The term surfactant comes from the words surface active agent. A surfactant is briefly defined as a material that can greatly reduce the surface tension of water when used in very low concentrations. These are one of many different compounds that make up a detergent. They are added to remove dirt from skin, clothes and household articles particularly in kitchens and bathrooms. They are also used extensively in industry.
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Spices WholesalerVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Steamed Vegetables with a Vegan Herbed Butter Sauce
Selecting products and production methods 2. Fried products 2. Bottled and canned products 2. Dried fruits and vegetables 2. Chutneys, pickles and salted vegetables 2. Pectin and papain 2. Sauces 2. Juices 2. Squashes, cordials and syrups 2. Preserves jams, jellies, marmalades, pastes, purees and fruit cheeses 2. Wines, vinegars and spirits.
Fried products Additional processing notes. A small number of starchy fruits, including jakfruit, breadfruit and banana are fried and eaten as snackfoods. Heat during frying destroys enzymes and micro-organisms and if sufficient moisture is removed and the product is packaged, it can have a shelf life of several weeks. The most common example of this type of snack-food is banana chips and the process chart Figure 6 shows their production. The stages in processing are described in the left-hand column and are split into those steps that are essential for all products on the right and those that are only needed for some products on the left.
Additional processing notes Care is needed to control the temperature of the oil used for frying, not only for safety reasons, as very hot oil can splash onto operators when wet fruit is immersed, but also because of financial and quality considerations.
When oil is heated too much, it exceeds its smoke point and a blue haze appears above the oil. This is a sign that the oil is breaking down chemically and it will then begin to get more viscous and develop an unpleasant flavour. The flavour is transferred to the product, making it unacceptable. When the oil thickens, more is retained on the product and there is a higher cost in buying more oil than is needed.
Too much oil on the product also reduces its shelf life. Bottled and canned products Additional processing notes. Bottling and canning are essentially similar processes in that food is filled into a container and heated to destroy enzymes and micro-organisms. Fruits can be packed into jars with a hot, sugar syrup and vegetables can be packed into a hot brine.
The filled jars are sealed and pasteurized so that an internal vacuum forms when they are cool. The sealed container then preserves the food by preventing re-contamination and excluding air and sometimes light. Preservation depends on an adequate heat treatment and an air-tight or 'hermetic' seal. The process for bottled fruit is shown in Figure 8.
Acidic fruits require relatively mild heating conditions for pasteurization e. Fruits can also be part-processed and stored until required in sugar syrup or sodium metabisulphite solution equivalent to ppm. It is not advisable for inexperienced small scale processors to bottle vegetables unless they are acidified, because of the risk of poisoning from inadequately processed foods. Vegetables can however be processed by pasteurization if the acidity is first adjusted using citric acid or vinegar.
Figure 6. If the cans are under-processed, there is a risk of serious food poisoning and even death from a type of micro-organism named Clostridium botulinum. If cans are over-processed, the vegetables lose much of their texture, colour, vitamins and flavour and are not saleable. The establishment of correct heating conditions depends on the type of food, the size and shape of the can and the initial level of contamination of the vegetables. This requires the skills of a qualified food technologist or microbiologist.
This is achieved using high pressure steam and a strong vessel named a 'retort'. Both steam boiler and retort are expensive and likely to be beyond the means of a small scale processor. Additionally, compressed air is needed to maintain the pressure while cans are being cooled, which together with the necessary controllers, adds to the capital cost of equipment.
Even if cans are available in a particular country, they are usually more expensive than other forms of packaging. Different types of product also require a particular internal lacquer to prevent the metal from corroding when it is in contact with the fruits or vegetables and such lacquers may not always be available.
In addition a 'seamer' is needed to seal the lid onto the can and regular checks and maintenance are necessary to ensure that the seam is properly formed. Failures in seams are one of the main causes of spoiled or dangerous canned foods. It is therefore necessary to ensure that seamer operators are fully trained and experienced in adjusting the machines and a 'seam micrometer' is another necessary capital expense to be able to do this.
In summary therefore, canning requires a considerable capital investment, trained and experienced staff, regular maintenance of relatively sophisticated equipment, a regular supply of the correct types of cans and a comparatively high operating expenditure.
Because of the more acidic nature of fruits, a lower processing temperature is adequate and this process is suitable for small scale operations. In all cases, a food technologist should be consulted to advise on process times and conditions for bottled products. Dried fruits and vegetables Additional processing notes Syrup pre-treatment Types of dryers Packaging. Drying removes most of the water from fruits and vegetables to extend their shelf life and to increase their convenience and value.
