Industrial hemp Cannabis sativa L. Since that publication was released in , Section of the Farm Bill has provided for pilot research projects in states where supporting legislation has been established. Hemp is broadly adapted, having essentially a global distribution Johnson, , but historically production has been concentrated in more northern temperate regions of the globe. This tolerance to low temperatures allows early plantings to reach a closed canopy early in the season, supporting rapid growth and minimizing weed competition. Hemp is sensitive to day length, setting seeds as day length shortens in the fall USDA, The stalk is largely used for fiber, although the core or hurd of the stalk also has commercial uses including bedding, insulation and building materials.
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Abstract Seeds; the genetic material used for sowing is responsible for the quality and quantity of crops, the food security of the region and, in some cases, the safety and health of the population. The main factors underlying agricultural production are: seeds, soils, and technologies used agricultural works, irrigation, chemical treatments against diseases and pests, etc.
The paper proposes a national assessment of the production of seed certificates obtained in The information obtained has led to interesting results on the development of this segment of the agricultural products market, helping farmers and the national business environment. Obtaining certified seeds represents the basis for modern agriculture. In many countries, seed production and trade are important elements in rural employment, generating important sources of income for farmers Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD, Investments in competitive agriculture, increased productivity and high yields can be optimized by giving farmers access to high-quality seed for the agricultural crops.
The quality of the seed material is one of the main factors that can affect the plant production potential. The quality of certified seeds used as a basis for the consumer production is given by the key attributes of the basic varieties genetic quality, physical and physiological characteristics, health status , by the environmental conditions in which crops are developed, the agricultural production practices, or even by the storage conditions.
Maintaining high seed quality is essential because the variety must meet the expectations of farmers and consumers. Seed growers should be aware of the technical requirements and regulations needed to develop a crop intended to obtain certified seeds and ensure that all operations are carried out strictly in accordance with specific and timely regulations.
The limited choice of improved seed varieties, the lack of sufficient seed quantity, mechanization problems, and high seed production costs are some of the main constraints that hinder the development of an efficient and effective seed production industry Bishaw, Niane, and Gan, Materials and Methods. The information on certified agricultural areas, the production of seeds and seedlings obtained and the number of producers authorised in Romania in the last 4 years were selected from the database of the National Inspection for Seed Quality INCS; an authorised national institution in the field, subordinated to the Direction General for Control and Inspections of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development — MARD.
The relevant national legislative provisions normative acts, rules and technical regulations in force have been consulted from the MARD database. Where necessary, data from the literature or from the Romanian profile journals, with appropriate quoting, were selected and used. The data collected were analysed, statistically processed and plotted.
Legislative Regulations. At the level of the international commerce, the quality of the seed traded is regulated mainly through the OECD Seed Schemes, applicable to the certification of the seed lots OECD, FAO has a series of attributions on the quality of the seeds, assisting a number of countries in developing their national seed strategy and legislation by improving their technical expertise, strengthening their capacities and facilitating the process of formulating and negotiating agricultural policies FAO, Thus, the harmonisation of the legislations of the Member States is currently one of the main concerns of the organization; FAO is supporting some economic cooperation organizations in developing cooperation and in harmonising public or private regulations on seeds, which currently hinder the international trade.
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, entered into during the Thirty-First Session of the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations November 3, , aims at the conservation and sustainable use of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits deriving from the use thereof, in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Safety FAO, At the European level, a particular attention is paid to seed quality standards; the European Commission is adopting specific marketing regulations and rules on the conservation of the genetic background and of the variety of plants.
According to the review of EU legislation on the marketing of seed and propagating material SPPM , 12 basic acts are applied in the field, most of them from the s and s.
