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Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residential buildings with a range of both natural and synthetic materials. The most widely used wall finish is gypsum board , a prefabricated form of traditional wet plaster.
Wet gypsum plaster is cast between paper facings to form large panels that are nailed to light timber or metal frameworks. The joints between the panels are filled with a hard-setting resin compound , giving a smooth seamless surface that has considerable fire resistance.
Gypsum board forms the substrate to which a number of other materials, including thin wood-veneered plywood and vinyl fabrics, can be applied with adhesives. In wet areas such as kitchens and bathrooms, water-resistant gypsum board is used, sometimes with the addition of adhesive-applied ceramic tile.
Doors in residential buildings are usually of the hollow-core type, with thin veneers of wood glued over a honeycomb paper core and solid wood edge strips; door frames are typically made of machined timber shapes.
Plastic laminates bonded to particleboard are extensively used for built-in cabinets and countertops. The most common floor finish is carpeting , most of which is now made of synthetic fibres, displacing the traditional wool and cotton. It can be easily maintained, and its soft visual and tactile texture, as well as its sound-absorbing qualities, make it attractive for residential use. Hardwoods —primarily oak, birch, and maple—are also used for floors, both in the traditional narrow planks nailed to plywood decks and as prefabricated parquet elements, which are applied with adhesives.
In wet or hard-use areas vinyl-composition tiles or ceramic tiles are used. Domestic water-supply systems for low-rise residential buildings have two sources, either municipal water-distribution systems or, where these are not available, wells that are drilled to underground aquifers which are free of contamination.
Water is drawn from the wells with small submersible electric pumps, which are lowered through the well casing to the intake. Underground exterior water-supply pipes are usually cast-iron with threaded connections to contain the pressures applied to the fluid, which is typically sufficient to raise it four stories. Within the building , copper tubing with soldered connections is used for distribution because of its corrosion resistance and ease of fabrication; in some areas plastic pipe is also used.
The domestic water supply is divided into cold and hot systems, the cold water being piped directly to the fixtures. Domestic water heaters that use solar radiation to heat water in coils exposed to the sun on a glass-covered black metal plate flat-plate solar collectors are found in areas where there is ample sunshine and relatively high energy costs. The hot water is then distributed from the heater to the fixtures in a recirculating loop pipe system, in which gravity and temperature differentials maintain a constant temperature in period of low demand.
The primary residential use of water is in the bathroom , which typically includes a bathtub of cast iron or pressed steel with a ceramic porcelain coating although fibre-glass-reinforced resin is also used , a ceramic lavatory, and a ceramic tank-type water closet.
The bath and lavatory are supplied with hot and cold water through faucets with lever or screw-type valve controls. The valve of the water closet supply is also lever-operated and relies on the gravity power of the water in the tank for its flushing action. Shower baths are also common, often incorporated into bathtub recesses or in a separate compartment finished with ceramic tile.
In some countries a bidet is included. Other widely used plumbing fixtures include kitchen sinks, usually of cast iron or pressed steel with a ceramic porcelain coating, or of stainless steel; automatic dishwashing machines; and automatic washing machines for laundry.
Kitchen sinks can be fitted with garbage disposals, which grind solid waste into a fluid slurry that is flushed out with wastewater. Where the possibility of back siphonage of wastewater into the water supply exists, a vacuum breaker must be provided at the supply to prevent this happening, but most domestic plumbing fixtures are designed to avoid this possibility.
Drainage systems to remove wastewater are made of cast-iron pipe with threaded joints or bell-and-spigot joints sealed with molten lead or with plastic pipe with solvent-welded joints. The waste pipe of every plumbing fixture is provided with a semicircular reverse curve, or trap, which remains constantly filled with water and prevents odours from the drainage system from escaping into occupied spaces.
