Solid-waste management , the collecting, treating, and disposing of solid material that is discarded because it has served its purpose or is no longer useful. Improper disposal of municipal solid waste can create unsanitary conditions, and these conditions in turn can lead to pollution of the environment and to outbreaks of vector-borne disease—that is, diseases spread by rodents and insects. The tasks of solid-waste management present complex technical challenges. They also pose a wide variety of administrative, economic, and social problems that must be managed and solved. In ancient cities, wastes were thrown onto unpaved streets and roadways, where they were left to accumulate.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
Garden waste dumpingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How To Make Compost At Home (WITH FULL UPDATES)
Waste management or waste disposal are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. Waste can be solid, liquid, or gas and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological and household.
In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health. Waste management practices are not uniform among countries developed and developing nations ; regions urban and rural areas , and residential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches.
A large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste MSW which is the bulk of the waste that is created by household, industrial, and commercial activity.
The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce , reuse and recycle , which classifies waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimisation. The waste hierarchy is the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of end waste; see: resource recovery. The next step or preferred action is to seek alternative uses for the waste that has been generated i.
The next is recycling which includes composting. Following this step is material recovery and waste-to-energy. The final action is disposal, in landfills or through incineration without energy recovery. This last step is the final resort for waste which has not been prevented, diverted or recovered. The hierarchy represents the latter parts of the life-cycle for each product.
The life-cycle begins with design, then proceeds through manufacture, distribution, and primary use and then follows through the waste hierarchy's stages of reduce, reuse and recycle. Each stage in the life-cycle offers opportunities for policy intervention, to rethink the need for the product, to redesign to minimize waste potential, to extend its use.
Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that global economic growth and development can not be sustained at current production and consumption patterns. Globally, humanity extracts more resources to produce goods than the planet can replenish.
The polluter-pays principle mandates that the polluting party pays for the impact on the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material. Throughout most of history, the amount of waste generated by humans was insignificant due to low population density and low societal levels of the exploitation of natural resources as well as industrial since a few decades ago.
Common waste produced during pre-modern times was mainly ashes and human biodegradable waste , and these were released back into the ground locally, with minimum environmental impact. Tools made out of wood or metal were generally reused or passed down through the generations. However, some civilizations do seem to have been more profligate in their waste output than others.
In particular, the Maya of Central America had a fixed monthly ritual, in which the people of the village would gather together and burn their rubbish in large dumps. Following the onset of industrialisation and the sustained urban growth of large population centres in England , the buildup of waste in the cities caused a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life.
The streets became choked with filth due to the lack of waste clearance regulations. However, it was not until the midth century, spurred by increasingly devastating cholera outbreaks and the emergence of a public health debate that the first legislation on the issue emerged.
Highly influential in this new focus was the report The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population in  of the social reformer , Edwin Chadwick , in which he argued for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population. In the UK, the Nuisance Removal and Disease Prevention Act of began what was to be a steadily evolving process of the provision of regulated waste management in London.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was the first citywide authority that centralized sanitation regulation for the rapidly expanding city and the Public Health Act made it compulsory for every household to deposit their weekly waste in "moveable receptacles" for disposal—the first concept for a dust-bin. The dramatic increase in waste for disposal led to the creation of the first incineration plants, or, as they were then called, "destructors". Similar municipal systems of waste disposal sprung up at the turn of the 20th century in other large cities of Europe and North America.
In , New York City became the first U. Early garbage removal trucks were simply open bodied dump trucks pulled by a team of horses. They became motorized in the early part of the 20th century and the first closed body trucks to eliminate odours with a dumping lever mechanism were introduced in the s in Britain.
The Garwood Load Packer was the first truck in , to incorporate a hydraulic compactor. Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private companies for industrial and commercial waste.
Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have formal waste-collection systems. Curbside collection is the most common method of disposal in most European countries, Canada , New Zealand , United States , and many other parts of the developed world in which waste is collected at regular intervals by specialised trucks.
