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Space manufacture special equipment for oil refining, gas processing

Space manufacture special equipment for oil refining, gas processing

This helpful OPIS glossary can assist you in better understanding many oil industry terms. Download Glossary. Plus, be sure to check out other free and helpful resources from OPIS. View more free resources. High volume 25, to , bbl contractual agreements between oil companies dictating delivery of petroleum products or crude oil in the near future for an established sales price. Since this market reacts quickly, and is an alternative to wholesale sales, it provides a good indication of the direction of wholesale price trends.

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Why the future of oil is in chemicals, not fuels

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Factorio Tutorials: Setting up Oil Refining: Basic & Advanced

How are wells drilled? When you fill up your car with gasoline or pay your natural gas heating bill, you are the final link in a long chain of businesses that make it possible for us to enjoy these clean, convenient and economical forms of energy.

The entire chain is known as the petroleum industry. However, the industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream.

The upstream industry finds and produces crude oil and natural gas. The midstream industry processes, stores, markets and transports commodities such as crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids NGLs, mainly ethane, propane and butane and sulphur. The midstream provides the vital link between the far-flung petroleum producing areas and the population centres where most consumers are located. In Canada, transmission pipeline companies are a major part of the midstream petroleum industry.

Most of these companies are also based in Calgary, although their activities extend across the country, into the United States and sometimes abroad. The downstream industry includes oil refineries, petrochemical plants, petroleum products distributors, retail outlets and natural gas distribution companies. Although many downstream companies are headquartered in Calgary, the largest centres of activity are near Sarnia, Ontario, and Edmonton, Alberta.

The downstream industry touches every province and territory-wherever consumers are located-and provides thousands of products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, natural gas and propane. The upstream petroleum industry in Canada includes more than 1, exploration and production companies as well as hundreds of associated service businesses such as seismic and drilling contractors, service rig operators, engineering firms and various scientific, technical, service and supply companies.

The remainder was from sales of natural gas, natural gas liquids and sulphur. The Canadian upstream petroleum industry has attained an international reputation for excellence in many areas including:.

The search for oil and gas begins with aerial surveys and surface observation by geologists and geophysicists to see if an area has the kind of the rock formations that might contain petroleum. Companies then conduct seismic surveys or purchase seismic data from other companies to get a better picture of the underground rock formations.

Then explosions or mechanical vibrations are created on the surface. The geophones record the energy reflected back as seismic waves from rock layers at various depths. Geophysicists use powerful computers to process the data from digitally recorded seismic surveys. Computer-assisted processing of the data creates a picture of the sedimentary structures below and ideally shows the location and extent of porous layers within these structures. Geophysicists and geologists examine the seismic data for the presence of suitable traps and for similarities with other petroleum-producing areas.

If the results seem promising, they use the seismic data to locate and drill a well. Because of long-standing and close cooperation among industry, government and academic scientists, Canada is regarded as having the most comprehensive information about its petroleum resources of any country in the world.

Early requirements to record accurately all kinds of information from the , wells drilled to date in Canada have given us an extremely valuable and reliable database that can be used quickly and cheaply. With the introduction of computerized commercial databases, new drilling prospects can be generated, producing fields can be optimized and field operations scrutinized.

Access to land, and the minerals beneath it, is required in order to drill a well. Oil company land departments negotiate access with owners and federal or provincial governments.

Specialized staff, known as landmen who may be male or female , are responsible for all these negotiations. No exploration or production activity can occur without the necessary permissions.

The actual number can vary considerably, depending on the type of well being drilled. The rigs operate around the clock, seven days a week, and the crews typically work hour shifts for two weeks and then have a week off. The workers sometimes live in a temporary camp on site. The only way to determine whether a rock formation actually contains oil or gas is to drill a well. There are about active drilling rigs in Canada. Most rigs are owned by contractors who sell their services to exploration and production companies.

There are many different types of drilling rigs. The smallest are mounted on trucks, while the largest are installed on ships or offshore platforms. Some are specially equipped for sour gas exploration, Arctic operations, slanted holes or horizontal drilling.

As a general rule, the bigger the rig, the deeper it can drill. Land-based rigs can be quickly assembled and taken apart in sections for moving between locations, although this may require up to 50 semi-trailers for the largest. Drillers call drilling making hole. The basic process is simple. A revolving steel bit at the bottom of a string of pipe grinds a hole through the rock layers.

The bit may be studded with tungsten carbide or industrial diamonds to reduce bit wear and penetrate harder rock formations. A fluid called drilling mud lubricates the bit, removes cuttings, conditions the well bore and stabilizes the pressure in the hole. The mud, a suspension of chemicals and minerals such as bentonite clay in water or sometimes oil, is pumped down the drill pipe.

