Covalon uses science and technology to help solve major medical challenges associated with prevention, detection and management of areas such as infection, tissue repair, medical device biocompatibility, and condition management. Together, our technology platforms, wound care products, and consulting services deliver a suite of cost-effective solutions to help our customers achieve product differentiation through improved patient outcomes. With increasing awareness of antimicrobial resistance, infection prevention continues to be an area of focus in healthcare worldwide. Additionally, we have the capabilities to apply our infection prevention technologies to custom coatings of medical devices through our OEM team.
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Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone. Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, paint also provides decoration.
Samples of the first known paintings, made between 20, and 25, years ago, survive in caves in France and Spain. Primitive paintings tended to depict humans and animals, and diagrams have also been found. Early artists relied on easily available natural substances to make paint, such as natural earth pigments, charcoal, berry juice, lard, blood, and milkweed sap.
Later, the ancient Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans used more sophisticated materials to produce paints for limited decoration, such as painting walls.
Oils were used as varnishes, and pigments such as yellow and red ochres, chalk, arsenic sulfide yellow, and malachite green were mixed with binders such as gum arabic, lime, egg albumen, and beeswax. Paint was first used as a protective coating by the Egyptians and Hebrews, who applied pitches and balsams to the exposed wood of their ships.
During the Middle Ages, some inland wood also received protective coatings of paint, but due to the scarcity of paint, this practice was generally limited to store fronts and signs.
Around the same time, artists began to boil resin with oil to obtain highly miscible mixable paints, and artists of the fifteenth century were the first to add drying oils to paint, thereby hastening evaporation.
They also adopted a new solvent, linseed oil, which remained the most commonly used solvent until synthetics replaced it during the twentieth century. In Boston around , Thomas Child built the earliest American paint mill, a granite trough within which a 1. The first paint patent was issued for a product that improved whitewash, a water-slaked lime often used during the early days of the United States. In D. Flinn obtained a patent for a water-based paint that also contained zinc oxide, potassium hydroxide, resin, milk, and lin-seed oil.
The first commercial paint mills replaced Child's granite ball with a buhrstone wheel, but these mills continued the practice of grinding only pigment individual customers would then blend it with a vehicle at home.
It wasn't until that manufacturers began mixing the vehicle and the pigment for consumers. The twentieth century has seen the most changes in paint composition and manufacture. Today, synthetic pigments and stabilizers are commonly used to mass produce uniform batches of paint. New synthetic vehicles developed from polymers such as polyurethane and styrene-butadene emerged during the s.
Alkyd resins were synthesized, and they have dominated production since. Before , pigment was ground with stone mills, and these were later replaced by steel balls. Today, sand mills and high-speed dispersion mixers are used to grind easily dispersible pigments. Perhaps the greatest paint-related advancement has been its proliferation. While some wooden houses, stores, bridges, and signs The first step in making paint involves mixing the pigment with resin, solvents, and additives to form a paste.
If the paint is to be for industrial use, it usually is then routed into a sand mill, a large cylinder that agitates tiny particles of sand or silica to grind the pigment particles, making them smaller and dispersing them throughout the mixture.
In contrast, most commercial-use point is processed in a high-speed dispersion tank, in which a circular, toothed blade attached to a rotating shaft agitates the mixture and blends the pigment into the solvent.
Today, paints are used for interior and exterior housepainting, boats, automobiles, planes, appliances, furniture, and many other places where protection and appeal are desired. A paint is composed of pigments, solvents, resins, and various additives. The pigments give the paint color; solvents make it easier to apply; resins help it dry; and additives serve as everything from fillers to antifungicidal agents.
Hundreds of different pigments, both natural and synthetic, exist. The basic white pigment is titanium dioxide, selected for its excellent concealing properties, and black pigment is commonly made from carbon black.
Other pigments used to make paint include iron oxide and cadmium sulfide for reds, metallic salts for yellows and oranges, and iron blue and chrome yellows for blues and greens. Solvents are various low viscosity, volatile liquids. They include petroleum mineral spirits and aromatic solvents such as benzol, alcohols, esters, ketones, and acetone. The natural resins most commonly used are lin-seed, coconut, and soybean oil, while alkyds, acrylics, epoxies, and polyurethanes number among the most popular synthetic resins.
