Food production and processing in developing countries generate high levels of waste and byproducts, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. However, these biomaterials have ample potential for generating food additives which in turn will minimize malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries where it is produced. Many of these biomaterials are a source of valuable compounds such as proteins, lipids, starch, micronutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibers. Additionally, antinutritional factors present in some byproducts can be minimized through biotechnological processes for use as a food additive or in the formulation of balanced foods. In this context, the use of these biomaterials is a challenge and provides great opportunity to improve food security.
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Food fortificationVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Vitamins, Minerals and Protein and Fly Control in Cattle Nutrition
Baking Terminology Looking for words and phrases related to the baking process? Absorption The amount of water absorbed and retained, expressed as percentage, of flour mass, that is required to produce an optimum dough.
It is primarily a maturing agent but also has some bleaching action. Acid Salt A dry, granular white crystal that dissolves in water before acting as an acid. The acid salt reacts chemically with the bicarbonate to release CO2 gas.
The type of acid salt used in the baking powder can determine the rate of gas release. Acid Value It is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize free fatty acids present in 1 g of the fat, and is an indication of the extent of free fatty acids present in an oil or fat. Acidic pH of less than 7. Acid ingredients react with bases to form salts and water. They have a sour taste. A chemical compound that yields hydrogen ions when in solution. Active Oxygen Method A method for measuring the stability of fats and oils by bubbling air through the heated materials and measuring the formation of peroxides.
Additive An ingredient added to flour to improve its baking properties or shelf life. Aerate, Aeration To whip, sift or beat air between particles, as with flour, confectioners sugar, or sugar and butter. Aeration Fat The process of incorporation of minute air bubbles in hydrogenated fat; also known as creaming process.
Agave nectar An amber, caloric liquid sweetener, with a low glycemic index, that is made from the core of the succulent agave plant available in two distinct varieties: Light and Amber. Albumen A class of protein, present in egg, that can be dissolved in water and is coagulable by heat. Aleurone Layer A botanical term denoting the proteinaceous cellular layer which envelopes the endosperm and separates it from the bran or seed of the wheat kernel.
Alkaline pH greater than 7. Alkalis such as baking soda bicarbonate of soda neutralize acids and react with acidic ingredients as a leavener. Alkalis have an excess of hydroxyl ions when in solution. Alveograph A dough testing instrument that measures the resistance to deformation and extensibility of a clamped disc-shaped piece of dough, by forming a bubble, by means of air pressure applied from below the test piece at a constant temperature.
Amaranth flour Milled from amaranth seeds, it combines well with other flours for smooth-textured quick breads. It has an assertive flavor and especially complements savory breads or pastries. Its lack of gluten means it must be combined with wheat flour in yeast breads. Ammonium Bicarbonate A white powder which on heating vields ammonia gas, carbon dioxide gas and water vapour. It is used in biscuit manufacture as a chemical aerating agent.
It leaves no residue in the baked product and. Amylase An enzyme that, in the presence of water, converts large molecules of starch to sugar maltose units. Amylograph An instrument that measures the consistency or viscosity of a slurry of starchy flour and water as it is heated through a pre-determined cycle.
The viscosity is measured by the resistance that the slurry offers to a mixing paddle. It is used to measure the amylase activity of flours. Antioxidants Naturally-occuring substances or synthetic chemical compounds which can retard the development of oxidative rancidity in fats and fat-containing foodstuffs.
Sugar and lecithin are examples of natural antioxidants, while butylated hydroxy-anisole BHA , butylated hydroxy toluene BHT and dodecyl gallate are examples of chemical antioxidants. Antistaling Agents Substances such as sodium stearate, polyoxyethylene monostearate and glyceryl mono stearate GMS , that retard the staling of baked products. Artificial Sweetener Non-nutritive contain no nutrients , high-intensity sugar substitutes Artisan Skilled craftsman or trade; baker who produces bread or bakery goods using production methods that are part hand-made.
Often refers to European crusty breads or low-ratio cakes and desserts. Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C A naturally occuring vitamin that is used in the baking industry as an improving agent. Its overall effect on the physical properties of dough depend both on its oxidizing and reducing actions. Ash Content The amount of incombustible residue, left after incinerating a weighed amount of a material and expressed as percentage.