It circulates back to the surface through the space outside the pipe, known as the annulus. The mud recirculates after cuttings are removed by a vibrating screen called the shale shaker. Occasionally, wells are drilled without mud to increase penetration rates and to avoid contacting sensitive rock formations with water.

In so-called air drilling, compressed air removes the cuttings. Alternatively, drillers can obtain many of the same benefits through underbalanced drilling-using mud lightened by the addition of nitrogen or other gas. Underbalanced drilling has become increasingly common in western Canada because it minimizes damage to the producing reservoir.

This is especially useful in clay formations. Clays can collapse into the well bore or swell up when contacted with fresh-water-based drilling fluids. Underbalanced drilling prevents the invasion of the drilling fluid into the reservoir and allows oil to be produced more effectively. As the bit penetrates deeper, the crew threads additional pipe onto the top of the string. Sections of pipe are typically 9. Pipe diameters and wall thickness vary, depending on well depth.

On most land-based rigs, a rotary table on the rig floor rotates the drill string to rotate the drill bit. However, most offshore units and an increasing number of land rigs use top drives-hydraulic or electric motors suspended above the drill string. In some situations, the bit can be turned by a mud motor, a downhole hydraulic drive which is inserted above the bit at the bottom of the string. It receives power from the mud flow. This is the technique used in horizontal drilling.

Wells are normally drilled in stages, starting with a surface hole drilled to reach a depth anywhere from 60 to metres, depending on final well depth and area conditions.

The crew then pulls out the drill string and inserts steel pipe, called surface casing, which is cemented in place to keep the wall from caving in. It controls the return flow of mud and other fluids encountered during drilling and also prevents contamination of groundwater aquifers.

Blowout preventer BOP devices are typically installed on the top of the casing, below the rig floor. BOPs are large valves that help contain the fluid and gas pressure in the well. One type of BOP can seal off the space between the drill pipe and the casing the annulus if the drill pipe is still in the hole. Another can shear off the drill pipe and thus seal off the entire well, while a third can seal off the well if no drill pipe is in the hole.

Blowouts waste valuable resources and often damage the environment. Some blowouts could release foul-smelling sour gas containing toxic hydrogen sulphide, which would be a major hazard for workers, nearby populations and environments. Blowouts can be enormously expensive to bring under control. Crews are trained to use BOPs and drilling fluid to reduce the frequency and severity of blowouts. Some wells are designated as critical sour gas wells because they have the potential for releases of hydrogen sulphide that might affect nearby residents.

Companies and governments require emergency response planning, public consultation, safety equipment and worker training for critical sour gas operations. When the drill bit enters the critical zone in a well where sour gas will likely be encountered, additional precautions may include providing breathing apparatuses for rig personnel and notifying people living nearby. After setting surface casing and installed the BOPs, the crew resumes drilling.

A probe for shallow gas or heavy oil in eastern Alberta or Saskatchewan may require only two or three days to drill metres through soft shale and sandstone to the target depth.

However, a rig may work eight months or more to penetrate 4, metres or more through hard, complex rocks in the foothills of the Rockies. The drill bit column may be several kilometres deep by the time high-pressure gas deposits are reached. The weight of the drilling fluid can be increased by adding heavy minerals such as bentonite clay to the mixture.

Drillers try to keep the mud heavy enough to hold back gas from entering the hole, but not so heavy that the mud will penetrate into the reservoir enough to damage it. If the reservoir pressure is higher than the pressure exerted by the mud column, some gas may enter the well bore.

This is known as a kick and must be controlled to prevent a blowout. Kicks are detected by sensitive instruments which monitor the mud flow and composition and the mud tank levels. Drillers control most kicks simply by managing the mud flow and increasing the weight of the mud. When a well is drilled, small rock chips called cuttings are recovered from the drilling fluid.

These are pieces of rock ground up and broken off by the drill bit as it cuts into the earth. Geologists, geochemists and paleonologists scientists who study pollens and small fossils examine the cuttings to learn more about the age, chemistry, porosity, permeability and other properties of the subsurface rock formations.

Larger, more continuous cylindrical rock samples, called cores, can also be cut using a special coring bit. The speed of penetration is another indicator. The first sign of possible success is usually an increase in the rate of penetration followed by the appearance of oil or gas traces in cuttings. If more information is needed about the rocks, a special cylindrical bit may be used to cut a core sample for analysis by geologists, reservoir engineers, geochemists and paleonologists.

Further information is obtained by lowering a package of instruments, called wireline logging tools, into the well bore. A logging instrument can also be mounted on the string above the bit to send information continuously during drilling. It sends signals to the surface by means of pulses, like sonar signals, in the mud.

