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Warehouse industrial intersystem communication devices of networks, systems, complexes and electroni

Warehouse industrial intersystem communication devices of networks, systems, complexes and electroni

Industrial Internet of Things IIoT applications, featured with data-centric innovations, are leveraging the observability, control, and analytics, as well as the safety of industrial operations. The wireless system design for IIoT applications is inherently a joint effort between operational technology OT engineers, information technology IT system architects, and wireless network planners. In this paper, we propose a new reference framework for the wireless system design in IIoT use cases. The framework presents a generic design process and identifies the key questions and tools of individual procedures. Specifically, we extract impact factors from distinct domains including industrial operations and environments, data service dynamics, and the IT infrastructure. We then map these factors into function clusters and discuss their respective impact on performance metrics and resource utilization strategies.

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Content:

Wireless Network Design for Emerging IIoT Applications: Reference Framework and Use Cases

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Computer Networks: Crash Course Computer Science #28

Industrial Internet of Things IIoT applications, featured with data-centric innovations, are leveraging the observability, control, and analytics, as well as the safety of industrial operations. The wireless system design for IIoT applications is inherently a joint effort between operational technology OT engineers, information technology IT system architects, and wireless network planners.

In this paper, we propose a new reference framework for the wireless system design in IIoT use cases. The framework presents a generic design process and identifies the key questions and tools of individual procedures.

Specifically, we extract impact factors from distinct domains including industrial operations and environments, data service dynamics, and the IT infrastructure. We then map these factors into function clusters and discuss their respective impact on performance metrics and resource utilization strategies.

Finally, discussions take place in four exemplary IIoT applications where we use the framework to identify the wireless network issues and deployment features in the continuous process monitoring, discrete system control, mobile applications, and spectrum harmonization, respectively. The goals of this work are twofold: 1 to assist OT engineers to better recognize wireless communication demands and challenges in their plants, 2 to help industrial IT specialists to come up with operative and efficient end-to-end wireless solutions to meet demanding needs in factory environments.

The volume and categories of industrial data exhibit a remarkable growth. For example, a modern computer numerical control CNC machine already produces data in the order of 30 Terabytes TB per year [ 1 ], and it is estimated that by a smart connected factory will generate 1 Petabyte PB of data per day [ 2 ].

To feed the huge data demand, the Internet of Things IoT techniques are introduced into vertical industrial domains. As the industrial variant of IoT, the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT provides customized architectures and standardized interfaces in data acquisition, transmission, and analytics for industrial applications [ 3 ]. IIoT is credited to boosting the visibility of production processes and the transparency of control decisions.

It is also actively playing in the ongoing innovations of cyber-physical systems CPS , known under labels, such as Smart Manufacturing [ 4 ] and Industry 4. Wireless communication networks are playing an increasingly important role in such a machine-to-machine M2M communication paradigm.

Compared to their wired peers, wireless networks have feature advantages, such as connection flexibility and cost efficiency, which facilitate IIoT operations, e. In the remainder of this section, we will first walk through the state-of-the-art wireless techniques for IIoT applications to briefly review current research and implementation progresses. Next, in Section I-B , we will discuss challenges and opportunities that motivate this work.

For example, wireless use cases have been identified in a variety of applications including asset performance monitoring [ 86 ], [ ], [ ], real-time process control [ 16 ], [ ], [ ], inventory and logistics management [ 88 ], [ ], and safety [ 28 ], [ 69 ]. The numerology for wireless networks specifies qualitative and quantitative measures on the desired performance, e.

For example, we can differentiated the delay in- tolerant and loss in- tolerant services in industrial applications and design different wireless networks to adapt to their respective tolerance to the transport delay and data loss [ 90 ].

Exemplary performance requirements of industrial wireless use cases. Wireless standard bodies have been involved in specifying the representative use cases in industrial environments [ 8 ], [ 25 ]—[ 27 ]. The European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI performed a series of site surveys and concluded that industrial applications mainly carry machine-typed data which refer to the data generated and consumed by machines [ 26 ].

Meanwhile, ETSI also identified a number of industrial use cases with specific radio communication requirements. Meanwhile, ITU-R also defined typical wireless industrial automation WIA applications and posted performance requirements for specific services [ 25 ].

Ever Since its first release for 5G specifications, i. Industrial users are normally playing a much stronger and more active role in deciding wireless services in their plants compared to personal customers in the wireless market.

