A fertilizer American English or fertiliser British English ; see spelling differences is any material of natural or synthetic origin other than liming materials that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. Many sources of fertilizer exist, both natural and industrially produced. Management of soil fertility has been the preoccupation of farmers for thousands of years. Egyptians, Romans, Babylonians, and early Germans are all recorded as using minerals and or manure to enhance the productivity of their farms. John Bennet Lawes , an English entrepreneur , began to experiment on the effects of various manures on plants growing in pots in , and a year or two later the experiments were extended to crops in the field.
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- WO2012004219A1 - Method for producing a fertilizer - Google Patents
- Organic vs Mineral Fertilizer
- Organic Fertilizer Production and Application in Vietnam
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- Agri-environmental indicator - mineral fertiliser consumption
- Nutrient recovery from biowaste for mineral fertiliser production
- Time to end the false debate of organic vs. mineral fertilizer
WO2012004219A1 - Method for producing a fertilizer - Google PatentsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 100 Years of ammonia synthesis: from the first mineral fertilizer to clean air
Waste and Biomass Valorization. A lot of attention has been paid in current literature to sewage sludge due to its increasing amount and problem with its disposal.
In the age of expensive energy sources and depletion of natural feedstocks it is necessary to find ways of reusing and recycling waste. Sewage sludge has a high valuable fertilizing potential. It is known as a rich source of nutrients. In addition, it includes a large amount of organic matter, which could facilitate the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients and improves the soil structure.
However, a direct application of sewage sludge to the soil is restricted by heavy metals content. Sewage sludge commonly includes pathogenic microorganisms and toxic compounds.
The aim of the study was to determine the state of the art and availability of technology for fertilizers production based on waste, especially on sewage sludge. As sewage sludge from different wastewater treatment plants varies in its chemical composition and physical properties, it is important to find a local solution to the problem of sewage sludge disposal.
It has been found that organo-mineral fertilizers OMFs derived from sewage sludge and modified by the addition of mineral fertilizers seem to be suitable for application to the soil.
Adding acids or alkali agents provide sterilization and binding of the components. Novel OMFs gave a comparable crop yield response as conventional fertilizers. They show a slow release of nutrients, which is the main advantage in relation to mineral fertilizers. The global population growth will increase a demand for agricultural and food production.
It leads to a rising dependence on fertilizer inputs. The world demand for N, P and K is estimated to increase annually by 1. It is necessary to minimize the loss of P and convert it into a closed cycle.
On the other hand, urbanization and industrialization increase the generation of sewage sludge. Due to the risk which sewage sludge poses to human health and the environment, it should be properly disposed of.
There are three main methods for sewage sludge disposal: soil application, landfilling, and incineration. The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer seems to be the best practicable option in most circumstances. Sewage sludge provides a valuable source of major nutrients required for plant growth.
Organic matter improves the soil porosity, increases water retention and movement. Some components of organic matter play an important role in soil aggregation [ 5 ]. Addition of organic matter to the soil promotes the decomposition of substances and establishes microbial equilibrium. On the other hand, recycling biosolids to the land presents some challenges, among which are a high content of heavy metals that could accumulate in plants [ 6 ], organic pollutants and pathogenic microorganisms.
The direct application of sewage sludge makes risk for humans and environment [ 7 ]. Despite a relatively high nutrients content in sewage sludge, the concentration of macronutrients is not sufficient to meet crop requirements. In addition, the low N:P ratio, which usually occurred in biosolids, leads to a P build-up in the soil resulting in phosphorus losses and water eutrophication.
A lot of experiments on new fertilizers based on waste [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ] have been reported. This type of fertilizers is a key to improve soil fertility and partly overcome the problem with an increasing amount of waste and by-products. Organo-mineral fertilizers OMFs derived from biosolids can significantly reduce costs of sewage sludge disposal.
Different technologies are developed for disinfection, sterilization and nutrient-enrichment of sewage sludge in order to use it for balanced granulated fertilizers.
Methods for biosolids-derived fertilizers production are usually based on chemical reactions between nutrients in sewage sludge and acid or alkali agents, which are added during the production process; on coating granulated biosolids with urea or just mixing biosolids with dry additives inorganic fertilizers.
