An electrical substrate material is presented comprising a thermosetting matrix of polybutadiene or polyisoprene and a co-curable second resin distinct from the first resin. The presence of a very high surface area particulate filler, preferably fumed silica, is also preferred, in that its presence results in a prepreg which has very little tackiness and can therefore be easily handled by operators. This low tackiness feature allows for the use of conventional automated layup processing, including foil cladding, using one or more known roll laminators. While the prepreg of this invention is tack-free enough to be handled relatively easily by hand, it is also tacky enough to be tacked to itself using a roll laminator e. The composition of this invention is particularly well suited for making electrical circuit substrates for microwave and digital circuits, typically in the form of the thermosetting composition being laminated onto one or both opposed surfaces to a metal conductive foil such as copper.
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- Client Industries
- Classifying plastics for import and export
- Hydrated Zinc Borates and Their Industrial Use
- US5672429A - Glass fiber insulation product - Google Patents
- The State of the Manufacturing Market
- NAICS Code 327993 – Mineral Wool Manufacturing
- US3832266A - Fiberglass laminate backed ceramic armor - Google Patents
JMRT provides an international medium for the publication of theoretical and experimental studies related to Metallurgy, Materials and Minerals research and technology. Materials - A2. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years.
SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact. Emerged in the middle of 20th century, composite materials are now one of the hotspot research topics in the modern technology.
Their promising characteristics make them suitable for enormous applications in industrial field such as aerospace, automotive, construction, sports, bio-medical and many others. These materials reveal remarkable structural and mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, resistance to chemicals, fire, corrosion and wear; being economical to manufacture.
Herein, an overview of composite materials, their characterization, classification and main advantages linked to physical and mechanical properties based on the recent studies are presented.
There, were presented the conventional manufacturing techniques of composite and their applications. It was highlighted the tremendous need to discovery new generation of composites that should incorporate the synthetic or natural materials by implementing new efficient manufacturing processes.
In the combination of matrix and reinforcement materials, the use of natural materials as constituent are compulsory in order to obtain a complete material degradable as environmentally friendly..
Poly 4-vinylpyridine-co-butyl methacrylate. The reason for rapid growth in usage and popularity for composite material in the field of engineering and material sciences is that they provide highly attractive combination of stiffness, toughness with light weight and corrosion resistance properties [1—4]. It is formation of two or more constituent materials having significantly different physical or chemical properties when combined together produces a material which possesses unique characteristics different from the constituent elements [5,6].
This enhancement makes composite material stands superior when compared to properties possessed by individual material. The concept of composite material is well illustrated by naturally occurring composite materials such as wood which is made up of fibrous chains of cellulose molecules in a matrix of organic polymer lignin [7,8]. Another example of natural composite is bones, composed of inorganic crystals called hydroxyapatite in a matrix of an organic material called collagen [9,10].
Further classification and type of composite materials based on their constituents are discussed in subsequent chapters. Unlike mixtures and solid solutions, the component of composite material do not blend or dissolve or lose their individual identities, instead they combine and synergistically contribute their traits to improve the properties of final product [11,12]. We can identify the characteristics of distinct components within the finished structure of composite when examined through a microscope .
Composite material is an amalgamation of a base material and a filler material. Base material is also called as matrix or a binder material as it surrounds and binds reinforcement of other material. Filler material or reinforcement is in the form of fragments, particles, and fibers, whiskers of natural or synthetic material [14—16].
Matrix is generally seen as relatively soft phase with specific physical and mechanical properties like ductility, formability and thermal conductivity . In the matrix reinforcement of materials with high strength, high stiffness, and low thermal expansions are embedded. Reinforcement phase in composites are therefore usually stronger and stiffer than the matrix as it carries the applied load to the material..
As the components of a composite material influences its properties, there is need of studying their classification and distinct properties thoroughly [18—20]. Since composite materials being employed for wide variety of applications in major fields, plenty of researchers have commenced developing various types of advance manufacturing techniques to increase productivity and efficiency [2,21,22]. This study proposes a better understanding towards how composites are categorized, their dominating properties, manufacturing techniques and potential applications to replace monolithic material..
Composite materials are classified according to the type of constituents used as shown in Fig. Classification of composite materials [23—25].. PMCs are composed of thermosetting plastics or thermoplastics matrix with dispersed reinforcement of carbon, glass, Kevlar, metal fibers [26—29].
