Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production , also known by its opponents as factory farming ,  is a type of intensive agriculture , specifically an approach to animal husbandry designed to maximize production, while minimizing costs. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, risks and ethics of intensive animal farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare ; health risks and the environmental impact e. Intensive animal farming is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture , and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances. Innovations from the late 19th century generally parallel developments in mass production in other industries in the latter part of the Industrial Revolution.
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- New Report: Major disruption in food and agriculture in next decade
- Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects
- Intensive animal farming
- Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research
- New Report: Major disruption in food and agriculture in next decade
- Meat and Dairy Production
- Animal production
- Agricultural production - livestock and meat
New Report: Major disruption in food and agriculture in next decadeVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Agriculture: Minnesota Livestock Farmers, Beef Production
Feeding the world in a sustainable way is one of our most pressing challenges in the coming decades. Meat plays a pivotal role in this.
Meat is an important source of nutrition for many people around the world. Global demand for meat is growing: over the past 50 years, meat production has more than quadrupled. The world now produces more than million tonnes each year. But the production of meat has large environmental impacts — increasing greenhouse gas emissions , agricultural land and freshwater use. Seafood production — fish and seafood is another key source of protein and nutrition for populations across the world.
How much fish do people eat, and what are the environmental impacts? Diet compositions — varied diets are essential for good health and nutrition. But the quality and diversity of diets varies significantly across the world. What do people eat? Micronutrient deficiency — poor dietary diversity means many people lack the essential vitamins and minerals they need for good health. How common is micronutrient deficiency and who is most at risk?
In this entry we look in detail at land use across the world. Global meat production has increased rapidly over the past 50 years — as we see, total production has more than quadrupled since The chart shows global meat production by region, measured in tonnes.
Regionally, Asia is the largest meat producer, accounting for around percent of total meat production. This regional distribution has changed significantly in recent decades. In , Europe and North America were the dominant meat producers, accounting for 42 and 25 percent, respectively. In , Asia produced only 12 percent. Production increases in Asia, however, have been staggering: meat production has increased fold since Absolute increases in production in other regions have also been substantial, with output in all regions with exception to the Caribbean which approximately tripled growing more than 5-fold over this period.
However, the distribution of meat types varies significantly across the world; in some countries, other meat types such as wild game, horse, and duck can account for a significant share of total production. Although production of all major meat types have been increasing in absolute terms, in relative terms the share of global meat types have changed significantly over the last 50 years.
In , poultry meat accounted for only 12 percent of global meat production; by its share has approximately tripled to around 35 percent. In comparison, beef and buffalo meat as a share of total meat production has nearly halved, now accounting for around 22 percent. In the chart we see the global production of cattle beef and buffalo meat. Globally, cattle meat production has more than doubled since — increasing from 28 million tonnes per year to 68 million tonnes in Global production of poultry meat has increased rapidly over the last 50 years, growing more than fold between Global trends in poultry production are shown in the chart.
China and Brazil are also large poultry producers at 18 and 13 million tonnes, respectively. Collectively, Europe is also a major poultry producer with an ouput in of approximately 19 million tonnes — just below output of the United States.
China dominates global output, producing just short of half of total pigmeat in Increases in Chinese pigmeat production have been rapid, growing around fold from 1. Global population has underwent rapid growth , especially in the second half of the 20th century; we may therefore also expect the rapid growth in total meat production as explored in the sections above.
But how has meat consumption changed on a per capita basis? In the chart we see a global map of per capita meat excluding seafood and fish consumption, measured in kilograms per person per year. As a global average, per capita meat consumption has increased approximately 20 kilograms since ; the average person consumed around 43 kilograms of meat in This increase in per capita meat trends means total meat production has been growing at a much faster than the rate of population growth.
The direction and rate of change across countries has highly variable. Growth in per capita meat consumption has been most marked in countries who have underwent a strong economic transition — per capita consumption in China has grown approximately fold since ; rates in Brazil have nearly quadrupled. The major exception to this pattern has been India: dominant lactovegetarian preferences mean per capita meat consumption in was almost exactly the same as in at less than 4 kilograms per person.