It allows to obtain OMFs, which are characterized by gradual nutrients release. OMFs-treated soils showed an increase in organic matter content and nitrogen use efficiency. Studies found the increase of dry matter yield of crops, treated by OMFs [ 13 ]. All these account for the fact that biosolids-derived OMFs have a great potential to improve crop and minimize the nutrients losses in the environment.
Agricultural and food production are among major causes of natural resources depletion. The age of cheap feedstock is over. Resource scarcity leads to increasing input and production costs and tightening the market, as demand rises faster than production capacities. The efficient and sustainable use of natural resources could ensure food security. Fertile soil is the key to balanced commercial-scale production of crops. Very few agricultural soils have a sufficient content of nutrients to mitigate the requirements of crop yields.
Most of them become more dependent on a regular application of fertilizers. Fertilizer prices are expected to be high [ 17 ]. The production of commercial fertilizers requires a lot of energy. Natural gas is also the main input in nitrogen fertilizer production. Increasing natural gas prices will lead to rising costs of ammonia [ 19 ].
On the other hand, the transportation costs significantly influence fertilizer prices. In pre-industrial agriculture nitrogen was the most yield-limiting nutrient. In Haber—Bosch synthesis of ammonia from its elements was developed and this barrier was broken [ 20 ]. The global output of ammonia synthesis rising from 3. Almost all nitrogen fertilizers are produced initially from ammonia. Recently, almost all phosphate fertilizers have been produced from phosphate rocks, which are known as a limited resource [ 22 ].
Mining phosphate rocks used in fertilizer production started from the nineteenth century. Before that time agriculture was based on the application of animal phosphorus-based fertilizers such as guano, manure, bones. Phosphate reserves are far from being uniformly distributed across the world. Potassium is found in various mined and manufactured salts.
Global reserves of potassium are expected to be high with respect to the current demand [ 26 ]. The major producer of potash fertilizers is Canada, followed by Belarus, the Russian Federation, and China. Since the year the pressure on prices of the major P and N fertilizer has increased, which is connected with higher production costs of ammonia and Sulphur.
As food production is increasing, the agriculture will become more dependent on mineral fertilizers. There is a rising concern about the availability of nutrients and future feedstock scarcity. The depletion of natural resources is accompanied by inappropriate application of conventional fertilizers polluting the environment. From food security perspectives, the global cycle of nutrients should be taken into account. It is necessary to correct the quantity and quality of fertilizers for soil application, to find alternatives for mineral fertilizers by using waste and by-products [ 27 ].
This could help to make balance between agriculture and industry. Due to the population growth, urbanization and industrialization, wastewater production as well as the amount of sewage sludge have increased significantly. The problem with treatment and disposal of sewage sludge remains open due to its quantity. A few decades ago municipal sewage sludge was disposed of in seawater or used as fertilizer, the alternative ways of its utilization, like incineration or landfilling, were also used.
After the year the disposal of sewage sludge at sea was prohibited in order to protect the environment, excluding: Japan, the Philippines and the Republic of Korea.
Alternative methods to landfill and land-spreading are incineration and aerobic or anaerobic digestion [ 28 ]. New trends in sludge management, like gasification, pyrolysis, co-combustion and wet oxidation, were generated [ 29 ]. Sewage sludge is insoluble residue produced in the wastewater treatment processes and following stabilization process, such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion.
Usually aerobic digestion is more profitable in small wastewater treatment plants, while anaerobic one is used in big treatment plants. The characteristic of sewage sludge depends on the nature of the treated sewage and treatment technology.
Digested sludge after the process in anaerobic conditions shows a high content of nutrients primarily nitrogen and phosphorus , which can be used as a potential fertilizer source and soil conditioner [ 30 ]. Many researchers reported positive effects of using sewage sludge in agriculture [ 31 , 32 , 33 ].
The application of sewage sludge to soil improves its physicochemical and biological properties, which causes better growth of plants. The application of organic matter in the form of sewage sludge increases soil aggregate formation and stability, improves water infiltration, and increases soil total porosity [ 34 ]. The addition of sewage sludge can increase microbial activities, their population, and biomass production.
Sewage sludge is a valuable source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen is a component of all proteins and nucleic acids, it is an essential element for plants.
