By Samantha Lim 23 Oct In fact, it has a lot of problems. Fabric inspection reveals countless defects ranging from drop stitches to color shading variation. The scale of defects makes it clear the garment manufacturer will have to cut around the issues to use the fabric, wasting material in the process. Where do these kinds of fabric defects come from?
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The conservation and restoration of textiles refers to the processes by which textiles are cared for and maintained to be preserved from future damage. The field falls under the category of art conservation as well as library preservation , depending on the type of collection. Many of these artifacts require specialized care, often by a professional conservator. The goal of this article is to provide a general overview of the textile preservation process, and to serve as a jumping-off point for further research into more specialized care.
Always contact a professional conservator if you are unsure of how to proceed in the preservation process. The needs of each of these locations will vary. A private collection, for instance, is less likely to have as high a traffic flow as a museum, and may thus be able to take preservation steps that a working museum cannot such as keeping lights to a minimum for longer periods of time.
The different venues may also have different problems that arise, such as the fact that many historic homes do not have climate control, and rely strongly on natural light to display their furnishings, both of which may contribute to textile decay. The chief cause for decay in textiles is almost always the environment in which they are stored. Additionally, pests, chemicals, and pollutants may also cause damage to an antique fabric.
Airborne chemicals, such as smog or cigarette smoke are also harmful to the textiles, and should be avoided if at all possible: high-efficiency air filters should be installed throughout the building to reduce the presence of airborne chemicals that may stain, discolor, or weaken fabrics. Light can have a variety of effects on textiles over time. In some cases, it may contribute to fading or discoloration, but of more concern is the damage which the fibers may suffer under prolonged exposure to non-visible light, such as ultraviolet and infrared lighting.
Ideally, textiles should be stored or displayed in as little light as possible, and preferably in total darkness. Natural light is the most common source of ultraviolet light, and as such, care should be taken to avoid exposure to direct sunlight at all costs, and indirect sunlight whenever possible. This may mean storing or displaying textiles in an area without windows, or with blackout curtains, which can be pulled whenever the room is not in use.
If a room relies on natural light, UV screens or coatings can be applied to the windows to block harmful rays while still allowing light to pass through. These filters should be checked periodically, however, as they have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced every few years. Fluorescent and halogen-produced light can also produce large amounts of UV radiation, though filters which fit over the bulbs are available to limit the damaging light.
One advantage of fluorescent lights is that they produce little heat , which may also be harmful to textiles. Incandescent lights produce a large amount of heat in addition to large quantities of infrared radiation, which is likewise damaging to the fibers in antique textiles. If incandescent lights must be used, they should be placed far enough away from display cases that their heat does not affect the contents. In the case of particularly delicate textiles, display organizers might consider motion-activated or timed lighting, or lighting controlled though a visitor-activated switch, which would allow the textiles to remain in darkness when they are not under view.
However, excessive dryness may also cause damage, especially to elastic fibers, such as wool , which rely on some amount of moisture to maintain their flexibility Putnam and Finch. Additionally, temperature and humidity should be kept as constant as possible; changes in either of these may cause the textile fibers to expand and contract, which, over time, can also cause damage and deterioration to the textile.
For this reason, both storage and display areas should be fitted with monitoring equipment to gauge the temperature and humidity of rooms, display cases, enclosed storage facilities, and work areas. Ideally, temperature should be kept around 70 degrees Fahrenheit ,  though some slight fluctuation in either direction is permissible, as long as it occurs gradually.
In enclosed display or storage cases, humidity can be somewhat maintained through the use of silica gel crystals. These crystals should not be placed in contact with the textiles, but may be placed in breathable muslin bags and hung inside the case to maintain a constant humidity;  they should be monitored periodically, however, to be sure that they are working.
In areas where climate control is unavailable such as in historic buildings , the conservator can still moderate the temperature and relative humidity through use of fans, humidifiers and dehumidifiers , and portable heating or cooling units. In addition to temperature and humidity, air flow is also a concern for textile preservation. Textiles should never be sealed in plastic or other air-tight casing unless it is part of a treatment or cleaning process.
