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Safe Food for Canadians Regulations: Glossary of key terms

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Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR came into force on January 15, , certain requirements are being phased in over the following 12 to 30 months. For more information, refer to the SFCR timelines. Additional terms are also included and have generally been defined using their ordinary meaning. The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "acceptable level", with respect to a biological, chemical or physical hazard, as meaning "a level of a biological, chemical or physical hazard that does not present a risk of contamination of the food.

In general terms, "accessible" refers to easily accessible usually without the need to remove obstruction or take an unnecessarily prolonged time to obtain access. The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "agronomic input" as meaning "an input that is used in growing of fresh fruits or vegetables, and includes agricultural chemicals, biological controls, pollinators, commercial fertilizers, compost, compost tea, green manure, manure, mulch, row covers, soil amendments and pulp sludge.

In general terms, when used in the context of Part 2 — Trade of the SFCR, "alcoholic beverage" refers to a beverage that contains more than 0. In general terms, "animal welfare audit" refers to the on-site inspection or examination of specific slaughter activities in the establishment that have an impact on animal welfare of the food animals.

It is a type of process audit of the operator's measures to prevent or mitigate key animal welfare risks using recognized set standards, best practices, performance criteria and benchmarks national or international. In general terms, "batch thermal treatment" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the application of a thermal treatment to a discrete group of products a batch as opposed to a continuous stream of products. In general terms, "carcass parts" refers to parts from dressed carcasses.

In general terms, "carry on business" when used in Part 2 — Trade of the SFCR refers to conducting activities related to the import of the food identified on the licence.

In general terms, "cleaning" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the removal of soil, food residue, dirt, grease or other objectionable matter. Examples include shirts, pants, socks and uniforms. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "commercially sterile" as meaning "has the same meaning as in section B. The Food and Drug Regulations define "commercially sterile" as meaning "the condition achieved in a food that has been processed by the application of heat, alone or in combination with other treatments, to render the food free from viable forms of microorganisms, including spores, capable of growing in the food at temperatures at which the food is designed normally to be held during distribution and storage.

The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "common name", in respect of a food, as meaning. In general terms, "communicable disease" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to a disease that can be transmitted through direct contact with an individual or indirect contact through food.

Examples of communicable diseases that can be transmitted through food include salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and hepatitis A. In general terms, "competencies" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the observable or measurable level of knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviours required to successfully perform a particular job or activity.

In general terms, "condemnation" refers to determination by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency that a food animal, its carcass, the parts of its carcass or its blood is inedible. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "consumer prepackaged", in respect of a food , as meaning "packaged in a container in the manner in which the food is ordinarily sold to or used or purchased by an individual — or in which the food may reasonably be expected to be obtained by an individual — without being repackaged, to be used for non-commercial purposes.

The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations defines "container" as meaning "an outer receptacle or covering that is used or to be used in connection with a food. It includes a wrapper and a confining band but does not include a conveyance or any container that is an integral part of a conveyance". The Safe Food for Canadian Regulations define "contaminated", in respect of a food , as meaning "that the food contains any micro-organism, chemical substance, extraneous material or other substance or thing that may render the food injurious to human health or unsuitable for human consumption, including those that are not permitted under the Food and Drugs Act or those that do not comply with any limits or levels provided under that Act.

The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define this term as meaning "a measure that can be applied to prevent or eliminate any biological, chemical or physical hazard that presents a risk of contamination of a food or to reduce the hazard to an acceptable level. In general terms, "control program"", in relation to meat products, refers to a subset of your preventive control plan that details any measures that are taken to meet a specific requirement.

In general terms, "controlled atmospheric stunning" refers to exposing the animals to a mixture of breathing gases, for example carbon dioxide, that produce unconsciousness or death through hypoxia or asphyxia. This can occur by a rapid onset of unconsciousness or in multiple stages to induce a more gradual onset of unconsciousness. The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "conveyance" as meaning "a vessel, aircraft, train, motor vehicle, trailer or other means of transportation, including a cargo container.

Note: refer to the separate definitions for conveyance or equipment and facility or conveyance. In general terms, "conveyance or equipment " when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to anything that is used within the establishment to transport or manufacture, prepare, store, package, or label food or slaughter a food animal. Note: Refer to the separate definitions for conveyance and facility or conveyance. In general terms, "corrective action" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the actions taken to address a deviation from a preventive control plan.