Bake Cooking food in dry heat, especially in an oven. Bake Test A test designed to show the baking properties of flour when subjected to the parameters of bulk production, and carried out under controlled conditions. Baking Loss The loss of mass in a product as a result of baking. In the case of non fermented products, the difference in mass between the dough or batter from the moment when it is put in the oven and when it emerges as a baked product.
This includes the loss of fat to the baking sheet or tin. Baking mix A combination of pre-measured baking dry ingredients Ex: flours, meal, leavening, sugars, salt, spices. Baking Powder A balanced mixture of sodium bicarbonate and an acid. Baking powders when moistened and heated produce a leavening gas in batters and doughs. They should leave only tasteless, harmless residues.
The acid substances commonly used are tartaric acid, cream of tartar, calcium acidphosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, and sodium aluminium phosphate.
Baking sheet A sheet of metal that is rigid and is used for baking cookies, breads, biscuits, etc. It usually has one or more edges that is turned up for ease in removing from the oven.
Types include shiny, heavy-gauge aluminum, the standard used in most test kitchens for even baking and browning. Darkened, heavy-gauge pans will produce especially crisp exterior crusts desired for specialty baked goods. Insulated baking sheets are two sheets of aluminum with air space between, and are especially good for soft cookies or tender-crust breads or rolls.
Also, see Cookie sheet, Insulated bakeware, and Jelly roll pan glossary listings. Baking soda A base, alkaline in nature, formed when sodium carbonate purified form of mineral trona is mixed with carbon dioxide and water to form sodium bicarbonate.
Baking soda is the source of CO2 gas in leavening systems. It neutralizes acids in the batter, adjusting the final pH of baked goods. Baking soda is not the same as baking powder. Barbados sugar Also known as muscovado sugar. A British specialty brown sugar; it is very dark brown and has a strong molasses flavor. Barley flour A low-gluten flour made from hulled barley.
It imparts a sweet taste, moisture, and relative lightness to cakes, cookies, and quick breads. Batch One recipe of a dough or batter, such as bread or cookies. Beat Making a smooth mixture by whipping or stirring with a wire whisk, spoon, beater or electric mixer.
Bench The counter or surface bakers use to work with dough. Bench Time Allowing yeast dough 5 to 15 minutes resting time after fermentation, punching, dividing and before shaping to allow gluten to relax. Benzoyl Peroxide A chemical powder that is added to flour in small quantities for its beneficial bleaching action. Bind To thicken or smooth out the consistency of a liquid. Biscuits A term generally used for that bakery product which is made from a dough which is sheeted, cut and baked immediately there- after to a low moisture.
Blend To mix two or more ingredients together with a spoon, whisk, electric mixer, blender, or processor. Blending Capacity The ability or capacity of a flour to carry proportion of low quality flour and still produce bread of satisfactory quality.
Braid To weave together three or more long pieces of dough. Bran The outer layers of a kernel of grain that lie just below the hull. About Bran is used in baked goods and cereals to add dietary fiber and nutrients. Look for bread flour that is enriched — as indicated on the ingredient label. Bread-Making The overall process of converting flour into bread which generally consists of different stages like mixing, fermentation, dough make-up, proofing and baking.
Brew A mixture of water, yeast, yeast nutrients and varying amounts of flour used in some bread-making processes. Brimac Process A bread-making process developed at the Bread Research Institute of Australia which uses mechanical action mixing to develop the dough to optimum physical state.
Brown To give a cooked surface to a food such as meat or flour by applying high heat. Also occurs during baking and roasting. Brown Sugar Sugar crystals coated in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color.
May be produced by boiling a special molasses syrup until brown sugar crystals form, then centrifuging the crystals until dry. Brownie A dense, chewy, cake-like cookie that is generally chocolate-flavored and colored hence the name and cut in bar shapes to serve. Buckiness A term used in baking technology to describe doughs that are too soft or too elastic for proper handling. Buckling A defect which causes the crackers to warp during baking generally resulting in raised centres.
