Food packaging technology is primarily concerned with packaging activities regarding protection of food products from biological, physical or chemical agents. With the growth of modern civilization, people are getting more concerned with hygiene and quality of the food. As a result of that, food packaging is gradually setting up its stand to contend with other industries. The importance of food packaging hardly needs emphasizing since only a handful of foods are sold in an unpackaged state. Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
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Electrical equipment includes a wide-ranging field of devices. It would be impossible to include information on all items of equipment, and this chapter will therefore be limited to coverage of products of some of the major industries.
Numerous processes are involved in the manufacture of such equipment. This chapter discusses the hazards likely to be encountered by persons working in the manufacture of batteries, electric cables, electric lamps and general domestic electrical equipment.
It concentrates upon electrical equipment; electronic equipment is discussed in detail in the chapter Microelectronics and semiconductors. The discovery of the electrochemical effect led to the development of batteries as a means of supplying electrical equipment from portable power sources using direct current systems.
As devices which relied upon power from mains were invented, a system of transmission and distribution of electricity was required, which led to the introduction of flexible electrical conductors cables. The early forms of artificial lighting i. The filament lamp was to enjoy an unprecedented monopoly in domestic, commercial and industrial applications prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, at which stage the fluorescent lamp was introduced.
Other forms of discharge lighting, all of which depend upon the passage of an electric current through a gas or vapour, have subsequently been developed and have a variety of applications in commerce and industry.
Other electrical appliances in many fields e. This is typified by the introduction of satellite television and the microwave cooker. While the availability and accessibility of raw materials had a significant effect upon the development of the industries, the locations of the industries were not necessarily determined by the locations of the raw material sources.
The raw materials are often processed by a third party before being used in the assembly of electrical appliances and equipment. The skills and expertise possessed by those who work in the industry now are different from those possessed by the workforce in earlier years.
Equipment used in the production and manufacture of batteries, cables, lamps and domestic electrical appliances is highly automated. In many instances those who are currently involved in the industry require specialized training in order to carry out their work. Teamwork is a significant factor in the industry, since many processes involve production line systems, where the work of individuals depends upon the work of others.
An ever-increasing number of manufacturing processes involved in the production of electrical appliances rely on some form of computerization. It is necessary, therefore, for the workforce to be familiar with computer techniques.
This may not present any problems to the younger workforce, but older workers may not have had any previous computer experience, and it is likely that they will need to be re-trained. Some countries benefit more than others from the electrical appliances and equipment industry. Assembly and construction take place in many different countries. Raw materials do not have infinite availability.
Discarded equipment should be re-used wherever possible. However, the costs involved in recovering those parts of discarded equipment which may be re-used may ultimately be prohibitive. Automotive batteries represent the major use of lead-acid technology, followed by industrial batteries stand-by power and traction. More than half the worldwide production of lead goes into batteries.
The low cost and ease of manufacture of lead-acid batteries in relation to other electrochemical couples should ensure a continuing demand for this system in the future. The lead-acid battery has a positive electrode of lead peroxide PbO 2 and a negative electrode of high surface area spongy lead Pb. The electrolyte is a sulphuric acid solution with specific gravity in the range 1. On discharge, both electrodes convert to lead sulphate, as shown below:. Manufacturing Process The manufacturing process, which is shown in the process flow chart figure In the Barton Pot process, air is blown over molten lead to produce a fine stream of lead droplets.
The droplets react with oxygen in the air to form the oxide, which consists of a core of lead with a lead oxide PbO coating. In the milling process, solid lead which may range in size from small balls to complete pigs is fed into a rotating mill. The tumbling action of the lead generates heat and the surface of the lead oxidizes. As the particles roll around in the drum, the surface layers of oxide are removed to expose more clean lead for oxidation.
The airstream carries the powder to a bag filter, where it is collected. Grid production: Grids are produced mainly by casting both automatic and manual or, particularly for automotive batteries, expansion from wrought or cast lead alloy. Pasting: Battery paste is made by mixing the oxide with water, sulphuric acid and a range of proprietary additives.
