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Glossary Of Technical TermsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Microchips are made
That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers. In , Bell Telephone Laboratories completes this calculator, designed by scientist George Stibitz.
Stibitz stunned the group by performing calculations remotely on the CNC located in New York City using a Teletype terminal connected via to New York over special telephone lines. This is likely the first example of remote access computing. The Z3, an early computer built by German engineer Konrad Zuse working in complete isolation from developments elsewhere, uses 2, relays, performs floating point binary arithmetic, and has a bit word length.
The Z3 was used for aerodynamic calculations but was destroyed in a bombing raid on Berlin in late Zuse later supervised a reconstruction of the Z3 in the s, which is currently on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. Hundreds of allied bombes were built in order to determine the daily rotor start positions of Enigma cipher machines, which in turn allowed the Allies to decrypt German messages.
The basic idea for bombes came from Polish code-breaker Marian Rejewski's "Bomba. After successfully demonstrating a proof-of-concept prototype in , Professor John Vincent Atanasoff receives funds to build a full-scale machine at Iowa State College now University. The machine was designed and built by Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry between and The legal result was a landmark: Atanasoff was declared the originator of several basic computer ideas, but the computer as a concept was declared un-patentable and thus freely open to all.
The replica is currently on display at the Computer History Museum. The US Army asked Bell Laboratories to design a machine to assist in testing its M-9 gun director, a type of analog computer that aims large guns to their targets. Mathematician George Stibitz recommends using a relay-based calculator for the project. The Relay Interpolator used relays, and since it was programmable by paper tape, was used for other applications following the war.
A total of ten Colossi were delivered, each using as many as 2, vacuum tubes. A series of pulleys transported continuous rolls of punched paper tape containing possible solutions to a particular code. Colossus reduced the time to break Lorenz messages from weeks to hours. Most historians believe that the use of Colossus machines significantly shortened the war by providing evidence of enemy intentions and beliefs. The Mark 1 produced mathematical tables but was soon superseded by electronic stored-program computers.
In a widely circulated paper, mathematician John von Neumann outlines the architecture of a stored-program computer, including electronic storage of programming information and data -- which eliminates the need for more clumsy methods of programming such as plugboards, punched cards and paper. Hungarian-born von Neumann demonstrated prodigious expertise in hydrodynamics, ballistics, meteorology, game theory, statistics, and the use of mechanical devices for computation.
Under the leadership of MIT's Gordon Brown and Jay Forrester, the team first built a small analog simulator, but found it inaccurate and inflexible. News of the groundbreaking electronic ENIAC computer that same year inspired the group to change course and attempt a digital solution, whereby flight variables could be rapidly programmed in software. Completed in , Whirlwind remains one of the most important computer projects in the history of computing. Because of its electronic, as opposed to electromechanical, technology, it is over 1, times faster than any previous computer.
ENIAC used panel-to-panel wiring and switches for programming, occupied more than 1, square feet, used about 18, vacuum tubes and weighed 30 tons. It was believed that ENIAC had done more calculation over the ten years it was in operation than all of humanity had until that time.
Their first program, consisting of seventeen instructions and written by Kilburn, ran on June 21st, This was the first program in history to run on a digital, electronic, stored-program computer. These tables were later confirmed by using more modern computers for the actual flights. The SSEC was one of the last of the generation of 'super calculators' to be built using electromechanical technology.
It was transferred to the Department of Physics at the University of Melbourne in and remained in service until The first practical stored-program computer to provide a regular computing service, EDSAC is built at Cambridge University using vacuum tubes and mercury delay lines for memory. Wilkes' ideas grew out of the Moore School lectures he had attended three years earlier. This type of computer is useful in performing many of the mathematical equations scientists and engineers encounter in their work.
It was originally created for a nuclear missile design project in by a team led by Fred Steele. It used 53 vacuum tubes and hundreds of germanium diodes, with a magnetic drum for memory. Tracks on the drum did the mathematical integration.
The Manchester Mark I used more than 1, vacuum tubes and occupied an area the size of a medium room. The , designed by ERA but built by Remington-Rand, was intended for high-speed computing and stored 1 million bits on its magnetic drum, one of the earliest magnetic storage devices and a technology which ERA had done much to perfect in its own laboratories. The design packed vacuum tubes into a relatively compact 12 square feet.
The hobbyist magazine Radio Electronics publishes Edmund Berkeley's design for the Simon 1 relay computer from to Let us call it Simon, because of its predecessor, Simple Simon Simon is so simple and so small in fact that it could be built to fill up less space than a grocery-store box; about four cubic feet. It was built in Washington DC as a test-bed for evaluating components and systems as well as for setting computer standards.
It was also one of the first computers to use all-diode logic, a technology more reliable than vacuum tubes. SWAC was used to solve problems in numerical analysis, including developing climate models and discovering five previously unknown Mersenne prime numbers. A British government contract spurred its initial development but a change in government led to loss of funding and the second and only other Mark I was sold at a major loss to the University of Toronto, where it was re-christened FERUT.
