In our world today, and to an ever-increasing extent in the years to come, no product sold on the market can be developed without taking into considerations its impact on the environment. This statement is particularly valid for a food product such as sugar, given the rising interest and expansion of markets for natural and organic products obtained through procedures, both in the agricultural and industrial stages, in which the use of chemicals and damage to the local and global environment are avoided or reduced to a minimum. Amidst the tense, controversial discussions taking place at present within the so-called Millennium Round, its agricultural negotiations and the issue of whether to include environmental matters in these talks, cane sugar producers have many advantages to offer and arguments to show the superiority of cane as a raw material for food and energy production; as opposed to other raw materials for sugar or substitute sweetener production such as corn and sugar beets. The aim of this paper is to attempt to present a brief summary of the potential of sugar cane as regards the environment as well as to discuss the current status of environmental legislation in effect in countries in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. The various cane varieties cultivated for commercial purposes world-wide are species or hybrids of the Saccharum genus, which in turn belongs to the grass family.
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Sugarcane industries are age-old industrial practices in India which contribute a significant amount of by-products as waste. Handling and management of these by-products are huge task, because those require lot of space for storage. However, it provides opportunity to utilize these by-products in agricultural crop production as organic nutrient source.
Therefore, it is attempted to review the potential of sugar industries by-products, their availability, and use in agricultural production. A large number of research experiments and literatures have been surveyed and critically analyzed for the effect of sugarcane by-products on crop productivity and soil properties. Application of sugar industries by-products, such as press mud and bagasse, to soil improves the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties and enhanced the crop quality and yield.
A huge possibility of sugarcane industries by-products can be used in agriculture to cut down the chemical fertilizer requirement.
If all the press mud is recycled through agriculture about 32,, 28,, 14,, , , , and tonnes t of N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, can be available and that helps in saving of costly chemical fertilizers. Application of sugarcane industries by-products reduces the recommended dose of fertilizers and improves organic matter of soil during the crop production.
It can also be used in combination with inorganic chemical fertilizers and can be packed and marketed along with commercial fertilizer for a particular cropping system. That helps in reduce the storage problem of sugarcane industries by-products across the India. It is cultivated on about Sugarcane is a long-duration cash crop categorized under exhaustive crop Paul et al.
It requires larger amounts of macro- as well as micro-plant nutrients. High requirement of plant nutrient limits the crop yield due to scarcity of fertilizers Gholve et al. Similarly, spiralling prices coupled with a short availability of fertilizers in peak season Khandagave cause depletion of plant nutrients from the soil Kumar and Verma ; Ibrahim et al.
Brazil is a large producer of sugarcane in the world. The next five major producers, in decreasing amounts of production, are India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, and Mexico Sarwar et al.
In , about 1. These industries are struggling for energy with high cost of production. It needs lower cost input and use of by-products as a fertilizer Dotaniya et al. The sugar industry is the second largest agricultural industry in the country after the textile industry.
Its importance in day-to-day life adds its value. In this respect, it has the lot of importance in Indian agriculture. Maharashtra sugar industry is one of the most notable and large-scale sugar manufacturing sectors in the country. They adopted and then spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture Mintz This crop grown like cotton and other crops at vast levels, during 19th and 20th century revolution, it had stands in front row of agricultural cash crops.
The world demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. New innovations and accelerated mechanization enhanced the sugarcane productivity in a quantum jump. In India, many industries are consuming agricultural produce as their raw material and generate various types of wastes. In which, sugarcane industries are one of them, generating huge amount of by-products, such as bagasse and press mud, which are creating the storage problem across the country.
There is a growing concern among the scientific community, policy maker, industrialist, and environmentalist for its safe disposal without compromising the ecosystem. All above products are very important, but here, it is mainly focused on sugarcane press mud, bagasse, and molasses and their economic value in crop production.
The integrated use of SPM with nitrogen fertilizers has enhanced the dry matter, cane, and sugar yield Bangar et al. In , Sharma et al. Due to application of press mud, the availability of macro- and micro-nutrients in soil increases. It also supplies carbon-to-soil micro-organism, which helps during decomposition and nutrient transformation reactions.