Meat consumption is highest across high-income countries with the largest meat-eaters in Australia, consuming around kilograms per person in However, changes in consumption in high-income countries have been much slower — with most stagnating or even decreasing over the last 50 years. Consumption trends across Africa are varied; some countries consume as low as 10 kilograms per person, around half of the continental average.
Higher-income nations such as South Africa consume between kilograms per person. One of the strongest determinants of how much meat people eat is how rich they are. This is at least true when we make cross-country comparisons. In the scatterplot we see the relationship between per capita meat supply on the y-axis and average GDP per capita on the x-axis. What we see is a strong positive relationship: the richer a country is, the more meat the average person typically eats.
Overall, countries tend to shift upwards and to the right: getting richer and eating more meat. What preferences do we have in terms of the types of meat we eat? Consumption trends vary significantly across the world.
In China, pigmeat accounts for around two-thirds of per capita meat consumption. In Argentina, beef and buffalo meat dominates, accounting for more than half of consumption. Whilst other meat types such as wild game, horse, and rabbit meat account for a very small fraction of meat consumption at the global level, around one-quarter of meat in Gabon comes from such sources this has declined from around 70 percent in The visualization details the total number of livestock animals slaughtered for meat in the given year.
This is shown across various types of livestock. Here these figures represent the total number slaughtered for meat production which does not include those use primarily for dairy or egg production which are not eventually used for meat. In , an estimated 62 billion chickens; 1. This is not to be confused with figures above which represent the total number of livestock animals slaughtered or used for meat in any given year.
You can find data and research on fish and seafood production and consumption across the world in our entry here. This is measured in mass quantities — such as tonnes or kilograms. These sheets account for losses and allocations in the food system, including imports, exports, stock variations, seed, animal feed, other industrial uses , and food losses.
To derive the average per capita food supply, this total figure is divided by the population size. This figure can be considered to be the average level of food intake however it does not account for food wastage at the consumer level i. Feed conversion ratio FCR is used to measure the mass quantity of feed required to produce one kilogram of animal product e. For example, on average, we have to feed cattle 25 kilograms of feed to produce one kilogram of beef or buffalo meat — this would give us an FCR value of 0.
The same calculation process applies for energy conversion efficiency using caloric inputs and outputs. Environmental footprints, such as those defined as land use requirements or greenhouse gas emissions per unit mass, protein or calorie of food products are calculated using a process called life-cycle analysis LCA.
LCA methods are used to try to fully capture all environmental impacts across the value chain, and can include those up and downstream of production. This includes food chain inputs such as fertilizer production and application, seed production, energy use on-farm, feed production, manure production if used as fertilizer , manure management, farm infrastructure construction.
Life-cycle analyses LCAs attempt to fully quantity all such inputs necessary for the production of a food production. Summary The world now produces more than four times the quantity of meat as it did fifty years ago.
In , production was around million tonnes. Pigmeat is the most popular meat globally, but the production of poultry is increasing most rapidly. Tens of billions of chickens; billions of pigs; and hundreds of millions of sheep, goats and cattle are slaughtered each year for meat. The average person in the world consumed around 43 kilograms of meat in This ranges from over kg in the US and Australia to only 5kg in India.
Meat consumption increases as the world is getting richer. The world now produces around million tonnes of milk each year — more than double the amount fifty years ago. Richer countries tend to consume more milk per person. The amount of meat produced for a given animal varies significantly across the world based on production systems. Livestock production has large environmental impacts on greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use.
Beef and lamb have much larger environmental impact than pigmeat and poultry. Meat production by region. Click to open interactive version. In the chart we see how meat production has changed by livestock type since Beef and buffalo cattle meat production. Poultry production. Pigmeat production. Since , global pigmeat production has grown fold to million tonnes in Global livestock numbers over the long-term.
Number of cattle. Number of poultry birds. Number of pigs. Seafood production You can find data and research on fish and seafood production and consumption across the world in our entry here. Cattle meat per animal. Poultry meat per animal.
