Fibre-reinforced plastic FRP also called fiber-reinforced polymer , or fiber-reinforced plastic is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass in fibreglass , carbon in carbon fiber reinforced polymer , aramid , or basalt. Rarely, other fibres such as paper, wood, or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy , vinyl ester , or polyester thermosetting plastic , though phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction industries. They are commonly found in ballistic armor as well.
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FiberglassVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: HOW USE FIBERGLASS & PLASTIC TO CREATE POLYESTER LAMINATE 1960s EDUCATIONAL FILM 66134
Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration.
Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics. Fiberglass wool, a thick, fluffy material made from discontinuous fibers, is used for thermal insulation and sound absorption.
It is commonly found in ship and submarine bulkheads and hulls; automobile engine compartments and body panel liners; in furnaces and air conditioning units; acoustical wall and ceiling panels; and architectural partitions. Fiberglass can be tailored for specific applications such as Type E electrical , used as electrical insulation tape, textiles and reinforcement; Type C chemical , which has superior acid resistance, and Type T, for thermal insulation.
Though commercial use of glass fiber is relatively recent, artisans created glass strands for decorating goblets and vases during the Renaissance. A French physicist, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur, produced textiles decorated with fine glass strands in , and British inventors duplicated the feat in A British silk weaver made a glass fabric in , and another inventor, Edward Libbey, exhibited a dress woven of glass at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
Glass wool, a fluffy mass of discontinuous fiber in random lengths, was first produced in Europe at the turn of the century, using a process that involved drawing fibers from rods horizontally to a revolving drum. Several decades later, a spinning process was developed and patented.
Glass fiber insulating material was manufactured in Germany during World War I. Research and development aimed at the industrial production of glass fibers progressed in the United States in the s, under the direction of two major companies, the Owens-Illinois Glass Company and Corning Glass Works. These companies developed a fine, pliable, low-cost glass fiber by drawing molten glass through very fine orifices. In , these two companies merged to form Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.
The basic raw materials for fiberglass products are a variety of natural minerals and manufactured chemicals. The major ingredients are silica sand, limestone, and soda ash.
Other ingredients may include calcined alumina, borax, feldspar, nepheline syenite, magnesite, and kaolin clay, among others. Silica sand is used as the glass former, and soda ash and limestone help primarily to lower the melting temperature. Other ingredients are used to improve certain properties, such as borax for chemical resistance. Waste glass, also called cullet, is also used as a raw material. The raw materials must be carefully weighed in exact quantities and thoroughly mixed together called batching before being melted into glass.
Sizing is any coating applied to textile fibers in the forming operation, and may contain one or more components lubricants, binders, or coupling agents. Coupling agents are used on strands that will be used for reinforcing plastics, to strengthen the bond to the reinforced material. Sometimes a finishing operation is required to remove these coatings, or to add another coating. For plastic reinforcements, sizings may be removed with heat or chemicals and a coupling agent applied. For decorative applications, fabrics must be heat treated to remove sizings and to set the weave.
Dye base coatings are then applied before dying or printing. During the production of fiberglass insulation, material is sampled at a number of locations in the process to maintain quality. These locations include: the mixed batch being fed to the electric melter; molten glass from the bushing which feeds the fiberizer; glass fiber coming out of the fiberizer machine; and final cured product emerging from the end of the production line.
The bulk glass and fiber samples are analyzed for chemical composition and the presence of flaws using sophisticated chemical analyzers and microscopes.
Particle size distribution of the batch material is obtained by passing the material through a number of different sized sieves. The final product is measured for thickness after packaging according to specifications. A change in thickness indicates that glass quality is below the standard.
Fiberglass insulation manufacturers also use a variety of standardized test procedures to measure, adjust, and optimize product acoustical resistance, sound absorption, and sound barrier performance. The acoustical properties can be controlled by adjusting such production variables as fiber diameter, bulk density, thickness, and binder content.
A similar approach is used to control thermal properties. The fiberglass industry faces some major challenges over the rest of the s and beyond.
The number of producers of fiberglass insulation has increased due to American subsidiaries of foreign companies and improvements in productivity by U.
This has resulted in excess capacity, which the current and perhaps future market cannot accommodate. In addition to excess capacity, other insulation materials will compete.
Rock wool has become widely used because of recent process and product improvements. Foam insulation is another alternative to fiberglass in residential walls and commercial roofs. Another competing material is cellulose, which is used in attic insulation. Because of the low demand for insulation due to a soft housing market, consumers are demanding lower prices.
This demand is also a result of the continued trend in consolidation of retailers and contractors. In response, the fiberglass insulation industry will have to continue to cut costs in two major areas: energy and environment. More efficient furnaces will have to be used that do not rely on only one source of energy.
With landfills reaching maximum capacity, fiberglass manufacturers will have to achieve nearly zero output on solid waste without increasing costs. This will require improving manufacturing processes to reduce waste for liquid and gas waste as well and reusing waste wherever possible.