Application of press mud along with inorganic fertilizers resulted higher cane yield in Uitic haplustalf red soil Venkatakrishnan and Ravichandran Therefore, recycling organic waste by applying into agriculture land seems to be a good option, to short out the waste storage problem and shortage of plant nutrient Zaman et al.
Application of bagasse and press mud improved the physical condition of soil by reducing bulk density and enhanced macro-spore for a better root growth, and ultimate enhanced the cane yield Patil and Shingate Incorporation of press mud in crop field enhanced the soil quality parameters and sugarcane yield and cane juice quality Sarwar et al.
The press mud reported as a valuable plant nutrient and may affect physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil Kumar and Verma ; Nehra and Hooda ; Rangaraj et al. Application of press mud in sugarcane cultivation is attributed in various growth and yield parameters, such as weight and number of millable cane at harvest Indirajith ; Srivastava et al.
Therefore, its positive effect on soil properties land application of press mud is becoming a common farm practice in the sub-continent countries of Pakistan and India Ghulam et al.
It is the by-product of sugarcane industries during the extraction of juice from cane. It is dry pulpy residue and fibrous in nature. In summer seasons, in local markets, we can see bagasse heaps at sugarcane juice corner. It is used as a bio-fuels or in industrial level; it is used as a binding material. Apart from this 0. The application of bagasse in agricultural crop production system can be reduced the application rate of fertilizers.
It produced organic acids, which mobilized the insoluble P from soil to soil solution in labile form. During application, it is suggested that these bagasse properly chopped; and applied one month prior to seed sowing in the field for proper decomposition. Rate of decomposition is also affected by temperature, moisture, and population and diversity of soil micro-organisms. At industrial level, it is using for energy generation; in Brazil, Molasses is one of the most economically important by-products of sugar industries.
This has many industrial uses, viz. Molasses containing large fractions of fermentable sugars which is diluted three times with good water and allowed to ferment in the presence of yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisae either by batch or continuous process of fermentation. The organic constituents present in higher concentration undergo reduction generating unpleasant odour.
Bio-methanation is one of the options to treat such organically rich raw spentwash. With the adoption of primary treatment, million cubic feet of methane gas per annum is generated in India which is used for steam generation and to run the boilers.
Bio-methanated spentwash, a plant extracts and microbial residue, is rich in plant nutrients, and can be utilized in agriculture as liquid manure. Spentwash, press mud, and other agro-based industrial bio-resources can be bio-composted into nutrient rich organic products, which can serve as one of the components in integrated nutrient management INM.
Sugarcane by-products produced by the sugar mills in India Mt Fertilizer Statistics Sugarcane pre-dominantly grows in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, and sugar beet predominantly grows in colder temperate regions of the world. Several workers throughout the world have characterized these bio-resources from the point of their utilization in agriculture, and reported that these bio-resources could be used in agriculture for improving the soil fertility and productivity, growth, and yield of crops.
Under the present trend of exploitative agriculture, inherent soil fertility can no longer be maintained on a sustainable basis. The nutrient supplying capacity of soil declines steadily under continuous and intensive cropping Shukla et al. The use of optimum levels of N, P, and K has failed to maintain yield levels, probably due to increasing secondary and micronutrient deficiencies and also unfavorable alterations in the physical and chemical properties of soil.
Apart from the fertility and productivity issues, the use of chemical fertilizers is also becoming increasingly difficult due to their high costs and scarcity during peak season. Alternative means of providing nutrients needs to be explored. In this context, the utilization of by-products and industries wastes serves as sources of macro-, secondary, and micro-nutrients.
Sugarcane is a heavy feeder; it required higher amount of nitrogenous, phosphatic, and potassic fertilizers for a better healthy crop. For healthier food products, people using organic fertilizer are heaving negligible amount of chemical fertilizers. It is gaining more attention, nowadays, than chemical fertilizers. It enhanced the soil organic matter and supply plant nutrient in a long way, by the significant improvement in soil physio-chemical properties.