Because of mineralization of sewage sludge, nitrogen is transformed into an available form. Phosphorus is an essential element, which is required for many metabolic reactions in plants and animals. However, the application of sewage sludge to soil is strictly limited by the presence of heavy metals, toxic compounds, and microbial pathogens [ 37 ].
Heavy metals get into sewerage systems generally from industry, mainly from electroplating, chemical industry manufacturing of organic and inorganic compounds, pharmaceutical industries, dyes and pigment manufacturing , metal processing industries, as well as from runoff and corrosion from sewerage systems [ 38 ]. Three approaches to decreasing heavy metals content in sewage sludge have been known. The first one is to control individual sources of heavy metals discharges, the second one is connected with controlling diffuse sources using lead-free gasoline, copper-free tap water transport systems and the third one is the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge.
The process of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge consists of four steps: solubilization of heavy metals by changing the pH and oxidation—reduction potential, separating the liquid including mobilized metals, chemical precipitation of heavy metals, and removal from leachate [ 39 ].
The accumulation of heavy metals in the soil may have phytotoxic effects on cereals, vegetables, fruits, and fodder crops. Consumption of these commodities by animals and humans can cause health hazards. The concentration of heavy metals in sewage sludge depends on the sewage origin, sewage treatment process and sewage sludge treatment process [ 40 ]. The most important factor controlling the mobility of metal compounds in the soil is the pH. The soil pH influences the precipitation and dissolution of mineral-organic complexes and insoluble hydroxides.
Zn uptake is greater in the acidic soil than in the alkaline one. The bioavailability of Cu is higher in alkaline soil [ 41 ].
The invention relates to the chemical industry for the production of mineral-organic fertilizers and can be used in agriculture to increase fertility and improve soil structure. The composition contains natural phosphorites of the composition, wt. The composition contains natural quartz-glauconite sands of the composition, wt. The well-known complex phosphorus-containing fertilizer is environmentally friendly, but has the disadvantage that not all of the regions of Russia have these components that are easily mined raw materials and additional heat is used for drying them to prepare. September 27, containing quartz-glauconite sands and a source of organic matter, the fertilizer containing sapropelic mass and additionally chalk in a ratio of 2. However, the well-known mineral-organic complex fertilizer contains an insufficiently effective and environmentally faulty organic component, since the sapropelic mass includes mineral ingredients, ballast substances and heavy metals.
Organic vs Mineral Fertilizer
October 12, Water, food and resource scarcity, alongside increasing waste are among the main challenges humanity will face in the years to come. To take advantage of the waste, European researchers have come up with a novel nutrient management solution. Therefore, biowaste valorisation is considered an alternative, attractive approach in waste management policies. Most fertilisers currently rely heavily on fossil mineral resources for nutrient supply. The idea behind the EU-funded NEWFERT project was to build up an innovative concept for the fertiliser industry that essentially turns ashes of different origins and livestock effluent into a new generation of fertilisers. Researchers identified and analysed more than 45 different types of biowaste from different areas of Europe and selected 10 for introduction into the fertiliser production process based on their physical and chemical properties.
Organic Fertilizer Production and Application in Vietnam
The invention relates to a method for producing a fertilizer for plants. Furthermore, it is used as a biofertilizer for individual consumers, such. With the present invention, the growing demand for organically grown agricultural products - crops, livestock and horticulture - can be better met. By recycling waste and by-products of plant and animal origin, closed soil cycles are designed to preserve and improve soil fertility and counteract soil erosion, which occurs particularly on lean soils. In addition, it contains lactic acid, vitamins Bl, B2 and B6 as well as potassium, calcium, phosphorus and other minerals and 0. There are generally two types of whey: the rennet or sweet whey that is produced when you make milk with cheese making cheese, and the sour whey that comes from treating milk with lactic acid bacteria. This procedure comprises the following steps:.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Azomite: Over 70 Minerals & Trace Elements - Full Spectrum Mineral Fertilizer Soil Amendement
Digestates produced by the increasing number of biogas plants require appropriate treatment or recycling. This study investigates the fertilizing potential of separated biogas digestates. These contain valuable nutrients and can be used in agriculture to close the nutrient cycle. Multi-year field experiments were established at two challenging sites in south-west Germany in ; results from 6 years are shown here. The objectives were to determine 1 whether separated digestates can complement or substitute mineral fertilizers and 2 their effect on long-term yield performance in different biomass cropping and fertilization systems. The fertilizing performance was assessed in a split-plot design with four replications using three cropping systems: 1 perennial grassland; 2 intercropping of triticale and clover grass; 3 silage maize. The influences of site, cropping system, year and fertilization treatment were highly significant. Fertilization with solid digestate fraction produced lowest yields in all fertilized plots, with results very often not significantly different from the untreated control. Maize achieved relatively high yields in years with favorable weather conditions; unfavorable conditions led to low yields. The grassland and intercropping systems were less susceptible to weather conditions, producing a more constant biomass supply irrespective of site, treatment and year.