Additives serve many purposes. Some, like calcium carbonate and aluminum silicate, are simply fillers that give the paint body and substance without changing its properties. Other additives produce certain desired characteristics Paint canning is a completely automated process. For the standard 8 pint paint can available to consumers, empty cans are first rolled horizontally onto labels, then set upright so that the point can be pumped into them. One machine places lids onto the filled cans while a second machine presses on the lids to seal the cons.
From wire that is fed into it from coils, a bailometer cuts and shapes the handles before hooking them into holes precut in the cans.
Paint is generally custom-made to fit the needs of industrial customers. For example, one might be especially interested in a fast-drying paint, while another might desire a paint that supplies good coverage over a long lifetime. Paint intended for the consumer can also be custom-made. Paint manufacturers provide such a wide range of colors that it is impossible to keep large quantities of each on hand.
To meet a request for "aquamarine," "canary yellow," or "maroon," the manufacturer will select a base that is appropriate for the deepness of color required. Pastel paint bases will have high amounts of titanium dioxide, the white pigment, while darker tones will have less. Then, according to a predetermined formula, the manufacturer can introduce various pigments from calibrated cylinders to obtain the proper color.
Paint manufacturers utilize an extensive array of quality control measures. The ingredients and the manufacturing process undergo stringent tests, and the finished product is checked to insure that it is of high quality. A finished paint is inspected for its density, fineness of grind, dispersion, and viscosity. Paint is then applied to a surface and studied for bleed resistance, rate of drying, and texture.
In terms of the paint's aesthetic components, color is checked by an experienced observer and by spectral analysis to see if it matches a standard desired color. Resistance of the color to fading caused by the elements is determined by exposing a portion of a painted surface to an arc light and comparing the amount of fading to a painted surface that was not so exposed.
The paint's hiding power is measured by painting it over a black surface and a white surface. The ratio of coverage on the black surface to coverage on the white surface is then determined, with. Gloss is measured by determining the amount of reflected light given off a painted surface.
Tests to measure the paint's more functional qualities include one for mar resistance, which entails scratching or abrading a dried coat of paint. Adhesion is tested by making a crosshatch, calibrated to. A piece of tape is applied to the crosshatch, then pulled off; good paint will remain on the surface.
Scrubbability is tested by a machine that rubs a soapy brush over the paint's surface. A system also exists to rate settling. An excellent paint can sit for six months with no settling and rate a ten. Poor paint, however, will settle into an immiscible lump of pigment on the bottom of the can and rate a zero.
Weathering is tested by exposing the paint to outdoor conditions. Artificial weathering exposes a painted surface to sun, water, extreme temperature, humidity, or sulfuric gases. Fire retardancy is checked by burning the paint and determining its weight loss. If the amount lost is more than 10 percent, the paint is not considered fire-resistant. A recent regulation California Rule 66 concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds VOCs affects the paint industry, especially manufacturers of industrial oil-based paints.
It is estimated that all coatings, including stains and varnishes, are responsible for 1. The new regulation permits each liter of paint to contain no more than grams 8. Paint manufacturers can replace the solvents with pigment, fillers, or other solids inherent to the basic paint formula. This method produces thicker paints that are harder to apply, and it is not yet known if such paints are long lasting.
Other solutions include using paint powder coatings that use no solvents, applying paint in closed systems from which VOCs can be retrieved, using water as a solvent, or using acrylics that dry under ultraviolet light or heat. A consumer with some unused paint on hand can return it to the point of purchase for proper treatment. A large paint manufacturer will have an in-house wastewater treatment facility that treats all liquids generated on-site, even storm water run-off.
The facility is monitored 24 hours a day, and the Environmental Protection Agency EPA does a periodic records and systems check of all paint facilities. The liquid portion of the waste is treated on-site to the standards of the local publicly owned wastewater treatment facility; it can be used to make low-quality paint. Latex sludge can be retrieved and used as fillers in other industrial products.
Waste solvents can be recovered and used as fuels for other industries. A clean paint container can be reused or sent to the local landfill. Flick, Ernest W. Handbook of Paint Raw Materials, 2nd ed. Noyes Data Corp. Martens, Charles R. Emulsion and Water-Soluble Paints and Coatings. Reinhold Publishing Company, Morgans, W.