Thermosets are more popular in use than thermoplastics due to their higher strength and resistance to high temperatures . Thermosets are prepared by mixing resin with hardener. Laminar structure is most widely used made by stacking and bonding thin layers of fiber and polymer until the desired thickness is obtained. PMCs are low cost composites due to easy handling techniques and simple fabrication methods [31,32].. CMC s are type of ceramics generally composed carbon, silicon carbide SiC , aluminum oxide Al 2 O 3 , silicon nitride SiN fibers embedded in ceramic matrix structure .
They are designed to overcome the drawback of monolithic ceramics, brittleness. Due to failure strain of the matrix is lower than the failure strain of the fibers; CMC s are referred as inverse composites. While in most of the polymer or metal matrix composites the phenomenon is exactly reverse.
Hence, under loading conditions it is the matrix which fails first, in order to prevent an early failure of the brittle fibers [34,35]. The fabrication of CMC s is done under specific processing techniques named as Gas-or liquid-phase routes.
In this process with the inner phase and the matrix are formed around the fibers from gaseous or liquid precursors [36,37].. Al based MMCs are most widely used in automobile and aerospace industries as reinforcement compounds such as SiC and Al 2 O 3 are mixed easily and effectively in molten Al to achieve desired properties like superior strength, improved stiffness, reduced density, controlled thermal expansion and improved wear resistance [39—41].
Due to high stiffness and abrasive structures there is high tool wear rate during machining process of MMCs therefore, usually unconventional machining techniques are used for MMC whereas no contact between tool and the material .. In fiber reinforced composite materials, dispersed phase of synthetic fibers such as glass, carbon, basalt and Kevlar in a composite structure revealed enhanced material properties such as high strength, stiffness and resistance to chemical, temperature and wear [43—47].
Currently, use of natural fiber reinforcement has gain tremendous popularity among researchers. Chemically treated natural fibers showing improved impact toughness and fatigue strength, moreover they are abundantly available at cheap rates, biodegradable hence eco-friendly and they have low density compared to synthetic fibers [48,49]..
When compared to fiber based composites, particle based composites is a less effective by means of strengthening. Particle reinforced composites find applications where high levels of wear resistance are required such as road surfaces. The hardness of cement is increased significantly by adding gravel as a reinforcing filler material. The advantage of particle reinforced composites is their low cost and ease of production and forming [50,51]. Concrete being a very good example, the aggregate of coarse rock or gravel is embedded in a matrix of cement.
Here aggregate provides stiffness and strength while cement acts as binder to hold the structure together . When high volume fraction of Iron based glassy particles as reinforcement used for MMCs it led to significant hardening of the Al matrix which results in a remarkable combination of high strength and plasticity ..
Sheet based composites generally termed as sheet molding composite SMC is a glass reinforced thermoset molding material with glass reinforcement which is usually compression molded [2,54,55]. It combines long glass fiber and unsaturated resins to produce a high strength molding composite. SMC s are applicable for large structural components as it shows high strength-to-weight ratio. It also offers additional benefits in part design such as fastening attachments and sub-assemblies. When compared to cylindrical shell panel, the buckling temperature is higher for spherical panel ..
Desired material properties can be achieved by combining two or more distinct materials at nano scale which result in the formation of a novel material called nano-composite. Generally, nano-composites are classified as unintercalated, intercalated, and exfoliated composites and these are prepared by using template synthesis, intercalation of polymer, in situ polymerization, and melt compounding [57,58].
Biomedical nano-composites are nano composites designed for biomedical applications such as dental treatments  , bone tissue engineering  , drug delivery in cancer treatments  and wound dressings [62,63].. Exceptional optical properties of composite materials are utilized efficiently by embedding transparent matrix material .
Demand of biodegradable, environmental friendly materials compels researchers to seek new opportunities developing bio-composites. Bio-composite made of sugar palm fibers reinforced in the sago starch matrix reveals enhancement in thermal stability, reduced water absorption tendency, increased tensile and tearing strength, and durability of a material [71—75].