The Univac 1 is the first commercial computer to attract widespread public attention. One biblical scholar even used a Univac 1 to compile a concordance to the King James version of the Bible. After the success of the first LEO, Lyons went into business manufacturing computers to meet the growing need for data processing systems in business.
The Institute of Advanced Study IAS computer is a multi-year research project conducted under the overall supervision of world-famous mathematician John von Neumann. The IAS computer was designed for scientific calculations and it performed essential work for the US atomic weapons program. The bit machine used 92 point-contact transistors and diodes. During three years of production, IBM sells 19 s to research laboratories, aircraft companies, and the federal government.
Programmer Arthur Samuels used the to write the first computer program designed to play checkers. It was named after John von Neumann, a world famous mathematician and computer pioneer of the day.
Johnniac was used for scientific and engineering calculations. It was also repeatedly expanded and improved throughout its year lifespan. Many innovative programs were created for Johnniac, including the time-sharing system JOSS that allowed many users to simultaneously access the machine.
IBM establishes the as its first mass-produced computer, with the company selling in just one year. The Model was also highly popular in universities, where a generation of students first learned programming. Over 30 were completed, including one delivered to Australia. Typically, computer users of the time fed their programs into a computer using punched cards or paper tape. Doug Ross wrote a memo advocating direct access in February.
Ross contended that a Flexowriter -- an electrically-controlled typewriter -- connected to an MIT computer could function as a keyboard input device due to its low cost and flexibility. An experiment conducted five months later on the MIT Whirlwind computer confirmed how useful and convenient a keyboard input device could be. For easy replacement, designers placed each transistor circuit inside a "bottle," similar to a vacuum tube.
DEC is founded initially to make electronic modules for test, measurement, prototyping and control markets. Headquartered in Maynard, Massachusetts, Digital Equipment Corporation, took over 8, square foot leased space in a nineteenth century mill that once produced blankets and uniforms for soldiers who fought in the Civil War.
The mill is still in use today as an office park Clock Tower Place today. The is built on a 'building block' concept which allows it to be highly flexible for many different uses and could simultaneously control up to 63 tape drives—very useful for large databases of information.
For many business users, quick access to this huge storage capability outweighed its relatively slow processing speed. Customers included US military as well as industry. Its task was to detect incoming Soviet bombers and direct interceptor aircraft to destroy them. Operators directed actions by touching a light gun to the SAGE airspace display.
Its large scope intrigued early hackers at MIT, who wrote the first computerized video game, SpaceWar! More than 50 PDP-1s were sold. It was sold exclusively in Japan, but could process alphabetic and Japanese kana characters. Only about thirty NEACs were sold. It managed Japan's first on-line, real-time reservation system for Kinki Nippon Railways in The last one was decommissioned in At the top of the line was the Model , also known as "Stretch.
The mainframe, the first in the series, replaces earlier vacuum tube technology with smaller, more reliable transistors. By the mids, nearly half of all computers in the world were IBM s. Minuteman missiles use transistorized computers to continuously calculate their position in flight. The computer had to be rugged and fast, with advanced circuit design and reliable packaging able to withstand the forces of a missile launch. When the Minuteman I was decommissioned, some universities received these computers for use by students.
The US Navy Tactical Data System uses computers to integrate and display shipboard radar, sonar and communications data. This real-time information system began operating in the early s. System control was provided through the Atlas Supervisor, which some consider to be the first true operating system. The Control Data Corporation CDC performs up to 3 million instructions per second —three times faster than that of its closest competitor, the IBM supercomputer.
The retained the distinction of being the fastest computer in the world until surpassed by its successor, the CDC , in Instead of designing a custom controller, two young engineers from Digital Equipment Corporation DEC -- Gordon Bell and Edson de Castro -- do something unusual: they develop a small, general purpose computer and program it to do the job.
A later version of that machine became the PDP-8, the first commercially successful minicomputer. Because of its speed, small size, and reasonable cost, the PDP-8 was sold by the thousands to manufacturing plants, small businesses, and scientific laboratories around the world.
Read the white paper. Product Bulletin. Devices are usually spread out over a large geographic region, such as a pipeline, and require remote access in order to operate. Deleted profile. Our complete suite of services includes computer systems, networking systems, control systems, databases and software. Sensors are installed at various locations spread across the earth for various functions.
Staff Writer. CNC machining is a term commonly used in manufacturing and industrial applications, but exactly what does the acronym CNC stand for and what is a CNC machine? The term CNC stands for 'computer numerical control', and the CNC machining definition is that it is a subtractive manufacturing process which typically employs computerized controls and machine tools to remove layers of material from a stock piece—known as the blank or workpiece—and produces a custom-designed part. This process is suitable for a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics , wood, glass , foam, and composites, and finds application in a variety of industries, such as large CNC machining and CNC machining aerospace parts. When speaking in terms of the machine itself, the CNC machine definition is that it represents the actual programmable machine that is capable of autonomously performing the operations of CNC machining. Subtractive manufacturing processes, such as CNC machining, are often presented in contrast to additive manufacturing processes , such as 3D printing, or formative manufacturing processes, such as liquid injection molding.