This could include controlling affected food as necessary, conducting a root cause analysis and modifying the control measure or animal welfare measure to prevent recurrence.

The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "critical control point" as meaning "a step at which the application of a control measure is essential to prevent or eliminate any biological, chemical or physical hazard that presents a risk of contamination of a food or to reduce the hazard to an acceptable level.

In general terms, "critical limit" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the maximum or minimum set values that control a hazard at a critical control point. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "dairy product" as meaning "milk or a food that is derived from milk, alone or combined with another food, and that contains no oil and no fat other than that of milk.

In general terms, "defect detection" refers to the act of identifying and removing viscera and carcasses with specified pathology and processing defects before and after evisceration. The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "document" as meaning "anything on which information that is capable of being understood by a person, or read by a computer or other device, is recorded or marked. Note: This can include figures, graphs, records , pictures or videos.

In addition, a document can be in hard copy or electronic. In general terms, "dressing procedures" refers to procedures to remove any parts that are not by nature edible and to allow better visualisation of all parts that may harbor a risk.

In general terms, "driving tools" refers to tools specialized for moving the food animals and can be hand-held tools or automatic equipment. Handheld driving tools include electric or vibrating prods, flags and capes. Automatic driving tools include the automatic gates used for moving pigs onto the gondolas for Controlled Atmospheric Stunning CAS.

The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "egg" as meaning "an egg of a domestic chicken of the species Gallus domesticus or, in respect of a processed egg product , means that egg or an egg of a domestic turkey of the species Meleagris gallopavo.

It does not include a balut. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "egg carton" as meaning "a package that is capable of being closed and of containing not more than 30 eggs in separate compartments. Current passing through the brain induces an immediate but non-fatal general convulsion that produces unconsciousness. Current passing through the heart produces an immediate cardiac arrest that also leads shortly to unconsciousness and death; therefore, electrical stunning methods can be either reversible or irreversible depending on the equipment and operational parameters used.

The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "establishment" as meaning "any place, including a conveyance, where a food commodity is manufactured, prepared, stored, packaged or labelled. The term "establishment" is used throughout the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. Part 4 — Preventive Controls applies to "establishment" in the following manner.

For more information, refer to Section 2 — Application of Regulatory requirements: Preventive Controls. In the case of a person who handles fish in a conveyance, the establishment is the conveyance, such as a fishing vessel, where the person handles the fish.

Note: Establishment refers to the facility, the land on which the facility is built and any surrounding area where the food may be manufactured, prepared, stored, packaged or labelled or where food animals may be slaughtered. In general terms, "export" refers to sending food from Canada to a foreign state. In general terms, "export certificate" includes an export certificate or other export permission, such as being on an export eligibility list.

In general terms, "facility" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the physical structure or building within an establishment where a person is. In general terms, "facility or conveyance" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the physical structure or means of transportation within the establishment where.

Note: refer to the separate definitions for facility and conveyance. In general terms, "farmed game animal" refers to a food animal that is historically considered "wild" but has been raised for food production and is transported to an abattoir for traditional slaughter with stunning, eg.

The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "fish" to include "shellfish, crustaceans and other marine animals, and any of their parts, products and by-products. In general terms, "fixed place of business" when used in Part 2 — Trade of the SFCR, refers to a permanent, physical business location. A post office box is not considered a fixed place of business. The Food and Drugs Act defines "food" as meaning "any article manufactured, sold or represented for use as food or drink for human beings, chewing gum, and any ingredient that may be mixed with food for any purpose whatever.

The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "food additive" as meaning "has the same meaning as in section B. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "food animal" as meaning "a bird or mammal, other than a marine mammal, from which an edible meat product may be derived. The term "food animal information document" is not specifically defined in the Safe Food for Canadians Act nor in the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. In general terms, "food animal information document" refers to a document that is prepared and attested by the owner, or the person having care and control over the food animal prior to its arrival at slaughter, that details specifics regarding its rearing that will inform as to whether the food animal might harbor potential hazards, such as disease, chemical residues, physical hazards.

The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "food commodity" as meaning "any food as defined in section 2 of the Food and Drugs Act ; any animal or plant, or any of its parts, from which food may be derived; or anything prescribed to be a food commodity. Note: For more information on prescribed food commodities, refer to sections 5, 6, 7, 17, 26, 27, and of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. In general terms, "footwear" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR refers to outer coverings for the feet, such as shoes, disposable footwear and rubber boots.