The reduction in weight and bulk also makes transport cheaper and easier although many dried foods are fragile and require packing in boxes to prevent them from being crushed.
Different categories of dried foods can be described as high-volume, lower-value crops such as staple cereals and low-volume, higher-value foods such as dried fruits, vegetables herbs and spices.
This second category offers better opportunities for profitable production by small scale processors. Air dried products are the most common type of dried fruit and vegetables and other more expensive methods, such as freeze drying, are not considered in this book. Crystallized fruits, peels for marmalade and cake production and osmotically dried fruits known as 'osmasol' products when dried in a solar dryer are fruit pieces that are soaked in hot concentrated sugar syrups to extract some of the water before air drying.
Figure 8. Some vegetables and a few fruits such as limes may also be salted before drying. In this case the high salt concentration preserves the food by both drawing out water by osmosis and by the anti-microbial properties of the salt.
Salt tolerant micro-organisms begin to grow while the product is sun dried and these produce acids and characteristic flavours, High salt concentrations also prevent the action of some enzymes, which would cause a loss in quality of the dried food during storage. Vegetables must be washed to lower the salt concentration before they are eaten vegetables that are salted but not dried are described in Section 2. Additional processing notes Fruits and vegetables must be carefully selected before drying.
If fruits in particular are over-ripe they are easily damaged and may be difficult to dry. If they are under-ripe, they have a poorer flavour, colour and appearance. Care and attention to hygiene are essential because any bacteria or moulds that contaminate vegetables before drying are likely to survive on the dried food.
The temperature of drying is not high enough to kill them and when the food is re-hydrated, they can grow again and cause food poisoning. Figure However, by itself, it does not preserve the food and vegetables must therefore be further processed by drying to achieve a long shelf life. Vegetables are blanched by heating in hot water or steam for a short time Table 7 and then cooled on trays.
For production at a small scale, vegetables can be placed in a wire basket and immersed in boiling water Figure In steam blanching, vegetables are placed in a strainer and this is then fitted over a pan of boiling water and covered with a lid to prevent the steam escaping.
Steaming takes a few minutes longer than water blanching, but has the advantage of retaining more nutrients as they are not lost into the water. There are optional chemical treatments that help to retain the colour and texture of some dried fruits and vegetables.
For example, the bright green colour of leafy vegetables, peas etc. Both chemicals are usually available from pharmacies in major towns. Sulphuring and sulphiting For most fruits, g sulphur are used per kg fruit, burning for hours. Sulphur dioxide prevents browning in foods such as apple, apricot and coconut, although it should not be used with red fruits as it bleaches the colour. Sulphuring using sulphur dioxide gas is achieved by exposing pieces of cut or shredded fruits to burning sulphur in a sulphuring cabinet.
The amount of sulphur used and the time of exposure depend on the type of fruit, its moisture content and limits placed by law in some countries on the residual amounts of sulphur dioxide in the final product Section 2.
This should be checked with a local Bureau of Standards. There is an increasing consumer resistance to sulphited fruits in some industrialised countries and if the product is considered for export the local Export Development Board or import agents should be consulted.
In sulphiting, the sulphur dioxide is dissolved in water, rather than as the gas used in the sulphuring process. Sodium sulphite, sodium metabisulphite or potassium metabisulphite are made into solutions, either by adding one of them to the blanching water or more often, by soaking the food for minutes in a sulphite dip. About two thirds of the weight of sodium metabisulphite is formed as sulphur dioxide when it is dissolved in water. For example, to form a 0.
At this concentration, sulphiting can also be used as a method of intermediate storage of fruits to spread production over several months throughout the year. Table 6. In general the method gives good retention of colour in the dried food and produces a sweeter, blander tasting product.
However, acids are also removed from fruits during the process and the lower acidity of the product may allow mould growth if the food is not properly dried and packaged. Table 7. After soaking, the syrup is diluted to approximately half of the original concentration. The advantages of this method include reuse of sugar syrups and a softer texture in the final product. In Figure 11, the containers therefore circulate 'backwards' as they contain more dilute syrup.
Some producers have even more stages in the process and may transfer fruit into increasing sugar concentrations each day for up to fourteen days. This results in a succulent, soft texture in the final product.