Glossary of Computer Related Terms
Today, the acquisition and output of process signals via sensors and actuators can take place in a variety of ways: centrally or decentrally, inside or outside switch cabinets, with or without connected drive technology, etc. Process control technology from Siemens paves the way for plant-wide digitization. A solid automation platform is the perfect basis for investment protection. Standards are the prerequisite for compatibility and promote broad acceptance in various areas of the process industry. Learn more. Enclosed space in a plant is a scarce commodity. And expensive.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Evolution of Computing (Vacuum Tube to Transistor to Integrated Circuit) [Documentary]
Monitor and control electronic computer and peripheral electronic data processing equipment to process business, scientific, engineering, and other data according to operating instructions. Monitor and respond to operating and error messages. May enter commands at a computer terminal and set controls on computer and peripheral devices. Find occupations related to multiple tasks. Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings. Find occupations related to multiple detailed work activities. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics wage data and employment projections. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement. Skip navigation.
Glossary of Print Terms
Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the emerging problems in developed and developing countries worldwide. It comprises of a multitude of components with valuable materials, some containing toxic substances, that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment. Previous studies show that India has generated 0. Coupled with lack of appropriate infrastructural facilities and procedures for its disposal and recycling have posed significant importance for e-waste management in India.
The PRM software centrally manages large amounts of status and maintenance information from automation assets as well as production assets. PRM has various maintenance support functions, including online functions for monitoring and diagnosing devices and equipment. Damage or failure of plant equipment can have a significant impact on operation of the plant as a whole. Yokogawa offers equipment maintenance solutions that provide both reliability and efficiency. Yokogawa is a trusted provider of systems that keep the plant online, as well as maintenance solutions that allow operations to stay online while achieving reliability and efficiency gains. Malfunctions of plant equipment and devices cause abnormalities and instability to manufacturing workflows, and in turn add to the time it takes to identify the cause and restore the system. As a result, overall production efficiency goes down. Anticipating equipment malfunctions before they occur and monitoring plant processes for prevention of failures and hot-swapping of equipment with limited impact to operations. Prevent trouble by control valve diagnosis. The control valve is one of the device which are the most important in a plant. Sudden trouble may lead to a drop of the production quality and a plant stop.
Global Computer Hardware Market Forecast to 2022 - ResearchAndMarkets.com
A computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware , the operating system main software , and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls , factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design , and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices.
Plant Resource Manager (PRM)
Being able to talk the language of print is important for communication between printers and customers. Printing Industry Midwest provides this Glossary to help facilitate the process. Download a new 51 page PDF file of the entire print glossary listed on this website. AM Amplitude Modulation Screening — Traditional halftone screening, as opposed to FM Frequency Modulated screening, has dots of variable size with equal spacing between dot centers. Hybrid screen combines AM and FM screening. See halftone. Ablation — Method of imaging digital proofs or CTP plates by vaporizing small amounts of material, typically with a thermal laser. Also refers to the process of writing data to optical memory with a laser that burns holes into thin metal film. Abort — A computing command that instructs the system to abandon a program or ignore all data transferred after a given point. Access — 1 A noun indicating the ability to log on to the Internet or another network.
Each of our seven businesses has earned leading global market positions. Founded by the inventor of Ethernet technology, Bob Metcalfe, 3Com Corporation was incorporated in Since delivering the industry's first Ethernet network interface card NIC connecting computing devices 30 years ago, 3Com has seen the world embrace its vision of pervasive networking. Actel Corporation is a supplier of innovative programmable logic solutions, including field-programmable gate arrays FPGAs based on antifuse and flash technologies, high-performance intellectual property IP cores, software development tools and design services targeted for the high-speed communications, application-specific integrated circuit ASIC replacement and radiation-tolerant markets.
Accidents and natural disasters involving nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and the recent meltdown at Fukushima are rare, but their effects are devastating enough to warrant increased vigilance in addressing safety concerns. Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems for Safety and Security evaluates the risks inherent to nuclear power and methods of preventing accidents through computer control systems and other such emerging technologies. Students and scholars as well as operators and designers will find useful insight into the latest security technologies with the potential to make the future of nuclear energy clean, safe, and reliable. Head of the Department of aerospace control systems, Kharkiv Military University
Account Options Connexion. Martin H. Based on the results of a third survey, the engineering and programming characteristics of different electronic digital computing systems are given.
Hybrid Computer. The best way to understand what a hybrid smartwatch does is to see and play around with one. Dejan Vinkovic at the University of Split. After an accident cause him to lose his sight, Aaron Scates finds himself in a fight for survival.