Asbestos mining existed more than 4, years ago, but large-scale mining began at the end of the 19th century, when manufacturers and builders began using asbestos for its desirable physical properties:  sound absorption , average tensile strength , resistance to fire , heat, electricity, and affordability. It was used in such applications as electrical insulation for hotplate wiring and in building insulation. When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. These desirable properties made asbestos very widely used. Asbestos use continued to grow through most of the 20th century until public knowledge acting through courts and legislatures of the health hazards of asbestos dust outlawed asbestos in mainstream construction and fireproofing in most countries.
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US2330106A - Gasket material - Google PatentsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Friction material automatic weighing machine
Bernstein, Brookfleld, and Thomas F. Mika, Chicago, The present invention relates to a gasket construction and more particularly to a novel gasket material and in the novel means and method of manufacture of this material. In the manufacture of this novel gasket material the asbestos millboard is first produced upon a paper making machine in which the fiber and binder are uniformly distributed throughout the entire sheet to thereby insure the production of a continuously uniform product.
After the asbestos millboard is produced it is then combined with a reinforcing core or backing which may be of perforated or expanded metal or other material suitable for the purpose. By thus completely filling these grommets or flanges with the bonded asbestos, there is no danger of collapse of the grommets or flanges when in use and when subjected to the hot gases in the combustion chambers, one cause of gasket breakdown.
Further objects are to provide a construction of maximum simplicity, efficiency, economy and ease of assembly and operation, and such further objects, advantages and capabilities as will later more fully appear and are inherently possessed thereby. The invention further resides in the construction, combination and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accompanying drawing, and while there is shown therein a preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the same is susceptible of modification and change, and comprehends other details, arrangements of parts,.
In the drawing: Figure 1 is a plan view of a cylinder head gasket constructed in accordance with the presand provided with the usual combustion openings 2, water holes 3 and bolt holes 4. In the disclosed embodiment, the gasket is formed of alternate layers or laminae of compressible prebonded gasket material 5, 5 and a reinforcing core 6 of expanded or perforated metal or other backing or reinforcing material suitable for the purpose.
As clearly shown in Figure 2, the opposite faces of the core 6 are covered with a layer or lamina 5 of pre-formed gasket material such as asbestos fibers bonded by a. Due to the flow characteristics of the gasket material, when a sheet formed therefrom is combined with a core or backing, this material flows into all of the voids or interstices and in and a; ound the anchoring projections 1 on the core, and completely fills the' space within the grommets or flanges 8 provided about the combustion openings 2, as well as the grommets or flanges 9 provided about the water holes 3.
Although Figure 2 shows a layer of prebonded asbestos millboard affixed to the opp sides of the metal core, it will be appreciated that the metal core may have projections on but one side and in that event but a single layer or lamina of gasket material or asbestos millboard will be employed and aflixed to the pronged side of the core or backing.
In the manufacture of the gasket, the asbestos millboard is first produced upon a paper making fiber and cement is added to waterin a beater of the conventional paper making type.
Although we have given specific proportions of virgin and scrap fiber, these proportions may be varied between any desired limits of all virgin to all scrap. To the asbestos fiber and water in the heater is added an emulsion of hydrocarbon oil such as Jr. Red engine oil and bentonite, with which is mixed a dispersion of carbon black and other desired coloring material.
This is added to the beater inthe operation, thus getting a thin deposit of oil and pigment around each fiber of the asbestos base. The asbestos millboard after sheeting is combined with a perforated steel or metal core or reinforcement 8.
In order to overcome water impingement and to get greater scuff resistance to the edges of the gasket, the invention comprehends blanking the sheets previously formed into gaskets and then dipping the blanked gasket in an oil-resin-graphite coating. This coating has great inherent non-stick characteristics at relatively great loads and elevated temperatures. The film formed thereby when used gives maximum water, oil and gasoline resistance and is incompatible with treatment previously accorded the asbestos millboard.
The gaskets after being coated with the oilresin-graphite coating are then flanged in the usual manner, closed and flattened. The object of incorporation of the oil is to provide a means for slippage between the fibers and thus greatly enhance the flow characteristics of the material.
When flanged, the body of the flange will fill with the treated asbestos and will prevent featheredging of the flanges. In making the emulsion of hydrocarbon oil, we have secured good results using the following ingredients in substantially the following proportions Jr.
It swells and forms a colloidal suspension in the water to which is then added the oil with rapid agitation. The colloidal particles of the bentonite in the solution disperse and suspend the oil forming an emulsion. The dispersion of carbon black and other coloring material may be formed of the following ingredients and in approximately the following proportions:. By increasing the carbon black content, it. The graphite acts as a lubricant. As to the oil-resin-graphite coating which we have found highly successful for coating the blanked gaskets, good results have been secured in the use of the following ingredients in approximately the following proportions parts given are by weights China-wood oil 30 Phenol-formaldehyde resin Bakelite 30 Dipentene 20 Toluol 19 Cobalt and lead naphthenates 1 Graphite 10 The varnish coating is preferably prepared by cooking the resin into the oil at a temperature of approximately F.