This is often associated with curb-side waste segregation. In rural areas waste may need to be taken to a transfer station. Waste collected is then transported to an appropriate disposal facility. In some areas, vacuum collection is used in which waste is transported from the home or commercial premises by vacuum along small bore tubes. Systems are in use in Europe and North America.
In some jurisdictions unsegregated waste is collected at the curb-side or from waste transfer stations and then sorted into recyclables and unusable waste. Such systems are capable of sorting large volumes of solid waste, salvaging recyclables, and turning the rest into bio-gas and soil conditioner.
In San Francisco , the local government established its Mandatory Recycling and Composting Ordinance in support of its goal of "Zero waste by ", requiring everyone in the city to keep recyclables and compostables out of the landfill. The three streams are collected with the curbside "Fantastic 3" bin system — blue for recyclables, green for compostables, and black for landfill-bound materials — provided to residents and businesses and serviced by San Francisco's sole refuse hauler, Recology.
The City's "Pay-As-You-Throw" system charges customers by the volume of landfill-bound materials, which provides a financial incentive to separate recyclables and compostables from other discards. In most developed countries, domestic waste disposal is funded from a national or local tax which may be related to income, or property values. Commercial and industrial waste disposal is typically charged for as a commercial service, often as an integrated charge which includes disposal costs.
This practice may encourage disposal contractors to opt for the cheapest disposal option such as landfill rather than the environmentally best solution such as re-use and recycling. In some areas such as Taipei , the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of rubbish they produce.
Waste is collected by the city council only if it is put in government issued rubbish bags. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate.
A landfill is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. Landfill is the oldest form of waste treatment , although the burial of the waste is modern; historically, refuse was simply left in piles or thrown into pits. Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world. Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products.
This method is useful for disposal of both municipal solid waste and solid residue from waste water treatment. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste by 80 to 95 percent.
Incinerators convert waste materials into heat , gas , steam , and ash. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials such as biological medical waste.
Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as the facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy WtE or energy-from-waste EfW are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity.
Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organic compounds such as dioxins , furans , and PAHs , which may be created and which may have serious environmental consequences.
Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers.
The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, a procedure called kerbside collection.
In some communities, the owner of the waste is required to separate the materials into different bins e. In other communities, all recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for collection, and the sorting is handled later at a central facility. The latter method is known as " single-stream recycling. The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage cans, copper such as wire, steel from food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, rubber tyres , polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons , newspapers , magazines and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes.
These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products such as computers and electronic equipment is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required. The type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country.
Each city and country has different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials. However, certain variation in acceptance is reflected in the resale value of the material once it is reprocessed. In July , the Chinese government announced an import ban of 24 categories of recyclables and solid waste, including plastic, textiles and mixed paper, placing tremendous impact on developed countries globally, which exported directly or indirectly to China.
Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material , food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes.
The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter. See resource recovery. Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolyzation, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery. Energy recovery from waste is part of the non-hazardous waste management hierarchy.
Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable waste materials into electricity and heat, generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills. The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel.
Thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating and the use of the gas fuel see above , to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability.
The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other chemical products chemical refinery.
Waste management or waste disposal are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. Waste can be solid, liquid, or gas and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological and household. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health. Waste management practices are not uniform among countries developed and developing nations ; regions urban and rural areas , and residential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches.
Waste Management Infrastructure
Garden waste , or green waste dumping is the act of discarding or depositing garden waste somewhere it does not belong. Garden waste is the accumulated plant matter from gardening activities which involve cutting or removing vegetation, i. The composition and volume of garden waste can vary from season to season and location to location. Garden waste may be used to create compost or mulch , which can be used as a soil conditioner, adding valuable nutrients and building humus.