In its inaugural white paper [ 29 ], 5G-ACIA released new requirements on OT-driven metrics in process-related aspects in addition to the network-driven performance indicators in link-related aspects that had been raised by wireless industries [ 8 ], [ 25 ], [ 27 ].

As robots are widely used in the plant, wireless links have been increasingly employed to connect the industrial robots to its controller or the remote supervisor [ ]. The American National Standards Institute ANSI and the Robotic Industries Association RIA are collaborating on drafting a series of safety-related standards for industrial robots which include the general wireless control use cases [ ] and ongoing discussions on mobile robots [ ].

There are no one-size-fits-all wireless solutions for industrial use cases as the service requirements and operation environments may differ vastly from one another. Earlier industrial wireless networks were mainly developed for providing the connectivity in each single vertical manufacturing sector [ 99 ].

As a result, the solutions that function well under the specific service requirements and operating conditions they were designed for, may only yield limited value in different use cases. To replicate the wireless success in more emerging IIoT applications, wireless networks are expected to facilitate the wider and deeper digital contact with industrial systems and provide flexible interfaces and quick deployments while keeping data integrity.

Current discussions exhibit a few distinct features in the design principles and operations. The first keyword is machine-typed data. The coupling between IIoT and industrial systems is realized by the definition, exchange, and utilization of data occurring in various industrial areas and processes with respective functions in the applications [ 93 ].

As a result, IIoT data have unique requirements on their formats and transmissions. Specifically, in the upper layers, discussions on the OT communication traffic are looking for new ways of extracting the industrial data patterns from daily operations, especially for the QoS requirements. For example, M2M traffics require the deterministic packet delivery which needs the performance guarantees in latency and reliability over wireless links.

Otherwise, it would result in error-prone control decisions which raise risks such as property damages and personnel injuries. Former models were found less effective in new IIoT cases where the analytical prediction calculated by these classic approaches often deviates from the real performance [ ]. For example, the channel capacity is estimated in the communication theory based on the assumption that a packet can always increase its payload without bound [ 56 ].

In the IIoT links, as data usually have small payloads, typically of only a few bytes, such a classic assumption does not hold [ ]. Second, IIoT exhibits unique characteristics in the radio environment. The diversity and variety of plant layouts and onsite activities have attracted multiple measurement efforts on characterizing industrial radio environments [ 33 ]—[ 36 ], [ ].

Measurements have been taken in the sites of different types and sizes, such as automotive assembly lines, steam supply plants, small-sized machine shops, and collaborative robotic work-cells. Topographic differences have been captured and associated with the parameter settings in wireless channel models. The measurements observed a noticeable deviation in the settings, such as the delay spread profile and path lost exponent, from the models in non-industrial cases. Even in the same plant, wireless channel characteristics may also vary with the location-specific topographic pattern, e.

Moreover, a plant can accommodate multiple wireless systems whose transmissions may interfere with one another in the same or neighboring spectrum bands.

It is impractical to solely rely on radio regulations to protect the spectrum usage considering the large number of legacy and unlicensed wireless applications and the delay. Therefore, it is important to recognize the coexistence issues from the use case and develop interference management schemes in different situations [ 23 ].

The last but not least, wireless IIoT techniques adopt an evolutionary roadmap in compliance with the IT innovations [ 95 ]. Wireless engineers need to leverage their design from pure discussions on air interfaces to the full-stack wireless solutions considering the end-to-end service provision.

Currently the industrial IT infrastructure is moving forward to aggregating the massive data at the centralized computing facility for improving computational efficiency [ 94 ].

Meanwhile the control intelligence is being deployed closer to the field and utilizing proximate compute resources to realize low-latency responses and situational awareness [ 87 ]. As a result, wireless networks need to be capable of negotiating with the IT infrastructure on the end-to-end performance once industrial services are deployed in the cloud. Otherwise, a service level agreement SLA cannot be reached [ 85 ]. New system integration techniques, such as software-defined networking SDN and network function virtualization NFV , are developed to adapt the IT resources and management strategies for end-to-end service provision.

Wireless networks are still evolving to address more IIoT features in their standardization efforts [ 89 ]. Candidate wireless communications protocols for serving IIoT use cases are found to be diverse and dynamic ranging from near-field communications NFC , e. These standards are enablers of IIoT services by innovating key wireless techniques. Huang et al. Generally wireless standards can be classified by their working channels and QoS levels in the wireless services, e.