Good results have also been secured by the use of a vegetable or animal oil, including non-drying oils such as castor oil, semi-drying.
For the carbon black, we may use pigments such as iron oxide, barytes, lithopone, asbestine, chalk, charcoal or other adsorptive pigments. In place of graphite, good results have been secured by the use of mica, soap-stone, talc or other lubricating pigments.
For the polymerized organic salts of alkyl arylsulfonic acids, we may use dibutyl phenyl phenol sodium disulfonate, diamyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid, fatty acid soaps of morpholinc, monoethanolamine,. In place oi. A sheet of compressible gasket material of uniform composition and density throughout, comprising asbestos fiber and a binder giving the fiber flow-characteristics and including petroleumuoil, carbon black and bentonite dispersed throughout the mass of fiber with the oil and carbon black providing a thin coating around the individual fiber, and a coating for the sheet composed of a varnish comprising a phenol-aldehyde-China-wood-oil-resin and graphite.
A sheet of compressible gasket material composed of asbestos fiber, a binder dispersed throughout the mass of fiber and including petroleum oil and carbon black' deposited on the individual fiber throughout the mass, and a coating for the exposed surfaces of the sheet composed of a varnish comprising a phenol-aldehyde China-wood oil resin.
A sheet of gasket material comprising asbestos fiber and a binder including non-drying petroleum oil and carbon black dispersed throughout the mass of fiber in the gasket material, and a coating of a varnish comprising a phenol-aldehyde China-wood oil resin providing maximum resistance to attack by water, oil and gasoline.
A gasket comprising alternate layers of asbestos millboard and expanded metal, the asbestos millboard including asbestos fiber and a binder of petroleum oil, carbon black and graphite dispersed throughout the millboard to provide a coating thereof about the individual fiber, and a surface coating of a varnish comprising a phenol-aldehyde China-wood oil resin and graphite.
A gasket comprising alternate laminae of asbestos millboard having flow characteristics and a perforated metal reinforcement, the asbestos millboard being composed of asbestos fiber in which the individual fiber are provided with a coating of petroleum oil and carbon black to provide a millboard of uniform composition through out, and a surface coating for the exposed portions of the gasket composed of a varnish comprising a phenol-aldehyde China-wood oil resin.
The invention further resides in the construction, combination and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accompanying drawing, and while there is shown therein a preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the same is susceptible of modification and change, and comprehends other details, arrangements of parts, features and constructions without departing from the spirit of the invention.
By increasing the carbon black content, it is possible to absorb an increased quantity of oil which is retained in the finished product.
For the polymerized organic salts of alkyl arylsulfonic acids, we may use dibutyl phenyl phenol sodium disulfonate, diamyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid, fatty acid soaps of morpholinc, monoethanolamine, tetraethylene pentamine and the like.
We claim: 1. US USA en USA en. Compositions,processes,and writing elements employing resins of the thermosetting type. Heat-resistant flat gasket, in particular for exhaust systems of combustion engines. Compositions, processes, and writing elements employing resins of the thermosetting type. USA1 en. JPA en.
Porous friction material including nano particle of friction adjusting material. Gasket for high temperature application having sealant of phenyl and hydrocarbyl-substituted polysiloxane. JPB2 en. KRA en. Fibrous lining material comprising a primary layer having less fibrillated aramid fibers, carbon fibers, carbon particles and a secondary layer comprising carbon particles.
CNC en. HUB en.
Fibrous asbestos on muscovite. Blue asbestos crocidolite from Wittenoom, Western Australia. The ruler is 1 cm. They all have in common their asbestiform habit, long, thin fibrous crystals.
JP5194297B2 - Asbestos modification method - Google Patents
All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals , each fiber being composed of many microscopic 'fibrils' that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes. Asbestos is an excellent electrical insulator and is highly resistant to heat, so for many years it was used as a building material. Inhalation of asbestos fibres can lead to various serious lung conditions, including asbestosis and cancer. Archaeological studies have found evidence of asbestos being used as far back as the Stone Age to strengthen ceramic pots,  but large-scale mining began at the end of the 19th century when manufacturers and builders began using asbestos for its desirable physical properties. Asbestos was widely used during the 20th century until the s when public recognition of the health hazards of asbestos dust led to its outlawing in mainstream construction and fireproofing in most countries. Despite the severity of asbestos-related diseases, the material has been used widely all around the world, and most pres buildings are thought to contain asbestos. It was adopted via the Old French abestos, which in turn got the word from Greek via Latin , but in the original Greek, it actually referred to quicklime.