Proper circulation, combined with the suggested humidity, will help to prevent the growth of mold and mildew , which may stain or weaken antique textiles. Pests are another significant threat to textile collections, as there are a number of creatures which can cause damage to fibres. Among the most common are clothes moths , carpet beetles , silverfish , firebrats and rodents.
Clothes moths are attracted to protein fibres, and so are especially drawn to silk , wool, and feathers. An infestation might be identified through the evidence of white cocoons or the remnants thereof on the textiles, or of sighting the insects themselves. They are roughly 8 centimetres long and white in colour. Like clothes moths, carpet beetles are likewise drawn to proteins, and can be quite destructive.
Evidence of an infestation may take of the form of chewed holes, carcasses, or larvae, which appear as small pale worm-like insects. Silverfish and firebrats are related insects which consume starch , usually found in sizing or other treatments applied to fabrics, as well as plant-based textiles such as linen and cotton. Both are attracted to dark, moist climates, though silverfish prefer cooler temperatures, while firebrats tend towards warmer.
Both are about 12 millimetres in length and either light or dark in colouring, depending on which type is present. Rodent infestations can be identified in the usual ways, such as seeing droppings, nests, or comparatively large chewed areas of textile where they have caused damage. In all cases, chemical means of pest control should be avoided if possible, not only due to harm to humans who come in contact with them, but because the chemicals may cause damage to the very textiles the conservator is trying to save.
For rodents, snap traps may be effective, and if needed, a professional exterminator should be called. Poison baited traps should be avoided, as the rodent could die somewhere inaccessible, and provide a breeding ground for further pests.
For insects , keeping clean storage, display, and work environment is the best method of prevention. Also, sticky traps replaced often around doors, windows, and display cases may be useful for monitoring the insect population.
Furthermore, the population of carnivorous insects, such as spiders , should be observed. While such insects are not harmful to textiles by themselves, they may indicate another population of insects which are. If the infestation can be limited to one or a few pieces, the insects may be killed through freezing of the object.
The textile should be wrapped in plastic and vacuum-sealed , then brought to a freezing temperature as quickly as possible, to prevent the insects from adjusting to the cold. The object may be left frozen for several days, but should be brought slowly back up to room temperature to avoid further damage. If chemical means must be employed, it would be best to consult with a professional conservator to be certain that the treatment will not harm the textiles themselves.
Even if no signs of an infestation are present, textiles should still be inspected periodically to be certain that there is no outbreak that has gone unobserved. Additionally, when dealing with a new acquisition which shows signs of insect damage, the specimen should be quarantined until it can be determined whether the insects are still present before introducing it to the rest of the collection. In some cases, the textiles are weakened not by outside causes such as light or pests, but by chemical reactions taking place within the fabric itself, such as the oxidation of iron-based mordants over time, which can cause darkening and discolouration in the surrounding fibres.
However, as these fabrics have aged, the metals in the fibres have accelerated their decay and caused them to become extremely brittle. In this case, the environment of the textile contributes very little to the deterioration from the metallic salts, though exposure to light may accelerate it even further.
Textile preservationists should be familiar with their collections and the history and provenance of their pieces.
Chemical tests can reveal the types of dyes and mordants used, as well as any other treatments applied to the fabric. However, should handling be necessary, there are precautions  which can be taken to ensure the safety of the textile. Because our hands contain oils and acids in the skin , clean cloth gloves should be worn when handling textiles.
If gloves are unavailable, then frequent hand-washing should be undertaken to ensure that no damage is caused. For similar reasons, the working, display, and storage areas should be free of food, drink, and cigarette smoke, which can also stain or damage the fabric. Finally, to avoid ink stains, only pencils should be used for writing or sketching in the work space. Long hair should also be tied back to allow a clear view of the working area, even when the head is bent over the table.