Immediately downstream from each trap is an opening to a vent pipe system, which lets air into the drainage system and protects the water seals in the traps from removal by siphonage or back pressure. When wastewater leaves the building, it is drained through a backflow-prevention valve and into underground ceramic pipes. It then flows by gravity to either a private sewage treatment plant, such as septic tank and tile field, or to the public sewer system.
If the discharge level of the wastewater is below the level of the sewer, a sewage ejector pump is required to raise the wastewater to a higher level, where gravity carries it away. Atmosphere- control systems in low-rise residential buildings use natural gas , fuel oil , or electric resistance coils as central heat sources; usually the heat generated is distributed to the occupied spaces by a fluid medium, either air or water. Electric resistance coils are also used to heat living spaces directly with radiant energy.
Forced-air distribution moves the heat-bearing air through a treelike system of galvanized sheet-metal ducts of round or rectangular cross section; electric-powered fans provide a pressure differential to push the air from the heat source or furnace to the living spaces, where it is expelled from grills located in the walls or floors.
The negative pressure side of the fan is connected to another treelike system of return air ducts that extract air from living spaces through grills and bring it back to the furnace for reheating. Fresh outside air can be introduced into the system airstream from an exterior intake, and odour-laden interior air can be expelled through a vent, providing ventilation, usually at the rate of about one complete air change per hour.
To conserve energy, air-to-air heat exchangers can be used in the exhaust—intake process. The heated air is usually supplied in constant volume, and the ambient temperature is varied in response to a thermostat located in one room. Central humidity control is rarely provided in this building type. Another common heating system is the radiant hot-water type. The heat source is applied to a small boiler, in which water is heated and from which it is circulated by an electric pump in insulated copper pipes similar to a domestic hot-water system.
The pipes can be connected to cast-iron or finned tube steel radiators within the living spaces. The radiators are placed near the areas of greatest heat loss such as windows or outside walls where their radiant energy heats the surrounding air and creates a convection cycle within the room, producing a roughly uniform temperature within it.
The hot water can also be conducted through narrow pipes placed in a continuous looping pattern to create a large radiant surface; this pattern of pipes may be cast in a concrete floor slab or placed above a ceiling to heat the adjoining living space. Temperature control in hot-water systems uses a thermostat in the living space to adjust the pumped flow rate of the water to vary the heat supplied.
Radiant electric resistance heating systems use coils in baseboard units in the rooms, which create convection cycles similar to hot-water radiators, or resistance cables in continuous looped patterns embedded in plaster ceilings. Local temperature control can be much more precise with electric heating, because it is possible to install a thermostatically controlled rheostat to vary the energy output of relatively small sections of baseboard units or cable.
A type of space heating that is increasing in use in residential buildings is passive solar radiation. On sunny winter days, south-facing windows let in substantial amounts of energy, often enough to heat the entire building. Wood-burning fireplaces with chimneys are still widely provided in residential buildings, but their use is mostly for aesthetic effect. The cooling of atmospheres in low-rise residential buildings is often done locally with unit air conditioners , which penetrate the exterior wall of the space to be cooled; this permits the intake of fresh air when desired and the ejection of heat pumped from the space to the exterior air.
Less often, forced-air heating systems have cooling coils introduced into the airstream to provide a centrally cooled interior. A compressive cooling process is used, similar to that in a domestic refrigerator. A refrigerant , which is a liquid at room temperature, is pumped through a closed system of coiled copper tubes.
An electric pump maintains a low pressure in the cooling coils, and the liquid refrigerant passes through an expansion valve from a region of high pressure to the low-pressure coils. This change in pressure results in a phase change of the refrigerant; it turns from a liquid into a gas and absorbs heat in the process, just as water absorbs heat when it is boiled and converted into steam. The heat absorption of the liquid-to-gas transition cools air passing over the cooling coils.
The cooled air is circulated through the building by the forced-air system. When the low-pressure gaseous refrigerant leaves the cooling coils, it goes through the pump and is pressurized. The refrigerant travels through condensing coils, which are located outside the building; there the phase change is reversed as the gas turns to a high-pressure liquid and liberates heat to the exterior air passing over the condensing coils. The liquid refrigerant returns to the expansion valve to repeat the cooling cycle.