Asbestos - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings. Asbestos is safe and legal to remain in homes or public buildings as long as the asbestos materials are in good condition and the asbestos can not be released into the air. Here we provide a master list of manufactured products that contain asbestos. Our list of asbestos-containing materials is sorted by alphabetically by product or use.
A friction material for use as a brake lining in automobiles, trucks, buses or similar vehicles. The brake lining contains no more than traces of asbestos and utilizes the mineral vermiculite as a basic constituent. The formulation of the brake lining comprises a non-fibrous natural or synthetic mineral or mineral -like material together with a small quantity of non-asbestos fibers and acicular mineral particles which on being compressed at ambient temperatures and at pressures of to p. The ratio by weight of resin to vermiculite is preferably in a range having a upper limit not exceeding about 1. This application is a continuation of application Ser. The present invention relates to an improved brake lining utilizing a mineral such as vermiculite as a basic component, and further relates to the use of such material in the manufacture of composite friction materials in which the manufacturing process involves the production of a preform. The prior art discloses brake lining for use in automotive, truck, bus, or similar vehicles as well as off-the-road equipment such as farm machinery and construction equipment.
The present invention relates to a method for modifying asbestos, and more particularly to a method for modifying asbestos using microwave technology. Asbestos has excellent properties such as heat resistance, fire resistance, soundproofing, chemical resistance, wear resistance, insulation, and corrosion resistance. Among the asbestos, crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile are frequently used, and the amount of chrysotile used is the largest due to the delay of legal regulations in Japan. As building materials, corrugated asbestos slate, residential asbestos slate, asbestos cement board flexible board, flat plate, soft board, etc.
Ты раньше говорил что-то про вирус. - Черт возьми, Мидж! - взорвался Джабба. - Я сказал, что вируса в шифровалке .
Очевидно, директор что-то скрывает, но Бринкерхоффу платили за то, чтобы он помогал, а не задавал вопросы. Фонтейн давно всем доказал, что близко к сердцу принимает интересы сотрудников. Если, помогая ему, нужно закрыть на что-то глаза, то так тому и. Увы, Мидж платили за то, чтобы она задавала вопросы, и Бринкерхофф опасался, что именно с этой целью она отправится прямо в шифровалку.
Пора готовить резюме, подумал Бринкерхофф, открывая дверь. - Чед! - рявкнул у него за спиной Фонтейн. Директор наверняка обратил внимание на выражение глаз Мидж, когда она выходила. - Не выпускай ее из приемной. Бринкерхофф кивнул и двинулся следом за Мидж. Фонтейн вздохнул и обхватил голову руками. Взгляд его черных глаз стал тяжелым и неподвижным.
Но, директор, - возразила Сьюзан, - это не имеет смысла. Если Танкадо не понял, что стал жертвой убийства, зачем ему было отдавать ключ. - Согласен, - сказал Джабба. - Этот парень был диссидентом, но диссидентом, сохранившим совесть.
Одно дело - заставить нас рассказать про ТРАНСТЕКСТ, и совершенно другое - раскрыть все государственные секреты. Фонтейн не мог в это поверить. - Вы полагаете, что Танкадо хотел остановить червя.
Вы думаете, он, умирая, до последний секунды переживал за несчастное АНБ.
Если Стратмор окажется на грани срыва, директор заметит первые симптомы. Но вместо признаков срыва Фонтейн обнаружил подготовительную работу над беспрецедентной разведывательной операцией, которую только можно было себе представить. Неудивительно, что Стратмор просиживает штаны на работе.
Если он сумеет реализовать свой замысел, это стократно компенсирует провал Попрыгунчика. Фонтейн пришел к выводу, что Стратмор в полном порядке, что он трудится на сто десять процентов, все так же хитер, умен и в высшей степени лоялен, впрочем - как. Лучшее, что мог сделать директор, - не мешать ему работать и наблюдать за тем, как коммандер творит свое чудо.
Стратмор разработал план… и план этот Фонтейн не имел ни малейшего намерения срывать.
- Я позвоню Стратмору и попрошу прислать нам письменное подтверждение. - Нет, - сказала Мидж, - игнорируя сарказм, прозвучавший в его словах. - Стратмор уже солгал нам. - Она окинула Бринкерхоффа оценивающим взглядом.
Мне много чего нужно, мистер Беккер, но неприятности точно не нужны. Кроме того, тот старик вроде бы обо всем позаботился.
Теперь все умолкло, так что можно было различить облегченный вздох раненого чудовища - ТРАНСТЕКСТА, постепенно стихающее шипение и посвистывание, сопутствующие медленному охлаждению. Сьюзан закрыла глаза и начала молиться за Дэвида. Ее молитва была проста: она просила Бога защитить любимого человека.
Вот Танкадо вышел на открытое место и залюбовался открывшимся перед ним зрелищем. Он козырьком поднес руку к глазам и стал разглядывать шпили над внушительным фасадом.
- Смотрите внимательно, - предупредил Смит.