Types of dryers The higher value of dried fruit and vegetable products, compared for example to cereals crops, may justify the higher capital investment in a fuel-fired dryer or electric dryer and the extra operating costs for the fuel or electricity.
These types of dryer allow higher drying rates and greater control over drying conditions than do solar or sun drying and they can therefore result in a higher product quality.
However it is necessary to make a careful assessment of the expected increase in income from better quality products compared to the additional expense, to make sure that this type of dryer is cost-effective see also Section 2. Sun drying is only possible in areas where, in an average year, the weather allows foods to be fully dried immediately after harvest see Figure 3, seasonality chart.
Spices Wholesaler Bulk medicinal herbs, spices, and essential oils are supplied by international mail-order herb company HealthyVillage. Monterey Bay Spice Company has been delivering premium bulk herb botanicals, spices, teas, seasonings and much more for over fifteen years. Many of our mixes can be Kosher certified, all natural or organic certified, or gluten free, so make sure to let us know your preference. Bulk Spices and Dry Goods.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Back to Nature products represent a wide range of categories, including cookies, crackers, nuts and trail mixes, granola, juices, soups and cereals. Using only the highest quality ingredients and its own special blend of spices, Bear Creek offers hearty soup mixes, hearty rice dishes and savory pasta dishes. By making them so simple to prepare, yet so hearty and satisfying, Bear Creek has the perfect meal solution for the whole family. The Mrs.
Food Storage Chart for Cupboard/Pantry, Refrigerator and Freezer
However, reference amounts for the products which require further preparation before consumption, e. NOTE: Cracker and cheese placed separately in the same container e. The reference amount for this type of product is the sum of the reference amounts for the individual foods [section] The reference amount of all crackers included in these packages including saltines, soda crackers, etc. NOTE: Crackers and cheese placed separately in the same container e. The reference amount of all crackers included in these packages Including saltines, soda crackers, etc. Is 30 g because these products are intended for snacks.
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List of ingredients and allergens
Ketchup, a tangy, seasoned tomato sauce, is one of America's favorite condiments. Although ketchup, also spelled catsup, is used primarily as a relish for hamburgers, hot dogs, and french fries, it is also a common ingredient for sauces, meatloaf, beans, and stews. The tangy sauce originated in ancient China as a brine of pickled fish or shellfish called "ke-tsiap. In the late s, English sailors visiting Malaysia and Singapore were so impressed with the sauce that they took samples home.
Selecting products and production methods 2. Fried products 2. Bottled and canned products 2. Dried fruits and vegetables 2. Chutneys, pickles and salted vegetables 2. Pectin and papain 2. Sauces 2. Juices 2. Squashes, cordials and syrups 2.
What started as an experiment in microbrewing soy sauce has become a dream come true for Matt Jamie. Sauces, spices, sweeteners, snacks and much more decorate the shelves of the Marketplace and Flagship store in Historic Crescent Hill in Louisville, Kentucky. Fans of the brand can now take part in tastings, purchase gourmet prepared foods and enjoy drinks all in one place. Bluegrass Soy Sauce uses local ingredients, including the bourbon barrels. By law, bourbon barrels can only be used once to age bourbon; they are then sold for a variety of uses. Non-GMO soybeans, soft red winter wheat, and limestone filtered water are combined with solar-evaporated sea salt to create the soy mash. Each barrel of Bluegrass Soy Sauce ages for a year inside the barrels until it is pressed and the final product is bottled. Once bottled, each label is hand-numbered by batch and bottle—our nod to the small batch bourbon makers. Yes, I would like to receive emails from Bourbon Barrel Foods. You can unsubscribe anytime.
Better For You
Ever had leftovers that were dry? Brining may be one solution to help you with these problems. Brining gets a lot of questions and interest and this is my attempt to try and help you learn about it. Soaking food in salt water has been used by cooks and restaurants for many years. According to the Food Safety and Inspection Service1 the verb "brine" means to treat with or steep in brine. Brine is a strong solution of water and salt. A sweetener such as sugar, molasses, honey, or corn syrup may be added to the solution for flavor and to improve browning. The brining of meats is an old process used for food preservation.
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SIC Industry Description
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Different Types of Flavoring Syrups
On December 14, , amendments to nutrition labelling, list of ingredients and food colour requirements of the Food and Drug Regulations came into force. Regulated parties have a five 5 year transition period to meet the new labelling requirements. All prepackaged products with more than one ingredient must declare their ingredients definition and components definition in a list of ingredients [B. For more information, refer to Exemptions.
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