Taking into account the new requirements on food safety, traceability, new technologies and the increased importance of environmental issues or the EU enlargement, the European Commission has proposed to modernise the European legislative system and adapt it to the new market-specific requirements European Commission, The process included the public consultation May and the elaboration of a regulation proposing the rescission and replacement of 12 directives that are no longer adapted to the current needs of the community the European Parliament and the Council of Europe, At the national level, the regulations on the functioning of the seed and propagating material market are elaborated by MADR, the vast majority was harmonised with the European legislation in the field.
The complete list of the existing or repealed legislative regulations is presented on the site of the profile institution National Inspection for Seed Quality, a. The International background on the seeds and seedlings market. Worldwide, there are a number of international organisations, conventions and treaties that regulate the seed and seedlings market, from access to seed material to the delivery of quality seed to growers.
In conjunction, they provide an international framework for regulating the seed and certified seedlings market in order to monitor the interests of both producers and consumers. OECD has set up the OECD Seed Schemes, updated on a regular basis, which are recognised and applied worldwide for the certification of seed traded on the international market.
The objective of the OECD Schemes for Certification of Seed varieties is to encourage the constant use of high quality seed ascertained for the participating countries. The schemes authorise the use of labels and certificates for seeds produced and processed for international trade, complying with the agreed principles OECD, ISTA develops internationally recognised standards for seed sampling and testing, accredits laboratories, promotes research, provides international seed certification and training and disseminates knowledge in the field of seed science and technology.
The Convention was adopted in Paris in and revised in , and The mission of UPOV is to provide and promote an effective plant variety system in order to encourage the development of new plant varieties, for the benefit of the whole society. Applicants have at their disposal the Plant Variety Database, the Genie Database and the Plant Variety Protection Data and Statistics PVP databases containing the information provided by the competent authorities of 55 Union members and an intergovernmental organisation.
ISF, established in , is a non-profit non-governmental organization representing the interests of over 1, international seed companies spread throughout the globe.
The Seed Statistics database provides information on international seed transactions conducted internationally ISF, The European Union focuses on the traditional production, with an increasing interest in agro-food products of certified origin obtained in certain well-defined geographic areas Stanciu, The EU regulates the marketing of the reproductive material of plants of the agricultural, plant, forest, fruit, ornamental and vine species, ensuring the compliance with the European criteria for health and quality.
The Commission shall establish the rules in cooperation with the national experts of the respective permanent committees.
The European legislation applies to important plant and vegetable species for the internal market, focusing on the registration of varieties and planting material, and on the certification or inspection of pre-commercial seed lots and propagating material, respectively European Commission, Seeds from the third countries must meet the equivalence criteria and those states that guarantee that they meet these criteria can be listed as acceptable to export to the European market.
Under certain conditions, strictly specified by European organisations, such as reduced seed germination in the domestic production, the European Member States may temporarily market seed lots which do not fully meet the Community criteria. The European database has two sections: Plant variety database, comprising agricultural species, from potatoes to beans and beets, approved at the Community level and Vegetables, which includes 37 vegetable varieties, with many varieties of crop European Commission, The International Market.
The global exports of seeds reached a global quantity of 3,, tonnes in and a value of over USD 10 billion Table 1. Although the import volume exceeded exports by 2, tons, the value of the international transactions was positive, with a surplus of USD million. Source: the authors, by using ISF Data The most important transactions, covering over Compared to this, the vegetable crops cover only 2.
Compared to , in there was a decrease in global seed transactions on the international market, both in terms of quantity and value Figure 1. Decreases were recorded in two of the three categories of seeds, the field crops is the only one with a positive evolution in the transactions on the international market. According to the OECD , the quality of the seeds can only be ensured by applying a combination of key technical procedures and regulatory measures Figure 2.
The quality assurance system which establishes administrative regulations and technical procedures has a supervisory role for the proper functioning and implementation of the program and for the application of regulatory measures to maintain the quality of the seeds produced. The national production of certified seeds. Thus, in the last period, the Romanian cultivators have been convinced that the high quality seeds with biological and genetic value, as well as the varietal purity, the high health and germination indices, bring a significant contribution to the increase of the agricultural production.