Outlines of Paint Technology, 3rd ed. The Paints and Coatings Industry. Business Trend Analysts, Turner, G. Weismantel, Guy E. Paint Handbook. McGraw-Hill, Levinson, Nancy.
January, , pp.
ABOUT US With decades of experience in the medical field, we are global leaders in the production and application of plasma spray coatings and additive manufacturing technologies. We are recognized experts in 3D printing, surface treatments, plasma spray, machining, physical vapor deposition PVD , and titanium anodization used for medical device and other applications. We are an innovative service company made up of dynamic and proactive people who have high levels of expertise and are ready to work side-by-side with our customers to help them achieve success. Our mission is to understand your project exactly the way that you envision it. With bases established in Europe, North America, and Asia , we support our OEM customers wherever they may be located and be responsive to their demands. With metal 3D printing machines running on a daily basis, we have the greatest expertise and capacity in the field.
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ASTM's paint and related coating standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of various paints and coatings that are applied to certain bulk materials to improve their surface properties. Guides are also provided for the proper methods of applying these coatings, which also include enamels, varnishes, electroplatings, pigments, and solvents. These paint and related coating standards help paint manufacturers and end-users in the appropriate testing and application procedures for the coating of their concern. Additive Manufacturing Standards. Cement Standards and Concrete Standards. Fire Standards and Flammability Standards. Geotechnical Engineering Standards. Consumer Product Evaluation Standards. Corrosion Standards and Wear Standards. Durability of Nonmetallic Material Standards.
QUALITY MADE IN GERMANY – COMPLETE COATING SYSTEMS FROM ONE SUPPLIER
We are a vertically Integrated manufacturer. Learn More. For deposition of semiconducting, dielectric, and insulating thin films such as boron phosphor silicate glass BPSG.
In the 3 years B. Tech course after B. Tech course after I. There are Ph. The twin department used to be known as Oil and Paint Technology Department. Kamani was appointed as the first Head of the Department. The department of paint technology aspires to achieve excellence in teaching-learning, research and innovation in Paint and allied areas. The mission of the department of Chemical Technology- Paint Technology are M1 : To develop state of the art facilities to impart technical knowledge and skill to the graduate students for paint and allied industries and research organizations M2 : To be a center of research and innovation for betterment of society in sustainable manner.
Coatings for Rubber Bonding
These samples are used for customer presentation samples, computer colour matching data, printability testing and to test for gloss, strength, weathering etc. The major industrial users of RK equipment include printing ink and paint manufacturers, pigment, resin and dyestuff suppliers and manufacturers of textiles, adhesives, papers, films, foils and medical and pharmaceutical products. RK Print has carefully selected appropriate worldwide representatives who have a wealth of experience and can offer support. Get in touch now with a local representative today. High quality proofs using gravure, gravure-offset or flexo inks are produced instantly using the K Printing Proofer. The UK's leading manufacturer of equipment used to produce repeatable samples of most surface coatings. The major industrial users of RK equipment include ink and paint manufacturers, resin and. Forthcoming exhibitions. LOPEC
Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone. Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, paint also provides decoration. Samples of the first known paintings, made between 20, and 25, years ago, survive in caves in France and Spain. Primitive paintings tended to depict humans and animals, and diagrams have also been found. Early artists relied on easily available natural substances to make paint, such as natural earth pigments, charcoal, berry juice, lard, blood, and milkweed sap. Later, the ancient Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans used more sophisticated materials to produce paints for limited decoration, such as painting walls.
Functional PVD Coatings Improve Medical Device Performance and Life
With over 90 years of experience starting from the design and manufacture of industrial spray guns to the development of entire automated paint finishing systems, Sprimag has grown into the world leader in industrial painting equipment. Quality "Made in Germany", customer satisfaction and protection of the customer processes are our guidelines for order processing and the development of new innovative coating systems.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. The purpose of applying the coating may be decorative, functional, or both. The coating itself may be an all-over coating, completely covering the substrate, or it may only cover parts of the substrate.
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Так ты со мной, Сьюзан? - спросил. Сьюзан улыбнулась: - Да, сэр.