In general terms, "foreign animal disease" refers to a serious epizootic disease from which Canada is considered free, such as avian influenza. The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "fresh fruits or vegetables" as meaning "any fresh plant or any fresh edible fungus, or any part of such a plant or fungus, that is a food is considered to be a fresh fruit or vegetable. Note: this meaning does not apply for the purposes of section Section covers the requirements for the fair and ethical trading practices of fresh fruits and vegetables.

The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "game animal" as meaning "a wild ruminant, pig or bird - including a ruminant, pig or bird that lives in an enclosed territory under conditions of freedom similar to those of wild animals - that is a food animal and that is hunted for commercial use under an authorization issued by a competent authority.

In general terms, "good agricultural practices" refers to the general practices used in the planting, growing, harvesting, sorting, packing, storing and transporting of agricultural products that reduce risks of contamination.

In general terms, "good manufacturing practices" refers to general practices designed to ensure product quality and safety. They set appropriate standards and practices for product manufacturing, storing, handling and distribution.

In general terms, "grade" refers to examining a food against a set of requirements prescribed in the SFCR and determining the grade for that food. The Safe Food for Canadians Act defines "grade name" as meaning "a prescribed name, mark or designation of a food commodity.

Section of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations further specifies that, for the purposes of this definition, "the grade names that are set out in the Compendium and in the Grades Document are prescribed in respect of foods. In general terms, "handle" when used in relation to animal welfare in Part 6, Division 7 — Meat Products and Food Animals of the SFCR, refers to the handling of food animals during all slaughter activities when any person is conducting an activity on the animal to achieve a specific outcome.

This would include holding animals in lairage or holding areas, driving or moving, restraining, stunning and cutting to bleed the animal. It also includes the use of any tool or equipment used for the activity.

In general terms, "hazard" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to a biological, chemical or physical agent that has the potential to cause illness or injury to humans when present. In general terms, "hazard analysis" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to the process of collecting and interpreting information pertaining to potential hazards and conditions that may support the occurrence of hazards and identify which ones pose a significant risk to food safety.

In general terms, "hazard analysis critical control point", when used in the context of Part 4 - Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to an internationally recognized food safety system that identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards.

The Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "hermetically sealed package" as meaning "a package that, due to its design, is secure against the entry of micro-organisms, including spores. In general terms, "humidity-control system" when used in Part 4 — Preventive Controls of the SFCR, refers to a system that adds or removes water vapour from indoor air to maintain the desired humidity level. In general terms, "humane killing", when used in relation to animal welfare in Part 6, Division 7 — Meat Products and Food Animals of the SFCR, refers to the killing of a food animal by an employee of the slaughter establishment to alleviate its suffering or for disease control purposes or for any other reason that it is not slaughtered.

Humane killing must be by an approved method, such as acceptable stunning methods that result in the death of the animal, for example penetrative captive bolt. The carcass of the humanely killed food animal is not eligible for human consumption and the carcass must be conveyed to the inedible section of the facility. In general terms, "import" refers to bringing food into Canada from a foreign state. In general terms, "inedible", in relation to a food , refers to food not fit for human consumption, for example spoiled food, or contaminated food.

In general terms, "inedible meat product" refers to any part of a food animal carcass that does not meet the requirements of section of the SFCR.

Nutritional Information on Packaged Foods. Protein sources in the Canadian diet, Food Services and Drinking Places Sales.

Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR came into force on January 15, , certain requirements are being phased in over the following 12 to 30 months. For more information, refer to the SFCR timelines. Additional terms are also included and have generally been defined using their ordinary meaning. The Preventive Controls requirements in Part 4 of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations define "acceptable level", with respect to a biological, chemical or physical hazard, as meaning "a level of a biological, chemical or physical hazard that does not present a risk of contamination of the food.

Manufacturing in South Africa

South Africa has developed an established, diversified manufacturing base that has shown its resilience and potential to compete in the global economy. The manufacturing sector provides a locus for stimulating the growth of other activities, such as services, and achieving specific outcomes, such as employment creation and economic empowerment. Maize is most widely grown followed by wheat, oats, sugar cane and sunflowers. The government is working to develop small-scale farming in efforts to boost job creation. Citrus and deciduous fruits are exported, as are locally produced wines and flowers. Exports of processed agricultural products amounted to R South Africa has a diversity of climates, ranging from semi-arid and dry to sub-tropical.