Sugarcane residues, such as bagasse and press mud, both are by-product of sugar industries and their disposal and management is very difficult. Use of these by-products in agriculture field will solve disposal problem. These residues may produce different types of organic acids during microbial decomposition Bhattacharyya et al. Sugar content in the organic residues may enhance organic acid production in the soil. These organic acids may enhance phosphorus use efficiency PUE and indirectly improve crop yield and quality.
Use of these sugarcane by-products also play a crucial role in phosphorus availability, because it produces various ions on decomposition, which compete with phosphate for binding sites in soils, and ultimately reduces the phosphorus fixation. Organic sources have traditionally played an important role in maintaining soil productivity. Among the organic sources, crop residues are most easily available for recycling of the macro- and micro-nutrients Dotaniya ; Dotaniya and Kushwah Incorporation of these materials in soil could be a good source of nutrients and would influence agricultural sustainability by improving physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil Mitani and Ma The addition of organic acids to soils increases the plant uptake of phosphorus from water-soluble phosphorus fertilizers Shukla et al.
The researchers were identified three possible mechanisms for the effect of organic acids on P adsorption. Complex formation depends on the number and position of carboxyl —COOH and phenolic —OH functional groups in the organic acids Dotaniya et al. Application of nitrogen and press mud cake increased dry matter, and cane and sugar yields Bangar et al.
Some researcher reported that use of press mud along with chemical fertilizers enhanced the yield of sugarcane. Furthermore, Sharma et al. However, re-mineralization would initiate after about 3-week period with a faster immobilization—mineralization turn over. Oblisamy observed an increase in plant nutrients, viz. Effluent added to press mud harbored more bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes, indicating the more microbial activity.
Kulkarni et al. However, over a period researcher finds out, it uses as fertilizers in crop production. The most important thing is that its N content was mostly in colloidal form which behaves as a slow release fertilizer and it was better than the other inorganic N source. It also contains other macro- and micro-nutrient in organic and inorganic states.
The two-thirds of P were in organic form and the metabolic availability of which was more than any other important elements, such as Ca, S, and Mg as well as Cu, Mn, and Zn. Joshi et al.
The methodology developed can be used for wastewaters generated by other polluting industries like tanneries. Indian scientists have demonstrated that wastewater from some of the dirtiest industrial processes can be turned into a carbon source for preparation of energy storage materials. Such electrochemical material can be used to make electrodes, sensors and supercapacitors which find applications in digital devices. In a two-step process, spent wash from a distillery was acidified to bring its pH down to about 2. The acidified solution was stirred overnight at room temperature, resulting in precipitation of solid mass or sludge.
Use of sugarcane industrial by-products for improving sugarcane productivity and soil health
Sugarcane industries are age-old industrial practices in India which contribute a significant amount of by-products as waste. Handling and management of these by-products are huge task, because those require lot of space for storage. However, it provides opportunity to utilize these by-products in agricultural crop production as organic nutrient source. Therefore, it is attempted to review the potential of sugar industries by-products, their availability, and use in agricultural production. A large number of research experiments and literatures have been surveyed and critically analyzed for the effect of sugarcane by-products on crop productivity and soil properties.
William D. A comprehensive, single-source reference of current issues in solid waste management designed as an aid in decision-making and assessment of future trends. Covers public perceptions, legislation, regulation, planning and financing, and technologies and operation. Reviews the evolution of waste management since the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of , amended in , and Examines common and divergent public and private concerns, including an in-depth review of public perceptions and their effect on planning and implementation. Also includes a discussion of the inadequacies of most waste quantity and composition estimates, with techniques for adequate evaluation.
Шум и мелькающие огни в шифровалке делали ее похожей на стартовую площадку ракеты. Хейл зашевелился и в ответ на каждое завывание сирены начал моргать. Неожиданно для самой себя Сьюзан схватила беретту, и Хейл, открыв глаза, увидел ее, стоящую с револьвером в руке, нацеленным ему в низ живота. - Где ключ? - потребовала.