Heat pumps can also be run in reverse in the winter months to pump heat from the outside air into the building interior; they work best in mild climates with fairly warm winter temperatures. The use of heat pumps in cold climates poses many difficult technological problems. Interior atmospheres are also ventilated by operating windows, as well as by unintended leakage at all types of exterior openings. Bathrooms, kitchens, and laundries generate odours and heat and often have separate exhaust systems powered by electric fans that are operated intermittently as required.
Residential atmosphere quality is also protected by the smoke detector , which sounds an alarm to warn of possible danger when smoke reaches even a very low level in living spaces. Electrical systems in residential buildings are supplied from public utility power grids, starting from a step-down transformer near the building that reduces the high line voltage to a safer level.
An underground or overhead cable from the transformer leads to the building, where it is connected to a meter that records the energy used by the subscriber. Immediately beyond the meter is a fused main switch to protect the building against an accidental power surge from the grid.
The main service is then broken down into a number of circuits by a panelboard, each circuit having a fused switch. From the panelboard the wires of each circuit distribute the electricity to different areas of the building. The wires are usually copper, although aluminum is also used, and are covered with thermoplastic insulation. The wires must be contained in conduit , which is either metal or plastic tubing, to protect against damage and reduce the possibility of fire in the case of accidental overloading of the wires.
Conduits are usually concealed in finished spaces within the framing of partition walls or above ceilings and terminate in junction boxes flush with a wall surface. The junction boxes contain terminal devices such as the convenience outlet, control switches, or the connection point for built-in light fixtures. Residential lighting is provided primarily by movable incandescent fixtures plugged into convenience outlets, but there is often built-in lighting in kitchens, bathrooms, corridors, and closets, mostly of the incandescent type.
There is also some use of fluorescent lighting, particularly in built-in fixtures. Overall interior light levels in residential uses are low, about 20—40 footcandles.
Exterior lighting is used for entrances, walkways, and exterior living spaces. The power densities of dwelling units are fairly low and are declining because of the increased use of fluorescent lighting fixtures and improvement of efficiency in electrical appliances. The decline in power consumption enhances the prospect of the widespread appearance of dwellings—particularly detached houses—with their own independent electric power generation and storage systems, unconnected to public utility grids.
Photovoltaic cells, which convert sunlight directly into electricity, in combination with storage batteries can offer these residences a new kind of energy autonomy. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Interior finishes Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residential buildings with a range of both natural and synthetic materials.
Plumbing Domestic water-supply systems for low-rise residential buildings have two sources, either municipal water-distribution systems or, where these are not available, wells that are drilled to underground aquifers which are free of contamination.
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Brands : Maschinenmesser. Refine your search Locate the companies on a map. PRBRUSH is a Russian company specialising in the production of fashion accessories, particularly with regard to contract manufacturing. Our product range includes hair care products massage and vent Contact this company. Raw materials for production are mostly prepared by the company itself roundwood, lumber, crossband and peeled veneer, plywood, curved laminated wood parts, , furniture blanks , blockboards, furniture boards etc.
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Account Options Sign in. Agriculture-environmental and Consumer Protection Appropriations , Part 1. United States. Committee on Appropriations.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: small capacity/small budget semi-automatic osb production line making machine from waste veneer
Styrotech CNC has the ability and experience to undertake a wide range of precision cutting and machining projects. Pick-up is between 1. Our kids beds and furniture are sturdy and well crafted, hard wearing and safe. Features and Benefits. Comments are closed. Get the latest promotions, special offers and updates delivered straight to your mailbox. Unused items on your hands? Sell your unwanted items. These products have been used in the tough North American climate for 50 years and in New Zealand since Exterior Plywood.