When working with the textiles, it should be placed on a clean, flat surface which is larger than the textile itself, so that the whole piece is supported evenly. Although it is supported, never place anything on top of the textile while it is in the flat position. When moving the textile, it is important to maintain the flat, even support of the work space. If the piece is small enough a handkerchief or sampler , for instance , it may be placed on an acid-free board or similar support and carried as if on a tray.
If the piece is too large for this a carpet or tapestry, for example , the piece may be rolled around an acid-free tube and carried by two people to its new location. Finally, antique costumes and clothing should never be worn, as the mere process of putting the clothes on and taking them off will cause damage.
One of the safest and easiest ways to clean textiles is to vacuum them. The fabric is placed on a clean, flat work surface. If the specimen is particularly delicate, or simply as a precaution, a fibreglass screen edged with twill tape may be placed over the textile. The screen allows dirt and dust to pass through, but prevents individual threads from being pulled loose or unravelled further by the suction. Using a vacuum attachment and the lowest power setting, move the suction over the screen until the entire area has been cleaned.
If needed, move the screen to a new area and begin again. Always remember to vacuum both sides of the textile, as dirt may filter through to the other side. One of the key standards of preservation is that of reversibility: anything done to preserve a piece should be able to be undone with minimal damage to the piece itself.
Because wet cleaning is a chemical process, it is not reversible, and so should be used only when absolutely necessary. Before cleaning a textile, certain questions  should be asked to determine both the best treatment for that particular combination of textile and soil, and to ascertain whether the piece is able to be cleaned, or may sustain damage during the process.
What is the chemical composition of the textile? In other words, does it have a high acid content? Were there chemicals used in its production that might contribute to how it reacts to water? Or how it may react to cleaning chemicals? What are the characteristics of the fibres? For instance, cotton and linen, being plant fibers , are both stronger wet than dry, and so may be able to withstand a more mechanical stress than something like silk.
Wool can absorb large amounts of water, but mats if washed in high temperatures. All silks become brittle with age, but weighted silks see Textile Instability above decay more quickly, and thus must be handled with extreme care. Learn the basic characteristics of the type of fibres you have, and how they have been treated before undertaking any kind of cleaning. What colourants have been used, and how will they react to cleaning? This can apply not only to dyes but to mordants as well.
Different parts of the world may have different dye processes, so here is where knowledge of when and where a textile originated, as well as a working knowledge of chemistry , can come in handy. If in doubt as to the wash ability of a dye, apply a drop or two of water to an inconspicuous place and blot with a clean white cloth. If the dye transfers to the cloth, even in small amounts, the textile should not be washed. Are there finishes or surface treatments that must be preserved?
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Different Yarns for Different Knitting Machines
Learn which knitting machine uses the different sizes of yarns. Chart also includes hand knitting needle sizes, crochet hooks, Yarn Standard's symbols, ply and stitches per inch. Angelika's Table of Knitting Machines and what size knitting yarns each uses. This knitting machine table was charted out, designed, tracked and maintained by Angelika Feel free to print a copy for your use. Please do not copy for use on your website, commercial or noncommercial nor for use in any printed materials.
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Register Now. Knitting is the construction of an elastic, porous fabric, created by interlocking yarns by means of needles. A list of commonly used knitted fabrics and its construction are explained. Knitting is the construction of the elastic, porous fabric, created by interlocking yarns by means of needles. Knitted fabrics can be made much more quickly and easily than woven fabrics at comparatively less cost. Two yarns forming loops in each course of the fabric knit the fabric. Knitting machines form loops of yarn with many pointed needles or shafts. The vertical rows of loops are called ribs or wales, and horizontal rows of loops are called courses. Weft or filling knits are constructed from one yarn that is fed into knitting machine needles in a horizontal direction.
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We run a tight operation built upon following all FTS and export standards and doing thorough. Within the textiles industry, various check and control valves are utilized in wide-ranging applications. Nonwoven Materials and Solutions from Monarch Textiles.
