bread and other baked products. Whole grain flours tend to be darker, less sweet, and slightly bitter.
The nutritional content of refined flour, and consequently the products baked from it, is lower than that found in whole grains and also higher in carbohydrate content. Nutritional and medical experts promote use of whole grains in an effort to increase nutritional content, including fiber, which promotes good digestion.
Grain refining increases the relative proportion of carbohydrates in the flour and reduces the total protein content.
Considering the grain-using industries as a group, sixteen major product categories represented nearly 81 percent of total shipment dollars in Of these sixteen, eight were produced by the bakery industries, including white bread, dark wheat bread, rye bread, rolls, cakes and pies, other sweet goods, and the retail baking category as a whole.
Bakery products accounted for 50 percent of group volume, indicating the dominant position of the baking sector in the distribution of grains. The largest category, rolls, represents Nearly half of the products in this category are hamburger and hot dog buns, which because of their role in the fast-food industry, explains their prominence.
Bagels and English muffins are the largest product line, making up the other half of the rolls category. The second largest category is white bread Cookies, wafers, and cones not included in the bakery products industry follow closely behind Dark breads 3. All of the products in the Retail Bakeries industry are 5. Within that industry the three largest product groupings are breads and rolls, cakes, other sweet goods including sweet rolls, coffee cakes, doughnuts, and cookies.
Data available from the USDA for and show per capita consumption of carbohydrates and proteins by major food groups. These data are displayed in Figure 14 and indirectly point to interesting dynamics in food consumption over a nearly year period. In the leading source of food energy, carbohydrates, was the sugars and sweeteners category By , grain products had become the largest source of carbohydrates People changed what they ate in response to very complex communications from public and private authorities concerning what is healthy and what is not.
In the same period, however, people increased how much they ate, bumping its daily per capita consumption of carbohydrates from to grams, a 22 percent increase.
Grain processors, including the bakery products industries, benefited from both the shift to grains and from increased consumption. In the three largest sources of protein were: meat, poultry, and fish By , meats had fractionally increased their share to Because of the shifts between food groups and increased consumption, people began to eat more protein—up from 98 grams in to grams in , an increase of 15 percent.
Grain processors benefited from this shift as well. From to the grain-processing group as a whole experienced compounded growth in shipments at the rate of 2. This gain was the result of some of the component industries growing energetically, some showing only moderate advances, and one industry losing market share. The largest industry, commercial bakeries, grew at an annual rate of 2. Retail bakeries did much better, growing at 4. These two industries achieved growth of 2.
Taking into consideration frozen products, the composite of the three bakery products industries was 3. Frozen cakes, pies, and pastries had very strong growth, 7. Tortilla manufacturing saw the most rapid growth among the eight industries, with 8. In total size the cereals industry, was second only to commercial bakeries.
The decline in the flour and flour mixes industry reflects broad trends in food toward more purchasing of finished products and away from purchases that demand labor in preparation.
This contributed to the strong advance of frozen bakery products. Looking at eight-year growth trends across industries as a whole, bakery products had moderate growth—below the 5 percent most industries hope to achieve. Retail bakeries outperformed commercial bakeries because companies that comprise the retail industry are smaller, are vertically integrated into direct sales, and have more rapid feedback, so are better able to discern consumer trends rapidly and to respond accordingly.
Of the sixteen large product groups, frozen sweet goods had the most rapid growth in the — period 8. The second-largest product segment—cookies, wafer, and cones—fared slightly better 1. Rye bread and crackers and biscuits turned in the lowest levels of positive growth 0. Bread sold by commercial bakeries grew slowly from to Mass produced bread is a mature industry receiving pressure from competing products including rolls, the products of retail bakers, cookies, and frozen cakes and pies.
Growth in the bakery products industry comes from these products, not from bread. Tortillas, though a relatively small industry also represent a growing competitor to bread. The two largest product lines of the breakfast cereal industry, corn flakes and wheat flakes, were also growing slowly in this period at 1.
Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, the leading bakery products manufacturer in the United States was Interstate Brands Corporation IBC , producer of Wonder Bread the top-ranked brand , Home Pride second , Merita eighth , and nine other bread brands, four major cake brands, and many other baked products. In IBC went into voluntary bankruptcy and by mid had not yet emerged. IBC filed for Chapter 11 citing declining sales, a high fixed-cost structure, excess industry capacity, rising health and pension costs, and increasing cost of ingredients.