Хейл с трудом пришел в. - Ч-что произошло. - То, что ты проиграл, а больше .
Мысли Сьюзан перенеслись в прошлое, и глаза ее непроизвольно упали на листок бумаги возле клавиатуры с напечатанным на нем шутливым стишком, полученным по факсу: МНЕ ЯВНО НЕ ХВАТАЕТ ЛОСКА, ЗАТО МОЯ ЛЮБОВЬ БЕЗ ВОСКА. Дэвид прислал его после какой-то мелкой размолвки. Несколько месяцев она добивалась, чтобы он объяснил, что это значит, но Дэвид молчал.
Моя любовь без воска.
Я же сказала вам, что ревела навзрыд, опоздав на самолет. Он перевел взгляд на слова, нацарапанные на ее руке.
Забудьте о ней! - Он отключил телефон и запихнул за ремень. Больше ему никто не помешает. В двенадцати тысячах миль от этого места Токуген Нуматака в полной растерянности застыл у окна своего кабинета.
Сигара умами безжизненно свисала изо рта. Сделка всей его жизни только что распалась - за каких-то несколько минут. Стратмор продолжал спуск. Сделка отменяется. Нуматек корпорейшн никогда не получит невзламываемый алгоритм… а агентство - черный ход в Цифровую крепость. Он очень долго планировал, как осуществит свою мечту, и выбрал Нуматаку со всей тщательностью.
Нуматек - богатая фирма, наиболее вероятный победитель аукциона.
Нет. Пусть остается. - Стратмор кивнул в сторону лаборатории систем безопасности. - Чатрукьян уже, надеюсь, ушел. - Не знаю, я его не видела. - Господи Иисусе, - простонал Стратмор. - Ну прямо цирк. - Он провел рукой по подбородку, на котором темнела полуторасуточная щетина.
- А что Следопыт. Я сижу у себя точно на раскаленных углях.
Сьюзан вздохнула, мысли ее вернулись к Цифровой крепости. Она не могла поверить, что такой алгоритм может быть создан, но ведь доказательство налицо - у нее перед глазами.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ не может с ним справиться. Сьюзан подумала о Стратморе, о том, как мужественно он переносит тяжесть этого испытания, делая все необходимое, сохраняя спокойствие во время крушения. Иногда она видела в нем что-то от Дэвида.
У них было много общего: настойчивость, увлеченность своим делом, ум. Иногда ей казалось, что Стратмор без нее пропадет; ее любовь к криптографии помогала коммандеру отвлечься от завихрений политики, напоминая о молодости, отданной взламыванию шифров. Но и она тоже многим была обязана Стратмору: он стал ее защитником в мире рвущихся к власти мужчин, помогал ей делать карьеру, оберегал ее и, как сам часто шутил, делал ее сны явью.
Хотя и ненамеренно, именно Стратмор привел Дэвида Беккера в АНБ в тот памятный день, позвонив ему по телефону. Мысли Сьюзан перенеслись в прошлое, и глаза ее непроизвольно упали на листок бумаги возле клавиатуры с напечатанным на нем шутливым стишком, полученным по факсу: МНЕ ЯВНО НЕ ХВАТАЕТ ЛОСКА, ЗАТО МОЯ ЛЮБОВЬ БЕЗ ВОСКА.
Он лежал, устремив глаза к небу и продолжая прижимать руку к груди. Внезапно камера отъехала в сторону, под деревья. В кадре возник мужчина в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, в руке он держал большой портфель.
Когда он ее нашел, каблук его ботинка громко ударился о кафельную плитку пола. Сьюзан почувствовала, как напряглось все его тело. Они вступили в опасную зону: Хейл может быть где угодно.
- Они не преступницы - глупо было бы искать их, как обычных жуликов. Беккер все еще не мог прийти в себя от всего, что услышал. - Может, там был кто-нибудь. - Нет.
Я говорю о наших собственных гражданах. О юристах, фанатичных борцах за гражданские права, о Фонде электронных границ - они все приняли в этом участие, но дело в другом. Дело в людях. Они потеряли веру.