Wooden Boards: Differences Between MDF, MDP, Plywood, and OSB
Menards Plywood. This will not only cause it to be stronger over all, but also prevent cutting the plywood through if it is used as a work table. Tigerton Lumber Company, located in Wisconsin - providing premium northern hardwood lumber for over years.
The potential use of wood residues for energy generation 6. In mechanical wood processing the greater part of the thermal energy requirements can be met from the available residues, in fact, the sawmilling industry has the potential to produce both a surplus of heat and electricity and therefore could support other energy deficient conversion processes in an integrated complex producing, for example, lumber, plywood and particleboard or, in the rural areas, to supplying energy for the needs of the surrounding community. Over the years many mills have regarded wood waste as a troublesome by-product of the sawmilling operation, resulting in its being disposed of as landfill or incinerated in Wigwam burners or the like. However, both have recently become contentious environmental issues and, combined with the rising costs of energy, mill owners have been forced to seriously consider the merits of using the residues as an alternative fuel source this has also coincided with the increase in demand for the residues as furnish for paper-pulp and panel board manufacture, due to the rising cost and increased competition for solid wood. Nowadays most wood processing plants being built in developed countries incorporate hog fuel burners in order to safeguard against certain and costly fossil fuel supply. However, little use is made of the energy potential of sawmilling residues in developing countries, this being partly due to the minimal use of kiln drying and the investment capital involved in the installation of the heat generating plant. Although the heat produced from wood residues is less than that from oil or gas, its cost compared to fossil fuels makes it an attractive source of readily available heat or heat and power. In spite of the growing competition for the residues for other uses, its projected increase in price over the coming years will undoubtedly be less than that expected for traditional fuels. Although the handling, processing and combustion of the residues may involve a higher capital outlay, considerable developments in new and improved technology and plant design are now rendering it an economically attractive fuel source. The most effective utilization of wood residues, particularly in the sawmilling and plywood industry, plays an important role in energy efficient production and it can often prove to be an important factor in determining whether a sawmill is to operate at a profit or loss, especially if lumber is manufactured from marginal logs.
For some years now, wood has received an increasing amount of attention in the construction industry. However, it is the versatility of wood that serves as the primary impetus for its widespread use. In the case of the manufacture of furniture, wall coverings, ceilings, and even floors, the use of boards is an economical and functional way of incorporating wood into buildings. There are several options for wooden boards on the market, and each uses a different manufacturing process involving fibers, particles, fragments, or sheets, resulting in specific uses. Next, we select the most commonly used wooden boards, including their characteristics and main uses:. Because the fibers are randomly oriented, the machine can cut them in any direction, delivering a smooth surface to the touch.
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Applicationctober8, ; Serial No. In the manufacture of plywood sheets, the edges of the plywood'sheets are trimmed as a final operation to bring the sheetsto size and to provide straight edges on the sheets. Thus the strips that are removed from the plywood sheets are waste material. In the manufacture of plywood the veneer sheets are placed on both sides of a core sheet and it is necessary that-the veneersheets overlap the core sheet at the edges toinsure bonding of the veneer sheetsthroughout the entire extent of the plyboard.
Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residential buildings with a range of both natural and synthetic materials. The most widely used wall finish is gypsum board , a prefabricated form of traditional wet plaster. Wet gypsum plaster is cast between paper facings to form large panels that are nailed to light timber or metal frameworks.
Горячий пар пробивался через люк подобно вулканическим газам, предшествующим извержению. Проклиная себя за то, что не забрала у Стратмора беретту, она пыталась вспомнить, где осталось оружие - у него или же в Третьем узле. Когда глаза Сьюзан немного привыкли к темноте, она посмотрела на дыру, зияющую в стеклянной стене.
Бринкерхофф покраснел до корней волос и повернулся к мониторам. Ему хотелось чем-то прикрыть эти картинки под потолком, но. Он был повсюду, постанывающий от удовольствия и жадно слизывающий мед с маленьких грудей Кармен Хуэрты.