We will briefly discuss their respective features for IIoT practices. There are a huge selection of wireless IIoT systems using the unlicensed spectrum bands, e. The radio part utilizes the sub-1 GHz bands and transmit over long distances up to tens of kilometers. The link traffic is very light, i. They usually connect the low-cost environmental sensors and meters to the data collector.

The field nodes work outdoors in a wide area deployment and can survive for years on batteries. BlueTooth added the support of mesh networks in its latest release, i. It can be used in wearable devices for workers and safety-related industrial applications [ ].

Meanwhile, its low power version, known as the BlueTooth Low Energy BLE , can work at only one tenth of the power consumed by the classic BlueTooth devices and last for months or years before the battery replacement.

BLE also supports industrial wireless communications [ ]. The IEEE To meet up with the transmissions of mission-critical data, the medium access control MAC layer replaces the original carrier-sense multiple access CSMA design by the time-division multiple access TDMA scheme that allows the deterministic allocation of transmission slots for periodic industrial updates and increases the time resolution as short as 10 ms.

Recently the IEEE industrial electronics society IES has identified the new trend of expanding wireless adoptions from slow paced continuous processes to more time-sensitive discrete automation applications such as industrial robots and motion control cases [ 77 ].

Such discussions have triggered the inventions of new wireless Ethernet techniques, such as wirelessHP [ ]. Among them, IEEE However, the early versions, i. IEEE As another effort for supporting mission-critical data transmissions, IEEE Mean-while, IEEE IIoT techniques in the licensed spectrum are mainly developed in cellular systems which can be further classified into the cellular IoT techniques and ongoing 5G efforts.

These techniques are designed mainly for the outdoor connections that operate at the low to moderate data rate ranging from around kbps to 1 Mbps , have long standby time for years , allow massive radio access with typical to nodes per cell , and transmit over long distances from hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers [ ].

In the following Release 14, 3GPP further strengthened these techniques with new features including positioning, serving mission-critical IoT data, e. Compared to them, NB-IoT has its own advantages, such as the higher data rate up to kbps , additional support for downlink DL transmissions, and interference management in licensed cellular bands. The cellular IIoT techniques will focus on high-valued applications for mission-critical applications and wider area deployments where they would face less challenges from the peer wireless techniques, such as low-power low-cost indoor wireless techniques including WLAN, Bluetooth, etc [ 83 ].

In 5G systems, industrial data services are considered in two main usage scenarios, i. Meanwhile, it also introduces extra transmission redundancy to improve the link reliability and employs quicker allocation schemes, e. For example, the end-to-end service delay consists of the air-time delay over cellular links, the transport delay in the 5G infrastructure, and the service processing time.

Using network slicing in NFV, 5G can preallocate the end-to-end resources for both communications and computing to guarantee the service availability and reliability [ 53 ]. Mobile edge computing MEC techniques were also developed to further reduce the transfers between gateway and application servers by deploying cloud compute resources close to operating sites.

Spectrum bands and base stations can also be assigned with private cellular connections so that industrial data are transmitted in the reserved channels and secured with access privileges [ 11 ]. These topics mainly address problems and challenges in three aspects: system models, radio resource management RRM schemes, and protocol interfaces.

Since IIoT is a complex system, the models of data traffic pattens and wireless environments serve as the important reference in the design work. New system models were developed [ 73 ].

ФБР имеет возможность прослушивать телефонные разговоры, но это вовсе не значит, что оно прослушивает. - Будь у них штат побольше, прослушивали .

Простыня на его половине кровати была холодной. Дэвид исчез. Значит, приснилось, подумала Сьюзан и села в кровати. Комната в викторианском стиле, сплошь кружева и антиквариат - лучший гостиничный номер в Стоун-Мэнор. Сумка, с которой она приехала, на дощатом полу посреди комнаты… ее белье на спинке стула эпохи королевы Анны, стоящего возле кровати.

Спасибо, не. Мне нужен консьерж. На лице привратника появилась обиженная гримаса, словно Беккер чем-то его оскорбил. - Рог aqui, senor.

- Халохот думал, что поблизости никого. Халохот какое-то время наблюдал за происходящим, потом скрылся за деревьями, по-видимому, выжидая. - Сейчас произойдет передача, - предупредил Смит.  - В первый раз мы этого не заметили.