James R. Gillespie, the original author of this text, had extensive training and experience in the field of livestock production and agricultural education. Gillespie taught agricultural education at the high school and adult education levels. Gillespie passed away in Frank B.
Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects
The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains.
Intensive animal farming
Gillespie , Frank Flanders Cengage Learning , Having undergone extensive updates, Modern Livestock and Poultry Production, 8th Edition includes current issues in animal agriculture including, biosecurity, animal ID, and vertical integration, while still incorporating vital agriscience and production information, including real-life applications, required for high school students success in the field. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version. Gillespie, the original author of this text, had extensive training and experience in the field of livestock production and agricultural education. Gillespie taught agricultural education at the high school and adult education levels.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Poultry Production from Start to Finish
Feeding the world in a sustainable way is one of our most pressing challenges in the coming decades. Meat plays a pivotal role in this. Meat is an important source of nutrition for many people around the world. Global demand for meat is growing: over the past 50 years, meat production has more than quadrupled. The world now produces more than million tonnes each year. But the production of meat has large environmental impacts — increasing greenhouse gas emissions , agricultural land and freshwater use. Seafood production — fish and seafood is another key source of protein and nutrition for populations across the world. How much fish do people eat, and what are the environmental impacts? Diet compositions — varied diets are essential for good health and nutrition. But the quality and diversity of diets varies significantly across the world.
Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research
All the contents of www. The Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format. As the project develops, new journal titles are being added in the library collection. The objective of the site is to implement an electronic virtual library, providing full access to a collection of serial titles, a collection of issues from individual serial titles, as well as to the full text of articles.
Federal government websites always use a. Rangelands provide the principal source of forage for the cattle and sheep operations on thousands of American farms and ranches. As human populations increase and demand for food and energy expands, the need for forage and the other range resources will increase. The United States is the world's largest beef producer and second largest beef exporter, but significant imports of lower-valued processing beef also make it the world's largest beef importer. Milk has a farm value of production second only to beef among livestock industries. Dairy farms, which are overwhelmingly family-owned and managed, are generally members of producer cooperatives. Dairy products range from cheese, fluid milks, yogurt, butter, and ice cream to dry or condensed milk and whey products, which are main ingredients in processed foods. Poultry and egg production is expected to expand in the coming years to meet higher domestic and foreign demand.
New Report: Major disruption in food and agriculture in next decade
It presents information on livestock and meat production in the European Union EU. However, the majority of livestock were held in just a few large Member States. One fifth The pig population is relatively cyclical. The population in was back up to that of after fluctuating at lower levels in the intervening years see Figure 1. Between and , the EU population of bovine animals grew steadily, then stabilised, and fell in The population of sheep fell relatively steadily between and , before stabilising and rebounding slightly. However, the population shrank again in
Meat and Dairy Production
Livestock production is the world's largest user of land, either directly through grazing or indirectly through consumption of fodder and feedgrains. Globally, livestock production currently accounts for some 40 percent of the gross value of agricultural production. In industrial countries this share is more than half. In developing countries, where it accounts for one-third, its share is rising quickly; livestock production is increasing rapidly as a result of growth in population and incomes and changes in lifestyles and dietary habits. Growth in the livestock sector has consistently exceeded that of the crop sector. The total demand for animal products in developing countries is expected to more than double by By contrast, demand for animal products in the industrial world has been growing at low rates, and livestock production in this group of countries is expected to grow only slowly over the projection period see Table 5. Satisfying increasing and changing demands for animal food products, while at the same time sustaining the natural resource base soil, water, air and biodiversity , is one of the major challenges facing world agriculture today. Global agriculture as a whole will be increasingly driven by trends in the livestock subsector, many of which are already apparent:. Meeting these challenges raises crucial global and national public policy issues that must be addressed.
The livestock sector is today at the epicentre of public debates in Europe and beyond. These debates have become dominated by interest groups who only want to spread myths and radical views about livestock farming. Ever increasing on social media and in the press, these myths and opinions end up portraying a picture that is in stark contrast with the reality experienced and lived every day by thousands of European farmers and professionals working with them on the ground.
Agricultural production - livestock and meat
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