The certified seed preserves the full potential of the crop, has good sanitary quality and increases the agricultural productivity, through a superior germination power and a good adaptation to the cultural conditions in our country, also having an ecologically reduced environmental impact Agrimedia, Depending on the culture, farmers can earn times more if they use seed lots than in case of conventional crops.
If the farmer can decide each year to cultivate a particular species, depending on the weather conditions of the year in question, the seed company must plan seed production for a minimum of years. On average, using the seeds obtained from the production of a hectare of a batch of grain cereal seeds, 20 hectares of cereals for consumption can be sown.
Compared to grain cereals, in the case of maize, the production obtained per hectare of maize hybrid batch can be used to cultivate much larger areas, reaching up to hectares of commercial corn. The seed production in Romania is usually achieved on the basis of a contract between the seed company and the farmers, and the tendency of the international seed marketing companies to be marketed locally.
Since , the Romanian Seed Industry Alliance AISR , a private professional association, has aimed to promote and support the use of seed certified by farmers in order to increase agricultural production in Romania.
The National Institute for Agricultural Research and Development Fundulea is the most important agricultural research unit in Romania, with very good results obtained in agricultural research on cereals, technical and fodder plants and the possibility of their valorisation to Romanian farmers. In Romania, thousand hectares have been cultivated on average for obtaining certified seed in the last 4 years, the agricultural areas for this activity was between a minimum of thousand hectares, registered in , and a maximum of Cultivated areas and yields vary from region to region.
According to the data presented in Figure 4, it can be noticed that out of the 41 regions analysed, only 6 counties exceeded the limit of 80, hectares cultivated to obtain seedlings. There are also significant differences in the average productivity for the hectare. Although the crop species are different, a summary of productivity shows a national average of 4.
For a proper analysis, the production should be differentiated by counties, by plant category, given the different productive characteristics. Concentration of the seed market in Romania. The data on the cultivated areas and on the production of certified seeds in Romania provided by INCS b were statistically sorted and processed, with the calculation of the GSI index Formula 1.
The systematization of the data obtained is presented in table 2. The article proposes the evaluation of national agricultural products and propagating material in Romania, which is respectively an analysis of the international market. The article highlighted the main legislative regulations applicable at international and national level, as well as the bodies with special attributions in the field. As a Member State of the European Union, Romania has made progress in harmonizing national legislation with Community legislation on the production and marketing of certified seed.
The production or multiplication of certified seed implies a rigorous but very cost-effective activity for farmers. Research results are useful for farmers, but also for businesses, providing information on the seed market.
We are an equal opportunity employer and all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, age, citizenship, color, religion, sex, marital status, national origin, disability status, gender identity or expression, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law. At BASF , we create chemistry through the power of connected minds. By balancing economic success with environmental protection and social responsibility, we are building a more sustainable future through chemistry. We achieve this through our commitment to continuous improvement and operational excellence, which gives us the opportunity to set and deliver on ambitious, long-term goals. A unique total offer: you BASF.
Statement of Issues and Justification
The BPC Section f definition explicitly states that cannabis does not include industrial hemp. Division 24 of the California Food and Agricultural Code provides for the cultivation of industrial hemp by registered growers and established agricultural research institutions. Thus, hemp is no longer federally regulated as a controlled substance. The U.
Industrial Hemp Production
Raymond A. George has spent a lifetime in agronomy specialising in seed production. He then worked as an Advisory Officer for four years prior a lecturing and research appointment in crop production at the University of Bath where he supervised a team of research postgraduates studying seed production. He continues to write on seed production and associated topics.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Production of Mustard
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Samina Luthfa. The farmers are usually not organized as groups of specialized agricultural producers. Therefore, the producers of different agricultural products need stable markets to sustain production using more and more advanced technology. In organizing the agribusiness aiming at sustainable development of agriculture one has to plan for organized production of the commodity within an appropriately diversified production system Rahman, , ,
Seed Production and Storage
While the food chain is linear, it is long, with many processes and much transport between the seed and the plate. The poor of the rich world annually eat 50kg of chicken yet the majority have seen neither a live nor a dead fowl, just chicken nuggets. Only about plant species are grown commercially around the world. Globally crop production concentrates on twelve plant species of food plants with maize, rice, wheat and potato dominating.