Another instrument, called a measurement while drilling MWD tool, can similarly measure the direction and precise location of the bit while drilling horizontal wells.

This page requires that javascript be enabled for some elements to function correctly. Oil and gas well drilling and servicing activities involve many different types of equipment and materials.

Petroleum refineries process crude oil into many different petroleum products. The physical characteristics of crude oil determine how the refineries turn it into the highest value products. The physical characteristics of crude oil determine how refineries process it. In simple terms, crude oils are classified by density and sulfur content. Less dense lighter crude oils generally have a higher share of light hydrocarbons.

Kuwait Integrated Petroleum Industries Company To Expand Al-Zour Refinery With Honeywell Technology

Barrel — The basic unit for measuring oil. A barrel is equal to 42 U. Bit — A drilling tool that cuts the hole. Bits are designed on two basic and different principles. The cable tool bit moves up and down to pulverize.

U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis

Crude oil and other liquids produced from fossil fuels are refined into petroleum products that people use for many different purposes. Biofuels , such as ethanol and biodiesel, are also used as petroleum products, mainly in mixtures with gasoline and diesel fuel. Petroleum is the largest U. We use petroleum products to propel vehicles, to heat buildings, and to produce electricity. In the industrial sector, the petrochemical industry uses petroleum as a raw material a feedstock to make products such as plastics, polyurethane, solvents, and hundreds of other intermediate and end-user goods. In , U.

On Wednesday, Aug. For further information please visit our Implementing the Canadian Energy Regulator Act information page.

Hello, we use cookies to improve website performance, facilitate information sharing on social media, and offer advertising tailored to your interests. By using our site, you consent to the use of these cookies. July 24, The newly designed complex will increase the plant's output capacity of fuels and petrochemicals. Honeywell UOP will revise the configuration and capacity of the refinery's gasoline production facilities. In addition, Honeywell UOP will supply technology licenses, design services, key equipment, and state-of-the-art catalysts and adsorbents to produce clean-burning fuels, paraxylene, propylene and other petrochemicals. The petrochemicals section includes an aromatics complex that will produce 1. Honeywell UOP is a leading licensor of process technology for the production of aromatics. As of last year, Honeywell UOP licensed more than complexes and more than individual process units for the production of aromatics, including more than CCR Platforming process units, Sulfolane units, 80 Isomar units, 58 Tatoray units, Parex units worldwide. Over the last 50 years, Honeywell has delivered more than 2, projects for more than customers in Kuwait.

Energy Information Program – Glossary

How are wells drilled? When you fill up your car with gasoline or pay your natural gas heating bill, you are the final link in a long chain of businesses that make it possible for us to enjoy these clean, convenient and economical forms of energy. The entire chain is known as the petroleum industry. However, the industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream.

Petroleum refineries convert crude oil and other liquids into many petroleum products that people use every day. Most refineries focus on producing transportation fuels. On average, U.

Alkylation: A secondary crude oil refining process which produces alkylate, a very-high octane component used for gasoline blending. Alternative or Emerging Technologies: New or emerging technologies that are used as an alternative to existing methods of energy production. Alternative technologies include fuel cells and clean coal technologies, for example. Amortization: The gradual writing-off of an asset or debt over a fixed period of time. The lower the API gravity, the heavier and more viscous the bitumen. Apportionment: When shippers nominate more oil, or oil product, in a given month than the pipeline is able to transport, shipper volumes are apportioned reduced based on the tariff in effect. Apportionment can be driven by several factors, including growing oil supply, increased oil demand, and reduced pipeline capacity. Atlantic Basin: Refers to countries residing beside or within the Atlantic Ocean and its related waters. Atmospheric Distillation: The first processing unit in practically all refineries. The atmospheric unit separates fractionates crude oil into intermediate products or fractions based on boiling point.

The downstream industry includes oil refineries, petrochemical plants, petroleum About half of Canada's oil and gas production is exported to the United States. heavy oil and sour gas; gas processing, sulphur extraction and heavy oil upgrading specialized controls and computer applications; services, equipment and.

Western Canadian Crude Oil Supply, Markets, and Pipeline Capacity

An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha , gasoline , diesel fuel , asphalt base , heating oil , kerosene , liquefied petroleum gas , jet fuel and fuel oils. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units, such as distillation columns. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products. Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. An oil refinery is considered an essential part of the downstream side of the petroleum industry.

Industry Overview

Account Options Login. Employment Outlook in Petroleum Production and Refining. Sol Swerdloff , Calman Robert Winegarden. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics , - 52 halaman. Halaman terpilih Halaman Halaman

Glossary of Terms

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