Bio-nano-composites fabricated at nanoscale have showed potentiality in variety of applications such as tissue engineering scaffolds, bio-packaging etc. Antibacterial property of ginger fiber has been effectively utilized to sustain food packaging quality .. An enhanced impact resistance has observed in mechanical meta-materials with magnetic inclusions when compared to their non-magnetic counterparts. When magnitude of magnetic moment that associated with magnetic inclusions increased within the system, there is an improvement in impact resistance of the entire structure.
The magnetic inclusions within the system have the capability to minimize the negative effects of the collision from an external body. Therefore, It is concluded that the use of composite materials minimizes the damage caused by the automobile collision, also improves the efficiency of existing protective devices and thus these are expected to be useful in the case of a variety of applications ranging from military-related protective devices to automobile exterior body parts [84—87].
Recently developed fique fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite is replacing conventional aramid fabric plates which were used as armor for personal protections. When a ballistic test with high velocity 7. Also, being a natural fiber, it is environment friendly [88,89]. Carbon nanotubes CNTs and graphene materials possess very high strength and stiffness value makes them demanding for energy absorber applications. Such a tough and being lightweight composites, these are used for the fabrication of the upcoming body armors.
High-performance natural fibers, such as curaua fibers are new promising composite fiber available in ballistic systems .. The experimental results showed that thermal insulation properties are improved by using wool fibers as reinforcement in the cementitious matrix to obtain mortars and plasters for construction industry.
A wool fiber shows noticeable improvements in the thermal insulation of the resulting composites, regardless of their length.
Thermal resistivity of the samples filled with wool increases by increasing the fiber content [91,92]. Even at elevated temperatures, Polyether ether ketone PEEK composites showed more effectiveness to develop resilient Transfer Film Layer TFL , while on steel counterpart it is not uniform and it is temperature dependent as well.
Nature of TFL decides the coefficient of friction which is an important parameter while considering mechanical properties of a material. In case of composites mechanical properties like wear resistance, rigidity, hardness, deformation, breakage of polymeric chains retained even at high temperatures . Also, TGA results demonstrated that composite had high thermal degradation stability .. When compared to pure casted copper addition of SiC-graphite reinforcement in copper Cu increases the wear resistance of the copper.
It also provides a lubrication film on the surface. A fine SiC particle prevents the material from abrasion and plastic deformation . Initially in organic coatings, silicon nitride was used as anti-corrosive pigment. But to protect Q carbon steel an effective strategy by combining inorganic fillers and organosilanes proposed to enhance the dispersibility of silicon nitride in epoxy resin. The results showed that modified silicon nitride coating exhibits good anticorrosion performance ..
When compared to 14 FRP footbridges with the non- FRP foot bridges, the dynamic property shows that they are found to have 2. However, they seem to have a lower damping ratio than timber footbridges . When experimental vibration results are investigated it was confirmed the effect of graphene nano-platelets was beneficial on the damping ratio of high content epoxy nano-composites ..
Hybrid composite with sisal and kenaf fiber showed improvement in mechanical strength with increase in tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength. Sisal and kenaf fiber hybrid polyester composites showed its suitability for various electrical insulation applications. The dielectric constant E0 , dissipation factor tan d , and dielectric loss factor E00 of hybrid composites were observed 3. Lithium Iron Phosphate LiFePO4 batteries are currently replacing conventional lead acid batteries which shows application in the batteries of electric vehicles.
This invention pertains to underground storage tanks for containing liquid materials such as liquid fuels gasoline, methanol and ethanol, etc. More specifically, a double-walled underground storage tank, prepared by female molding fiberglass reinforced plastic resin materials is provided. The two walls of the storage tank are tied together to provide superior strength without additional thickness, and the annular material provides for flow between the walls, without the annular material itself being gas or fluid pervious. Tanks for the containment and dispensing of liquid materials, particularly liquid fuels such as gasoline and the like, are frequently buried a short distance underground. Thus, at a common gasoline filling station for surface vehicles, a plurality of tanks will be installed in a hole which is subsequently covered over at distances up to 6 feet or more below the surface.