The company was ranked second in bread production in Sara Lee is a diversified food company with major meat, coffee, and sweet product brands. George Weston sold its bakery operations in the western part of the United States to Bimbo USA in , but continues to sell products in the rest of the country.
Weston's top brand, Arnold, is the fourth ranked bread brand in the United States. Early to recognize opportunities presented by a growing health consciousness in the United States, Flowers was first to introduce an entirely sugar-free version of Nature's Own and, in , also introduced a low-carbohydrate, high-fiber version of the brand.
The company also makes and sells Mi Casa tortillas, Cobblestone Mill rolls, and a line of frozen specialties. Bimbo USA is a major regional baked products company serving twenty-two western states from 14 bakeries. In addition to brands acquired from George Weston Oroweat, Mrs. She started the company because she was trying to create bread for one of her sons who had allergies, preventing him from eating breads with preservatives. Rudkin's labors produced a natural bread of such high quality that her friends and neighbors urged her to try to make and sell it.
Cookies, soft biscuits, hard biscuits and crackers from different content of sugar and fat and the most varied forms. Bread of every kind and shape, pizza, pita and endless personalizations of the world of bakery. One of the most prodigious creations, both sweet and salty pastry-making. Also this month we like to observe the overlay of our website in real time.
Ensuring that everything runs smoothly in the bakery industry
In modern industrial practice, bakeries are establishments producing bread, rolls, cakes, pies, and other sweet goods; however, those producing cookies and crackers are not. Restaurants and eateries that bake their own goods for consumption on the premises are also excluded from the bakery category. The U. A single company can and sometimes does participate in all three of these segments simultaneously. Retail bakeries, the original of all bakeries, were making a major comeback in the United States in the early twenty-first century. In these establishments bread and rolls are baked on the premises from flour not from purchased dough and are sold in the shop up front.
Bakery Product Manufacturing Industry Profile
Companies in this industry make fresh and frozen bread as well as cakes, pies, and doughnuts. Because of the perishable nature of bakery products, international trade does not play a major role in the industry. However, disruptions in grain production and trade can have significant effects on global supplies and prices of ingredients. Canada is by far the US's largest trading partner for both imports and exports of bakery products, followed by Mexico. Demand is driven by consumer preferences and by the extent to which grocery stores choose to operate their own bakeries rather than buy from commercial bakeries. Profitability for individual companies is determined by efficiency of operations.
Что. - Не существует алгоритма, не поддающегося взлому. - Нет, существует. Я видел его в Интернете. Мои люди несколько дней пытаются его взломать. - Это зашифрованный вирус, болван; ваше счастье, что вам не удалось его вскрыть. - Но… - Сделка отменяется! - крикнул Стратмор. - Я не Северная Дакота.
Она открыла глаза, словно надеясь увидеть его лицо, его лучистые зеленые глаза и задорную улыбку, и вновь перед ней всплыли буквы от А до Z. Шифр!. Сьюзан смотрела на эти буквы, и они расплывались перед ее слезящимися глазами.
Джабба замер. - О Боже! - Он внезапно понял, что искалеченный гений все это время давал им ответ. - Три - это простое число! - сказала Соши.
Помахав карточкой теннисного клуба Мериленда, он рявкнул: - Полиция. После чего вошел в номер и включил свет. Немец не ожидал такого оборота. - Wasmachst… - Помолчите! - Беккер перешел на английский. - У вас в номере проститутка? - Он оглядел комнату. Роскошная обстановка, как в лучших отелях. Розы, шампанское, широченная кровать с балдахином. Росио нигде не .
The Secret of Success
Голова у нее раскалывалась. Еще немного, - повторяла она мысленно. - Северная Дакота - это Хейл. Интересно, какие он строит планы.
Обнародует ли ключ. Или жадность заставит его продать алгоритм. Она не могла больше ждать. Пора.
Развяжи. Развяжи, пока не явились агенты безопасности. - Они не придут, - сказала она безучастно. Хейл побледнел. - Что это. - Стратмор только сделал вид, что звонил по телефону.
Беру свои слова обратно. - Ему не стоило напоминать о поразительной способности Мидж Милкен предчувствовать беду.
В двенадцати тысячах миль от этого места Токуген Нуматака в полной растерянности застыл у окна своего кабинета. Сигара умами безжизненно свисала изо рта. Сделка всей его жизни только что распалась - за каких-то несколько минут.
Я срочно уезжаю. Вернусь завтра. И уже утром мы сможем поехать.
Или жадность заставит его продать алгоритм. Она не могла больше ждать. Пора. Она должна немедленно поговорить со Стратмором.