Vegetable farming , growing of vegetable crops, primarily for use as human food. The term vegetable in its broadest sense refers to any kind of plant life or plant product; in the narrower sense, as used in this article, however, it refers to the fresh, edible portion of a herbaceous plant consumed in either raw or cooked form. The edible portion may be a root, such as rutabaga, beet , carrot , and sweet potato ; a tuber or storage stem, such as potato and taro; the stem, as in asparagus and kohlrabi; a bud, such as brussels sprouts ; a bulb, such as onion and garlic ; a petiole or leafstalk, such as celery and rhubarb ; a leaf, such as cabbage , lettuce , parsley , spinach , and chive ; an immature flower, such as cauliflower , broccoli , and artichoke ; a seed, such as pea and lima bean ; the immature fruit, such as eggplant , cucumber , and sweet corn maize ; or the mature fruit , such as tomato and pepper. The popular distinction between vegetable and fruit is difficult to uphold. In general, those plants or plant parts that are usually consumed with the main course of a meal are popularly regarded as vegetables, while those mainly used as desserts are considered fruits. This distinction is applied in this article. Thus, cucumber and tomato, botanically fruits, since they are the portion of the plant containing seeds, are commonly regarded as vegetables. This article treats the principles and practices of vegetable farming. For a discussion of the processing of vegetables, see the article food preservation. For information on nutritive value, see nutrition: Human nutrition and diet.
Aspects Regarding The Certified Seed Production In Romania
The wide range of industrial hemp products represent the greatest opportunity for American agricultural markets seen within the past fifty years. Using the latest advances in next-generation sequencing, bioinformatics, and biotechnology, hemp breeding programs are going to be instrumental for increasing both success and yields. This will also maximize the desirable attributes of the plants, while greatly increasing the profits of farmers who choose to grow hemp. The passage of the Farm Bill allows the American farmer to grow this cash crop within a much more relaxed legal framework. For the first time since — except during a brief window during WWII — farmers will be allowed to legally grow industrial hemp in most US states.
The Industrial Food Chain starts with Monsanto seeds
This book will review the current status of the agriculture and agri-food sector in regard to green processing and provide strategies that can be used by the sector to enhance the use of environmentally-friendly technologies for production, processing. The book will look at the full spectrum from farm to fork beginning with chapters on life cycle analysis and environmental impact assessment of different agri-food sectors. Technologies for waste treatment, "reducing, reusing, recycling", and better water and energy stewardship will be reviewed. In addition, the last section of the book will attempt to look at technologies and processes that reduce the generation of process-induced toxins e. AAFC provides information, research and technology, and policies and programs to achieve security of the food system, health of the environment, and innovation for growth. Boye leads a comprehensive research study in value-added processing of plant-based foods and food allergies. His areas of expertise include characterization and treatment of agri-food industrial effluents, biometric applications, system engineering, optimization of dehydration processes, and simulation and model building, including the design and building of an in vitro upper gastrointestinal tract model for nutritional studies.
California Industrial Hemp Program
Seeds naturally have a place in almost any endeavor having to do with agricultural development. Seeds of most food plants are small and, as such, are more easily transported and can be shipped longer distances than vegetative cuttings.
The global commercial seeds market size was estimated at USD The ability of commercial seeds to maximize crop yield whilst decreasing arable land is the significant factor driving the market growth. World population is anticipated to reach 10 billion by
Sesame Sesamum indicum L. Production records have been found dating back to B. C from the Tigris and Euphrates valleys. Many wild relatives are found in sub-Saharan Africa, with somewhat fewer also found in in India.