Buckwheat flour A gluten-free flour made by grinding hulled buckwheat seeds. It is not a relative of wheat. Originating in Russia, buckwheat has a distinctive flavor and is used in pancakes and some baked goods, such as multi-grain breads.
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Chemical Composition of Bakery Products
Handbook of Food Chemistry pp Cite as. Cereals have always occupied a preferential place in the food pyramid that gathers dietary guidelines. Despite society lifestyle changes, cereal-based goods are still the main players in the human diet, although their worldwide contribution to dietary patterns is different. Bread is the main bakery consumed product worldwide, although the concept of bread comprised thousands of different products regarding their processing, shapes, composition, and so on. Although with far less consumption, other bakery products include cookies, cakes and muffins, croissants, and pastries. An overview about the chemical composition of cereals and cereals products, as well as their role in human nutrition and health, is presented.
In the U. These unhealthy weight-related trends have prompted a surge in consumer demand and regulatory pressure for healthier food alternatives. In the face of these developments, commercial food manufacturers are finding it necessary to pursue new, more healthful products. Many in the food industry are increasingly turning to the power of pulses as a solution. The dietary significance of pulses dates back almost 10, years when their rich nutritional characteristics were central to human health and the very viability of civilization itself. Food scientists are rediscovering the fact that natural legumes like dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas are highly functional ingredients, adding both flavor and robust nutritional bene fits to many dishes. Comprised of natural dietary fiber—both soluble and insoluble—as well as resistant starch and high-quality protein, they offer a health profile that is hard to match. Roasted precooked pea flour, or pease-meal , is perhaps the most commonly called upon legume in developing food formulations. Made from milled yellow peas, pea flour and its components contribute to healthier products without impacting traditional appeal.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
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The following sections describe a healthy eating pattern and how following such a pattern can help people meet the Guidelines and its Key Recommendations. Throughout, it uses the Healthy U. The Healthy U. Because calorie needs vary based on age, sex, height, weight, and level of physical activity see Appendix 2. The 2,calorie level of the Pattern is shown in Table These three patterns are examples of healthy eating patterns that can be adapted based on cultural and personal preferences. The USDA Food Patterns also can be used as guides to plan and serve meals not only for the individual and household but in a variety of other settings, including schools, worksites, and other community settings. Oils are shown in grams g.
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients essential trace elements and vitamins to food. It can be carried out by food manufacturers, or by governments as a public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with dietary deficiencies within a population. The predominant diet within a region can lack particular nutrients due to the local soil or from inherent deficiencies within the staple foods; addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases. Food fortification has been identified as the second strategy of four by the WHO and FAO to begin decreasing the incidence of nutrient deficiencies at the global level. The WHO and FAO, among many other nationally recognized organizations, have recognized that there are over 2 billion people worldwide who suffer from a variety of micronutrient deficiencies. In Canada, the Food and Drug Regulations have outlined specific criterion which justifies food fortification:. There are also several advantages to approaching nutrient deficiencies among populations via food fortification as opposed to other methods.
The Importance of Bread
Also available in printable brochure format PDF kb. For centuries, ingredients have served useful functions in a variety of foods. Our ancestors used salt to preserve meats and fish, added herbs and spices to improve the flavor of foods, preserved fruit with sugar, and pickled cucumbers in a vinegar solution. Today, consumers demand and enjoy a food supply that is flavorful, nutritious, safe, convenient, colorful and affordable. Food additives and advances in technology help make that possible.
What I want to know is whether amino acids produced from human hair were used to process the flour that went to make that piece of toast you wolfed down on the way to the bus stop. But first, the veganism. I am not becoming a vegan out of high principle. I will be vegan for all of January.
Food additives have been used for centuries to improve and preserve the taste, texture, nutrition and appearance of food. The U. Food and Drug Administration evaluates the safety of food additives and determines how they may be used in the food supply.
The main processing aids used are enzymes. Historically, market trends have developed from the use of ingredients in greater quantities - to obtain specific effects in bread such as fat for crumb softness - to the use of additives at much lower levels max. We will describe the food additives used under each class, individually describing their mode of action and effects on dough rheology, during the breadmaking process, and on product quality.