Сьюзан поспешила за ним, пытаясь увидеть его силуэт.

Беккер еще раз обвел глазами кучу вещей и нахмурился. Зачем АНБ вся эта рухлядь. Вернулся лейтенант с маленькой коробкой в руке, и Беккер начал складывать в нее вещи. Лейтенант дотронулся до ноги покойного. - Quien es. Кто он. - Понятия не имею. - Похож на китайца.

Это чувство было очень приятно, ничто не должно было его омрачить. И его ничто не омрачало. Их отношения развивались медленно и романтично: встречи украдкой, если позволяли дела, долгие прогулки по университетскому городку, чашечка капуччино у Мерлутти поздно вечером, иногда лекции и концерты.

Рубильник был расположен за фреоновыми насосами слева от тела Чатрукьяна, и Стратмор сразу же его. Ему нужно было повернуть рубильник, и тогда отключилось бы электропитание, еще остававшееся в шифровалке. Потом, всего через несколько секунд, он должен был включить основные генераторы, и сразу же восстановились бы все функции дверных электронных замков, заработали фреоновые охладители и ТРАНСТЕКСТ оказался бы в полной безопасности.

Он жертвует всеми планами, связанными с Цифровой крепостью. Хейл не мог поверить, что Стратмор согласился упустить такую возможность: ведь черный ход был величайшим шансом в его жизни. Хейлом овладела паника: повсюду, куда бы он ни посмотрел, ему мерещился ствол беретты Стратмора. Он шарахался из стороны в сторону, не выпуская Сьюзан из рук, стараясь не дать Стратмору возможности выстрелить.

Движимый страхом, он поволок Сьюзан к лестнице. Через несколько минут включат свет, все двери распахнутся, и в шифровалку ворвется полицейская команда особого назначения.

- Мне больно! - задыхаясь, крикнула Сьюзан. Она судорожно ловила ртом воздух, извиваясь в руках Хейла. Он хотел было отпустить ее и броситься к лифту Стратмора, но это было бы чистым безумием: все равно он не знает кода. Кроме того, оказавшись на улице без заложницы, он обречен. Даже его безукоризненный лотос беспомощен перед эскадрильей вертолетов Агентства национальной безопасности.

Jul 5, - Conference: The 14th Wireless On-demand Network systems and Services . Abstract—The Industry paradigm alludes to a new .. management of radio resources for devices in its cell. the different cells to avoid inter-system (for wireless Industry poses a complex communication environment.

И в следующее мгновение не осталось ничего, кроме черной бездны. ГЛАВА 102 Стратмор спустился на нижний этаж ТРАНСТЕКСТА и ступил с лесов в дюймовый слой воды на полу. Гигантский компьютер содрогался мелкой дрожью, из густого клубящегося тумана падали капли воды. Сигналы тревоги гремели подобно грому. Коммандер посмотрел на вышедший из строя главный генератор, на котором лежал Фил Чатрукьян.

Слушай, парень, я американец из Мериленда. Если я и полицейский, то уж точно не здешний, как ты думаешь. Эти слова, похоже, озадачили панка. - Меня зовут Дэвид Беккер.  - Беккер улыбнулся и над столом протянул парню руку. Панк брезгливо ее пожал. - Проваливал бы ты, пидор. Беккер убрал руку. Парень хмыкнул. - Я тебе помогу, если заплатишь.

Шприц был наполнен тридцатью кубиками моющего средства, взятого с тележки уборщицы. Сильный палец нажал на плунжер, вытолкнув синеватую жидкость в старческую вену. Клушар проснулся лишь на несколько секунд. Он успел бы вскрикнуть от боли, если бы сильная рука не зажала ему рот.

Я был здесь несколько лет. Замечательный город.

Подходя к шифровалке, он успел заметить, что шторы кабинета шефа задернуты. Это означало, что тот находится на рабочем месте. Несмотря на субботу, в этом не было ничего необычного; Стратмор, который просил шифровальщиков отдыхать по субботам, сам работал, кажется, 365 дней в году.

В одном Чатрукьян был абсолютно уверен: если шеф узнает, что в лаборатории систем безопасности никого нет, это будет стоить молодому сотруднику места.

Черный экран. Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано. Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни. - Порядок, - усмехнулся .

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