The paste is pressed by machine or hand into the grid lattice, and the plates are usually flash-dried in a high-temperature oven. Pasted plates are cured by storing them in ovens under carefully controlled conditions of temperature, humidity and time. Free lead in the paste converts to lead oxide.
Formation, plate cutting and assembly: Battery plates undergo an electrical formation process in one of two ways. In tank formation, plates are loaded into large baths of dilute sulphuric acid and a direct current is passed to form the positive and negative plates. After drying, the plates are cut and assembled, with separators between them, into battery boxes. Plates of like polarity are connected by welding together the plate lugs.
In jar formation, the plates are electrically formed after being assembled into battery boxes. Lead is the major health hazard associated with battery manufacture. The principal exposure route is through inhalation, but ingestion can also pose a problem if insufficient attention is paid to personal hygiene. Exposure can occur at all stages of production.
Lead oxide manufacture is potentially very hazardous. Exposures are controlled by automating the process, thus removing the workers from the hazard. In many factories the process is operated by one person. Lead-bearing dross, which forms on top of the molten lead, can also cause problems.
The dross contains a large amount of very fine dust, and great care has to be exercised when disposing of it. Pasting areas have traditionally resulted in high lead exposures. The manufacturing method often results in splashes of lead slurry getting onto machinery, the floor, aprons and boots.
These splashes dry out and produce airborne lead dust. Control is achieved by keeping the floor permanently wetted and frequently sponging down aprons.
Lead exposures in other departments forming, plate cutting and assembly occur through handling dry, dusty plates. Exposures are minimized by LEV together with appropriate use of personal protective equipment. Many countries have legislation in place to limit the degree of occupational exposure, and numerical standards exist for lead-in-air and blood lead levels. An occupational health professional is normally employed to take blood samples from exposed workers. The frequency of blood testing can range from annual for low-risk workers to quarterly for those in high-risk departments e.
Air sampling for lead is complementary to blood lead testing. Personal, rather than static, sampling is the preferred method. A large number of lead-in-air samples is usually required because of the inherent variability in results. Use of the correct statistical procedures in analysing the data can give information on sources of lead and can provide a basis for making improvements to engineering design.
Regular air sampling can be used to assess the continuing effectiveness of control systems. The allowable lead-in-air concentrations and blood lead concentrations vary from country to country, and presently range from 0. There is a continuing downward trend in these limits. In addition to the normal engineering controls, other measures are necessary to minimize lead exposures. There should be no eating, smoking, drinking or gum chewing in any production area.
Suitable washing and changing facilities should be provided to enable work clothing to be kept in a separate area from personal clothing and footwear. During the formation process the active material on the plates is converted to PbO 2 at the positive and Pb at the negative electrode.
As the plates become fully charged, the formation current begins to dissociate the water in the electrolyte into hydrogen and oxygen:. Gassing generates sulphuric acid mist. Tooth erosion was, at one time, a common feature among workers in formation areas. Battery companies have traditionally employed the services of a dentist, and many continue to do so.
Recent studies IARC have suggested a possible link between exposures to inorganic acid mists including sulphuric acid and cancer of the larynx. Research continues in this area. Exposures can be kept below this level with LEV in place over the formation circuits. Skin exposure to the corrosive sulphuric acid liquid is also of concern.
Precautions include personal protection equipment, eyewash fountains and emergency showers. Talc is used in certain hand-casting operations as a mould release agent. Long-term exposure to talc dust can cause pneumoconiosis, and it is important that the dust be controlled by suitable ventilation and process control measures.
Separators are used in lead-acid batteries to electrically insulate the positive from the negative plates. Various types of material have been used over the years e. These separators are manufactured from MMFs. An increased risk of lung cancer amongst workers was demonstrated in the early days of the mineral wool industry HSE However, this may have been caused by other carcinogenic materials in use at the time.
Antimony and arsenic are commonly used in lead alloys, and stibine SbH 3 or arsine AsH 3 can be produced under certain circumstances:. The two drosses can react chemically to form calcium stibide or calcium arsenide which, on subsequent wetting, can generate SbH 3 or AsH 3. Stibine and arsine are both highly toxic gases which act by destroying red blood cells. Strict process controls during battery manufacture should prevent any risk of exposure to these gases.