Food stats

Trang Senator Univ usually vols William writer. We shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out. Trang - To be returned in five weeks. A fine of one cent will be incurred for each day this volume is detained beyond that time. Trang - The radius vector of each planet describes equal areas in equal times. This is the so-called "Harmonic Law.

For Red Category Organisations, consents are granted valid for 5 years. For details please refer to Notification No.

Account Options Sign in. The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. Selected pages Page Page Title 45Public Welfare. Small Business Administration. List of Sections Affected. Page - Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, publishes, divulges, discloses, or makes known in any manner or to any extent not authorized by law any information coming to him in the course of his employment or official duties or by reason of any examination or investigation made by, or return, report or record made to or filed with Page 5 - Federal agency concerned out of appropriations that may be made therefor, which appropriations are hereby authorized. Page - Merchandise permitted in a zone.

Using Yield to Calculate Food Costs

Yield in culinary terms refers to how much you will have of a finished or processed product. Professional recipes should always state a yield; for example, a tomato soup recipe may yield 15 L, and a muffin recipe may yield 24 muffins. Yield can also refer to the amount of usable product after it has been processed peeled, cooked, butchered, etc. For example, you may be preparing a recipe for carrot soup.

Account Options Sign in. Federal Register , Volume 25, Issues Selected pages Page

Storage is an important marketing function, which involves holding and preserving goods from the time they are produced until they are needed for consumption. Underground storage structures are dugout structures similar to a well with sides plastered with cowdung. They may also be lined with stones or sand and cement. They may be circular or rectangular in shape. The capacity varies with the size of the structure. Foodgrains in a ground surface structure can be stored in two ways - bag storage or bulk storage. This is a galvanized metal iron structure. It s capacity ranges from 1. Designed by Punjab Agricultural University.

Mar 8, - food processing sectors, an attempt is made by NABARD to prepare interventions/sector wise ornamental fish breeding units have come.

Japan Standard Commodity Classification

Fish meal , or fishmeal , is a commercial product mostly made from fish that are not used for human consumption; fishmeal is generally used to feed farm animals in agricultural setting. Because it is calorically dense and cheap to produce, fishmeal has played a critical role in the growth of factory farms and the number of farm animals it is possible to breed and feed. Fishmeal is made from the bones and offal left over from fish caught by commercial fisheries. The vast majority of the fish from which fishmeal is manufactured are not used for human consumption; rather, fishmeal is generally manufactured from by-catch. Fishmeal takes the form of powder or cake. This form is obtained by drying the fish or fish trimmings, and then grinding it.

Fish feed production

Never miss a great news story! Get instant notifications from Economic Times Allow Not now. From the world's largest centre for cutting and polishing diamonds to a centuries-old hub for silk brocade, there are industrial clusters spread across India. Emerging hi-tech centres to some which are grappling with many problems, there are quite some surprises on India's manufacturing map. Petroleum, petrochemicals, pharmaceutical, chemicals, fertiliser, metal fabrication, shipbuilding.

This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems.

These are: i uniformity with regard to quality; ii nutrient balance for maximum growth effects; iii adequate and easy application; and iv generally lower cost. Because compound feeds are formulated according to precise nutrient specifications, product quality is uniform and assured even when there is a need for the manufacturer to make ingredient substitutions to overcome temporary shortages of certain ingredients. On the other hand, natural food supplies tend to vary in nutrient composition depending upon factors such as stage of maturity of plant and animal organisms that constitute these supplies. Nutrient requirements of fish are affected by the life stage they are in.

Fish, as a highly perishable commodity, often undergoes treatments which prolong its shelf life and quality as food. Fish is also a very widely traded commodity. When considering statistical aspects related to fish and fish products in the fishery industry as a whole, one is faced with a wide variety of raw fishery materials, semi-processed and fully-processed commodities, crossing all the various fishery phases.

To date, Clextral and its industrial integration partners have installed over fish feed manufacturing plants around the world including machines producing over 34 tons of pellets per hour. Clextral also works closely with research institutes in several countries to develop technology and recipes for aquaculture. Clextral systems efficiently produce high-energy feed, with a precise balance of proteins, oils and carbohydrates, processed for optimum digestibility with reduced waste. Clextral processes also accurately control pellet density for specific product attributes, such as sinking or floating properties.

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