Waste treatment and waste-to-energy solutions
Хейл, сидя на плите и действуя вытянутыми ногами как тараном, сорвал решетчатую дверь с петель, ворвался в комнату и теперь приближался к ней большими прыжками. Сьюзан швырнула ему под ноги настольную лампу, но Хейл легко преодолел это препятствие. Он был уже совсем. Правой рукой, точно железной клешней, он обхватил ее за талию так сильно, что она вскрикнула от боли, а левой сдавил ей грудную клетку.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: They Grew Inside My Secret Trash Can
Он тихо выругался. Тогда почему они послали не профессионального агента, а университетского преподавателя.
Учитель превратился в ученика. Однажды вечером на университетском представлении Щелкунчика Сьюзан предложила Дэвиду вскрыть шифр, который можно было отнести к числу базовых. Весь антракт он просидел с ручкой в руке, ломая голову над посланием из одиннадцати букв: HL FKZC VD LDS В конце концов, когда уже гасли огни перед началом второго акта, его осенило.
Шифруя послание, Сьюзан просто заменила в нем каждую букву на предшествующую ей алфавите. Для расшифровки Беккеру нужно было всего лишь подставить вместо имеющихся букв те, что следовали непосредственно за ними: А превращалось в В, В - в С и так далее. Беккер быстро проделал это со всеми буквами. Он никогда не думал, что четыре слова могут сделать его таким счастливым: IM GLAD WE MET Что означало: Я рада, что мы встретились. Он быстро нацарапал на программке ответ и протянул Сьюзан: LDSNN Сьюзан, прочитав, просияла.
ME TOO, что означало: Я .
Не обращайте на него внимания, - засмеялась. - Он просто расстроен. Но он получит то, что ему причитается.
Часы показывали два часа с минутами по местному времени. Возле главного здания аэровокзала Беккер въехал на тротуар и соскочил с мотоцикла, когда тот еще двигался.
Семь ступеней. Он мысленно прорепетировал предстоящее убийство. Если у входа на площадку взять вправо, можно увидеть самый дальний левый угол площадки, даже еще не выйдя на. Если Беккер окажется там, Халохот сразу же выстрелит. Если нет, он войдет и будет двигаться на восток, держа в поле зрения правый угол, единственное место, где мог находиться Беккер. Он улыбнулся. ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Пора. Халохот проверил оружие, решительно направился вперед и осмотрел площадку.
Левый угол пуст. Следуя плану, он бросился в проход и, оказавшись внутри, лицом к правому углу, выстрелил.
Долгая история. Чутье подсказывало Беккеру, что это открытие не сулит ему ничего хорошего. - Все равно расскажите. ГЛАВА 15 Сьюзан Флетчер расположилась за компьютерным терминалом Третьего узла. Этот узел представлял собой звуконепроницаемую уединенную камеру, расположенную неподалеку от главного зала.
Двухдюймовое искривленное стекло односторонней видимости открывало перед криптографами панораму зала, не позволяя увидеть камеру снаружи.
Сьюзан проследила за его взглядом, прижавшись к поручню. Сначала она не увидела ничего, кроме облаков пара.
Но потом поняла, куда смотрел коммандер: на человеческую фигуру шестью этажами ниже, которая то и дело возникала в разрывах пара. Вот она показалась опять, с нелепо скрюченными конечностями. В девяноста футах внизу, распростертый на острых лопастях главного генератора, лежал Фил Чатрукьян.
Тело его обгорело и почернело. Упав, он устроил замыкание основного электропитания шифровалки. Но еще более страшной ей показалась другая фигура, прятавшаяся в тени, где-то в середине длинной лестницы. Ошибиться было невозможно.
Она смотрела на него невинными глазами, и Беккер почувствовал, что она держит его за дурака. - Да будет. На вид вы человек состоятельный.
Дайте немножко денег, чтобы я могла вернуться домой.
Он огляделся - кругом царил хаос. Наверху включились огнетушители.
Джабба отлично знал, что директор прав. Более трех тысяч узлов Независимой цифровой сети связывают весь мир с базой данных агентства.
И я уверена, что большинство наших граждан готовы поступиться некоторыми правами, но знать, что негодяи не разгуливают на свободе. Хейл промолчал.