Such waste may require reprocessing and remelting before reusing as a raw material. Several manufacturers are already addressing these issues. Aubourg, P. Crall, J. Hadley, R. Kaverman, and D. ASM International, , pp. McLellan, G. Glass Engineering Handbook. McGraw-Hill, Pfaender, H.
Schott Guide To Glass. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Tooley, F. Hnat, J. Webb, R. Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 2 Fiberglass Fiberglass.
Periodicals Hnat, J. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. Also read article about Fiberglass from Wikipedia. User Contributions: 1. Any leads would be great. Kaleb - barriers to entry into manuafacturing are relatively high. Energy cost is high to operate the hot end of the process where the fiberglass is made.
Unless you live in an area where electricity is cheap you will not be able to compete. Phylis - some people are allergic to fiberglass fibers however you can easily protect yourself by wearing protective gloves and a dust mask in areas where the fiberglass is being installed. There are no fumes - this material is fiber.
Once the insulation is installed - should not be an issue. Some fiberglass insulation has protective layer of film applied to it.
Are there alternatives to fiberglass that are Eco-friendly and just as strong? Is fiberglass particles used in laundry detergent as optical brightness? Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: Name:.
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NCBI Bookshelf. Man-made Vitreous Fibres. Man-made vitreous fibre MMVF is a generic name used to describe an inorganic fibrous material manufactured primarily from glass, rock, minerals, slag and processed inorganic oxides. The MMVFs produced are non-crystalline glassy, vitreous, amorphous.
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings.
Fibreglass reinforced products
Fibreglass is a synthetic fibre formed by melting glass in a furnace. The molten material is then forced through small holes to form the filaments or fibre. The coarser fibres are woven to form a cloth which can be used to form fibre reinforced plastics FRP , widely used to manufacture sinks, baths, boats, pools, spas and pipes, or as a reinforcement in building materials. Exposure to fibreglass reinforced products may cause some people to suffer from skin and eye irritation. The inhalation of fibres may irritate the upper respiratory tract.
Glass fiber or glass fibre is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass. Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling. In , Edward Drummond Libbey exhibited a dress at the World's Columbian Exposition incorporating glass fibers with the diameter and texture of silk fibers. Glass fibers can also occur naturally, as Pele's hair. Glass wool , which is one product called "fiberglass" today, was invented in — by Russell Games Slayter of Owens-Corning , as a material to be used as thermal building insulation. Glass fiber when used as a thermal insulating material, is specially manufactured with a bonding agent to trap many small air cells, resulting in the characteristically air-filled low-density "glass wool" family of products. Glass fiber has roughly comparable mechanical properties to other fibers such as polymers and carbon fiber. Although not as rigid as carbon fiber, it is much cheaper and significantly less brittle when used in composites.
Frp Pipe Supports
We manufacture and fabricate FRP in a range of colors and shapes, giving architects options for creating compelling structures. Polyesters are subject to water infiltration and vinylesters, though stronger than polyesters, are not as strong as epoxy. Water Activated Fiberglass Wrap If you can wrap it, you can repair it!
Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics. Fiberglass wool, a thick, fluffy material made from discontinuous fibers, is used for thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is commonly found in ship and submarine bulkheads and hulls; automobile engine compartments and body panel liners; in furnaces and air conditioning units; acoustical wall and ceiling panels; and architectural partitions. Fiberglass can be tailored for specific applications such as Type E electrical , used as electrical insulation tape, textiles and reinforcement; Type C chemical , which has superior acid resistance, and Type T, for thermal insulation. Though commercial use of glass fiber is relatively recent, artisans created glass strands for decorating goblets and vases during the Renaissance. A French physicist, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur, produced textiles decorated with fine glass strands in , and British inventors duplicated the feat in
Танкадо не посмеет этого сделать! - воскликнула. - Уничтожить всю нашу секретную информацию? - Сьюзан не могла поверить, что Танкадо совершит нападение на главный банк данных АНБ. Она перечитала его послание. СЕЙЧАС ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА - Правда? - спросила. - Какая правда. Стратмор тяжело дышал. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Правда о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ.
- Не больница, а помойка. И они еще решили оставить меня здесь на ночь. Беккер огляделся: - Понимаю. Это ужасно. Простите, что я так долго до вас добирался.
Is insulation dangerous?
Сьюзан ждала продолжения, но его не последовало. - Больше трех часов. Стратмор кивнул.
- Одна неточность, и все мы погибли. Фонтейн сурово взглянул на. Уж о чем о чем, а о стрессовых ситуациях директор знал .
Да, - сказала. - Кроме того, ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже больше двадцати часов не может справиться с каким-то файлом. Фонтейн наморщил лоб.
Я не сказал ему про спутницу. - Взмахом руки Клушар величественно отверг вопрос Беккера. - Они не преступницы - глупо было бы искать их, как обычных жуликов.