Maximizing customer value with innovative textile technology and a global trade network. Hyosung is one of the world's best manufacturers of nylon textile filament, is loved by customers around the world for its nylon fibers of outstanding quality and a variety of functions, all based on production know-how accumulated over 50 years. Capitalizing from its efforts to reduce energy, Hyosung has launched the world's first ever environmentally friendly recyclable nylon, 'MIPAN regen', and is leading the world to a better place through resource recycling. As the leader in the domestic polyester fiber manufacturer, Hyosung produces various and differentiated polyester yarns from regular yarns to high functional Major Products in order to create high values for customers. As the result of restless efforts to materialize customer needs and create differentiated product markets, Hyosung has developed high technology intensive yarn including cotton-replicating polyester yarn cotna , cool touch yarn askin , odor-resistant yarn freshgear , heat generating yarn aeroheat , latent crimped yarn Xanadu and far-infrared yarn aerogear. The Fabric Unit is equipped with an integrated production system that covers yarn production, fabric weaving, dyeing and post-processing, and focuses on developing highly functional high-tech products. The garment fabric uses a functional fiber to produce waterproof and water-permeable, ultra light, sweat-absorbing and fast-drying, ecological, cooling, light and thermal, elastic tricoat, and fireretardant materials. The workwear fabric includes highly durable and functional work suits, fireretardant products such as aramid and modacrylic, highly durable dust-free garments worn in clean rooms, highly robust nylon and protective wear and military fabrics made of para-aramid. The unit manufactures and sells lens and display cleaners, clean room wipers for semiconductor and other electronics manufacturing and household cleaners. As the leader in the domestic dye-processing sector, we have the largest production facility in Korea, with a dyeing capacity of 2.
Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts , arising the in Paleolithic Era. Although usually associated with clothing and household linens , sewing is used in a variety of crafts and industries, including shoemaking , upholstery , sailmaking , bookbinding and the manufacturing of some kinds of sporting goods. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This glossary contains terms used in sewing, tailoring and related crafts. For terms used in the creation or manufacturing of textiles, including spinning, knitting, weaving, and individual fabrics and finishing processes, see Glossary of textile manufacturing. For terms used in dyeing, see Glossary of dyeing terms.
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Location, Date, and Time. And companies such as FabScrap, a textile reuse and recycling resource, aim to mitigate the issue of waste by streamlining material recycling processes for New York City-based businesses. Fabscrap is a thrift shop for recycled fabrics New York - The retailer is making secondary materials accessible to the city's budding designers and eco-conscious fashion brands. American Fashion Podcast is the fashion show for fashion people, diving deep into the designing, making, and selling of garments and accessories through long-form interviews with people at all levels and in all corners of the business, with an emphasis on sustainability and innovation. Then FabScrap either recycles scraps or prepares them for sale at a lower cost for designers and crafters. You always have the option to delete your Tweet location history. Ecolife Yarn by Belda Llorens is a sustainable yarn saving resources for every lb produced, and is made with the best technology and guaranteed quality. Where else can you get avocado or sweet lavender flavored ice cream that tastes this great? Their new location on Newbury Street is now open until 11pm for late night sweet treat needs.
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Although employment for hundreds of occupations is covered in detail in the Occupational Outlook Handbook , this page presents summary data on additional occupations for which employment projections are prepared but detailed occupational information is not developed. In addition, select occupations include links to career videos from CareerOneStop. Occupational Groups Note—click a link below to scroll the page to the occupational group :. Business and financial operations occupations.
Glossary of sewing terms
Его руки снова обхватили ее - одна сдавила левую грудь, другая - талию - и оторвали от двери. Сьюзан кричала и молотила руками в тщетной попытке высвободиться, а он все тащил ее, и пряжка его брючного ремня больно вдавливалась ей в спину. Хейл был необычайно силен. Когда он проволок ее по ковру, с ее ног соскочили туфли.
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