One of the greatest benefits of complete and balanced crop fertilization, aside from increasing crop yields and improving farmer profit potential, is its effect on soil organic matter. Both organic and inorganic mineral fertilizer sources contribute to the buildup of organic matter in soils. There is widespread public misconception that organic agriculture is more environmentally friendly and maintains improved levels of soil organic matter.
Louisa Burwood-Taylor. Charlotte Hebebrand, is director-general of the International Fertilizer Association IFA , a nonprofit organization that represents the global fertilizer industry, on issues related to the promotion of plant nutrients, improvement of the operating environment of the member companies and the collection and compilation of industry information. We caught up with her to find out how the industry is reacting to the wealth of new innovation coming into the sector. The consumption of fertilizers has grown nearly six-fold between and from 32 to million nutrient tonnes , to keep up with a population expanding from 3. The environmental footprint of fertilizers — both in terms of production as well as application — must shrink, but this cannot happen at the expense of higher agricultural yields, considering that we may have close to 10 billion people to feed by On the application side, to make fertilizer more sustainable, it is vital to improve nutrient use efficiency NUE : the ratio between input of nutrients and output in terms of the nutrients taken up in the harvested crop. By increasing yields on existing farmland, higher NUE can help further preserve wild ecosystems, increase carbon capture through soil organic matter and reduce the estimated 1. NUE needs to be improved by digital tools to help fertilizer decision-making and application, using climate-smart fertilizers that show enhanced efficiency, and, in the case of some regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, by ensuring greater access to fertilizers, to help all farmers achieve the 4Rs of Nutrient Stewardship: applying the Right nutrient source, at the Right rate, at the Right time, in the Right place. The 4Rs can be greatly facilitated by precision ag tools such as digital platforms, sensors and artificial intelligence, which can all help to improve fertilizer recommendations and more precise and targeted fertilizer application. An increasing number of fertilizer companies are beginning to invest into non-traditional segments like biologicals and digital tools, however, as they look to become full-service plant nutrition solution providers.
Agri-environmental indicator - mineral fertiliser consumption
In sub-Saharan Africa, the argument has raged for quite some time now: Should farmers be using organic inputs or mineral fertilizer to stimulate crop growth? We know the region is hungry and that fertilizer in some form is essential. But which is best for people and the planet? Despite passionate support on both sides, no consensus has been reached. This is because it is, in fact, a false debate.
Nutrient recovery from biowaste for mineral fertiliser production
Our food security depends on finding a sustainable alternative to rock phosphate for fertilizer production. Furthermore, over 2 billion people worldwide are currently affected by micronutrient deficiencies, and crop concentrations of essential minerals are declining. In summary, fertilizers from livestock waste have the potential to improve wheat and grass concentrations of essential elements while maintaining yields. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Other than the named Elemental Digest Systems authors, the funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Phosphorus P is essential for life, and is a key limiter of crop yields unless regular applications of fertilizer are used. Currently, much of the P fertilizer used worldwide is derived from rock phosphate ore, but this is both finite, and geographically concentrated in areas such as Morocco and the Western Sahara [ 1 ]. Furthermore, rock phosphate can be high in uranium U cadmium Cd , arsenic As , chromium Cr , Nickel Ni and lead Pb , toxic elements with no essentiality in plants, animals or people, and the European Commission are considering reducing permissible levels of U and Cd in fertilizers [ 2 ].
Time to end the false debate of organic vs. mineral fertilizer
Consequences are the negative effects on environment and human health and food safety. Organic agriculture has become a trend worldwide and is developing rapidly in the world. In Vietnam the certified organic farming area has expanded since Most Vietnamese certified organic products are exported to international markets.
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