A variety of physical hazards also exists in battery manufacturing e. The effect of lead on the health of children has been extensively studied.
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Electrical equipment includes a wide-ranging field of devices. It would be impossible to include information on all items of equipment, and this chapter will therefore be limited to coverage of products of some of the major industries. Numerous processes are involved in the manufacture of such equipment. This chapter discusses the hazards likely to be encountered by persons working in the manufacture of batteries, electric cables, electric lamps and general domestic electrical equipment. It concentrates upon electrical equipment; electronic equipment is discussed in detail in the chapter Microelectronics and semiconductors. The discovery of the electrochemical effect led to the development of batteries as a means of supplying electrical equipment from portable power sources using direct current systems. As devices which relied upon power from mains were invented, a system of transmission and distribution of electricity was required, which led to the introduction of flexible electrical conductors cables.
Сэр, - задыхаясь проговорил Чатрукьян. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ вышел из строя. - Коммандер, - вмешалась Сьюзан, - я хотела бы поговорить… Стратмор жестом заставил ее замолчать. Глаза его неотрывно смотрели на Чатрукьяна.
Вспомнить арифметику. Он сам считает как фокусник. Она знала, что он перемножает цифры и намертво запоминает словари, не хуже ксерокса.
Если вы оставите для нее записку, она получит ее прямо с утра. - Он направился к полке с ячейками для ключей и почты.
- Быть может, я мог бы позвонить в номер и… - Простите, - сказал консьерж, и вся его любезность мгновенно улетучилась. - В Альфонсо Тринадцатом строгие правила охраны приватности постояльцев. Беккера не устраивала перспектива ждать десять часов, пока тучный немец со своей спутницей спустятся к завтраку. - Я понимаю, - сказал. - Извините за беспокойство.
Повернувшись, он направился через фойе к выходу, где находилось вишневое бюро, которое привлекло его внимание, когда он входил.
Коммандер, не думаете же вы… - Сьюзан расхохоталась. Но Стратмор не дал ей договорить. - Сьюзан, это же абсолютно ясно. Танкадо выгравировал ключ Цифровой крепости на кольце. Золото долговечно. Что бы он ни делал - спал, стоял под душем, ел, - ключ всегда при нем, в любую минуту готовый для опубликования. - На пальце? - усомнилась Сьюзан.
Затем он его уничтожит, и Цифровая крепость навсегда исчезнет из Интернета. - Действуй своим маячком очень осторожно, - сказал Стратмор. - Если Северная Дакота заподозрит, что мы его ищем, он начнет паниковать и исчезнет вместе с паролем, так что никакая штурмовая группа до него не доберется. - Все произойдет, как булавочный укол, - заверила его Сьюзан.
- В тот момент, когда обнаружится его счет, маяк самоуничтожится. Танкадо даже не узнает, что мы побывали у него в гостях. - Спасибо, - устало кивнул коммандер. Сьюзан ответила ему теплой улыбкой. Ее всегда поражало, что даже в преддверии катастрофы Стратмор умел сохранять выдержку и спокойствие.
Если нет, он войдет и будет двигаться на восток, держа в поле зрения правый угол, единственное место, где мог находиться Беккер. Он улыбнулся. ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Пора. Халохот проверил оружие, решительно направился вперед и осмотрел площадку.
ГЛАВА 105 Огненный шар, рвущийся наверх сквозь миллионы силиконовых чипов, производил ни на что не похожий звук. Треск лесного пожара, вой торнадо, шипение горячего гейзера… все они слились в гуле дрожащего корпуса машины.
И улыбнулся, едва сохраняя спокойствие. - Ты сочтешь это сумасшествием, - сказал Беккер, - но мне кажется, что у тебя есть кое-что, что мне очень. - Да? - Меган внезапно насторожилась. Беккер достал из кармана бумажник.
Какого черта. Он кивнул. - Si, echame un poco de vodka. Бармен с видимым облегчением приготовил ему напиток.