Classifying plastics for import and export
In particular, the present invention provides a system for making densified fiber pellets by combining multiple segments of a chopped multi-fiber strand, wherein the segments of fiber strand are treated with a two-part sizing composition that reduces discoloration and otherwise imparts improved physical properties to composites formed from the pellets, such as improved strength under extreme hydrolysis conditions. Such pellets provide a convenient form for the storage and handling of chopped fibers used as reinforcing materials in composite structures. Chopped glass fiber strands are commonly used as reinforcement materials in thermoplastic articles. Typically, the glass fibers are formed by drawing molten glass into filaments through a bushing or orifice plate, applying a sizing composition containing lubricants, coupling agents and film-forming binder resins to the filaments, gathering the filaments into strands, chopping the glass fiber strands into segments of the desired length, and drying the sizing composition. These chopped fiber strand segments are thereafter mixed with a polymeric resin, and the mixture supplied to a compression- or injection- molding machine to be formed into glass fiber reinforced plastic articles. These pellets are then fed to the molding machine and formed into molded composite articles having a substantially homogeneous dispersion of the glass fiber strands throughout. Unfortunately, however, chopped glass fiber strands made via such processes are typically bulky and do not flow well.
Hydrated Zinc Borates and Their Industrial Use
What codes are similar to this classification that might be a more applicable code? The cross-reference guide below displays the codes for other similar industries. Please review to find the most applicable classification. The North American Industry Classification System contains multiple index entries that are each descriptive of the same code. The bulleted list below shows all applicable index entries Current and former that are associated with this classification. These index entries further elaborate on the scope of applicable industries that have already been defined at the top of this page.
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US5672429A - Glass fiber insulation product - Google Patents
This is a continuation of application Ser. This invention relates to wool materials of mineral fibers and, more specifically to insulation products of glass fibers. The invention also pertains to the manufacture of the insulation products of glass fibers. Small diameter glass fibers are useful in a variety of applications including acoustical or thermal insulation materials.
Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing alkalies and chlorine. Establishments primarily engaged in mining natural alkalies are classified in Mining, Industry Alkalies, not produced at mines Caustic potash Caustic soda Chlorine compressed or liquefied Potassium carbonate Potassium hydroxide Sal soda washing soda Soda ash not produced at mines Sodium bicarbonate not produced at mines Sodium carbonate soda ash not produced at mines Sodium hydroxide caustic soda Washing soda sal soda. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial gases including organic for sale in compressed, liquid, and solid forms. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fluorine and sulfur dioxide are classified in Industry ; those manufacturing household ammonia are classified in Industry ; those manufacturing other ammonia are classified in Industry ; those manufacturing chlorine are classified in Industry ; and those manufacturing fluorocarbon gases are classified in Industry Distributors of industrial gases and establishments primarily engaged in shipping liquid oxygen are classified in Wholesale Trade, Industry Acetylene Argon Carbon dioxide Dry ice solid carbon dioxide Gases, industrial: compressed, liquefied, or solid Helium Hydrogen Neon Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Oxygen, compressed and liquefied. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing inorganic pigments. Important products of this industry include black pigments, except carbon black, white pigments, and color pigments. Organic color pigments, except animal black and bone black, are classified in Industry , and those manufacturing carbon black are classified in Industry
The State of the Manufacturing Market
NAICS Code 327993 – Mineral Wool Manufacturing
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US3832266A - Fiberglass laminate backed ceramic armor - Google Patents
This invention relates to an improved high-impactstrength fiberglass laminate and more particularly to a fiberglass laminate which may be utilized in conjunction with a ceramic as a backing material. Good adhesion between the glass and plastic matrix is obtained by the utilization agents which react with or bond strongly to the plastic matrix. The coupling agent is designated as applied to the fabric as a chemical surface treatment in the form of a size if it is applied as the fibers are formed. A finish is reference to surface treatment applied after the fibers are fabricated into yarn or woven fabric.
Glass laminate aluminum reinforced epoxy GLARE is a fiber metal laminate FML composed of several very thin layers of metal usually aluminum interspersed with layers of S-2 glass-fiber pre-preg , bonded together with a matrix such as epoxy. The uni-directional pre-preg layers may be aligned in different directions to suit predicted stress conditions.
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He is a year veteran of the commercial and industrial insulation industry, during which time he held executive management positions at an accessory manufacturer and specialty insulation contractor. He currently serves as a full time consultant to the NIA www. A year ago, the industry was buzzing about how the availability of commercial and industrial insulation materials was taken for granted until two catastrophic fiberglass manufacturing facility fires in created a disruption in supply.