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Electrical Safety: Safety & Health for Electrical Trades (Student Manual)

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: General Cable - How Wire & Cable is Made Video

Trunk Mounted Battery Installation. For the past 40 years, I have designed products that consume, produce, or measure significant current. These products are used on high voltage power mains and low voltage systems. I also designed and was responsible for production of vehicle gauges and test equipment, including instrumentation meters in products marketed by national suppliers.

You can skip all the technical stuff in the beginning, and just move on to battery wiring or to trunk mounted battery. The most misunderstood automotive wiring connections are connections to the battery negative and ground loops. Please read the Negative Lead page before connecting anything to a battery negative post or battery negative terminal! In the case of negative earth return vehicles, the negative power line should not be fused.

It should be connected to the vehicle body as close as practical to the point at which the battery-to-body connection is made. Do not connect the negative power line directly to the battery. Generally this is located within the main fuse box.

It is recommended that this point be used for installations in this instance. With certain equipment it may be necessary to connect the negative supply line to a local earth point. In this case an existing vehicle earth point must be used. There are two ways to find poor connections in high current leads. One is by inspection, using our eyes and hands.

Frayed or broken strands, loose crimps, corrosion and loose fasteners can show up in visual inspection. The second method is by measuring voltages while that area of the system is operating, and looking at voltage across various points.

This is often the best method to trace problems in leads or connections. Conductor Length, Conductor Gauge, and Resistance background All conductors have resistance to electrical current flow. Resistance in conductors and connections is actually the ONLY thing that limits current flow through wires. Conductor resistance causes voltage drop along the wire's length. Current through that resistance, and the resulting voltage drop across that resistance, is actually what determines heating from power loss.

Resistance wastes power. Resistance, voltage drop, heating, and current are all closely tied together with unbreakable electrical rules. There is something else that limits current, reactance. Reactance is like resistance, but reactance limits current without heating.

Reactance only applies to rapidly changing currents. Steady currents ware not affected by reactances. To keep things simple, let's consider steady slowly-changing loads like sensors, starters, lights, and other slowly-changing or steady dc loads.

In the context of steady or slowly-changing direct current systems, we can ignore reactances. We cannot always ignore reactances when dealing with sharp pulses or rapidly changing voltages, such as pulsed fuel injectors or ignition system pulses. This means in DC systems such as automotive wiring, or in normal home powerline frequency AC circuits, we have two things to worry about:. DC resistance is directly proportional to conductor length for a given conductor cross sectional area conductor size and material, and inversely proportional to conductor cross sectional area for a given length and material.

This is why long wires sometimes have to be sized for voltage drop, and not current rating. Voltage drop along a conductor is always current through the conductor times the conductor path resistance. A longer path length through a conductor of a given size and material, the more resistance and voltage loss that path will have. More current flowing through a certain resistance produces more voltage drop and more heat. A smaller cross section conductor creates more resistance, and that results in more voltage drop and heat.

People like to tell us electricity is like water in a pipe, but that really is not a good picture to have. Here is why People sometimes say wires are like pipes. This implies the inside dimension controls the amount of current flow, just like water flow through a pipe.

This just isn't true. This is NOT true with electricity! With electricity, any amount of current can flow through a thin wire unless the wire overheats, or the voltage drop becomes too much to run something properly. Any size wire can handle any current, up to the point where the wire overheats and melts, or the voltage drop does not allow the system to function.

Current in a short length wire or conductor, if system voltage is high enough, is limited by the safe wire temperature rise. A small size wire will not restrict current flow, like a pipe does with water flow. Here is an example:. A number 10 AWG copper wire has about.

The heat, however, would be 0. This is actually how fuse links work. The short length of small gauge wire reaches a fusing current , and the conductor melts. The largest permissible fuse, breaker, or fuse link allowed is determined by the wire size and temperature rating Let's say we are running a giant 12 volt watt spotlight. Our 10 wire would add 0. Load voltage would now be Load power would be This is hardly any change in the spotlight performance, even though the spotlight current passes through a very small wire.

That certainly would not be true with water. If we passed water from a large hose through a section of very tiny pipe, we would have almost no water flow at all!

We can see wire size does not limit current or power unless wire length becomes so long the wire's resistance is a significant percentage of the load resistance value, or the wire melts. A hose or pipe, on the other hand, limits liquid flow based on size, shape, and pressure differential from inlet to outlet. This is because the total wire resistance and current determine voltage drop. Your house wiring, for example, is normally sized by the heat that can be safely tolerated.

Electricians and building codes use a certain wire size for a certain current with little regard to voltage drop. This is because they assume the wire is a reasonable length, and the real worry becomes preventing house fires.

At volts, there would be little worry about loss of five volts through a long wire's resistance. In some cases, especially where voltage is lower or wire length is longer, voltage drop can be a significant problem.

Vehicle voltage , for example, is only While a good alternator is charging , 12V vehicle voltage can be slightly over 14 volts. If we allowed the same voltage drop as house wiring by setting wire size with wire tables used for house wiring by safe enclosed wall heat , we can easily run into situations where voltage drop is excessive.

Because automotive voltage is low, we must pay attention to both heat and voltage drop in high current wiring. We also should route wires for the shortest possible length that looks good and is safe. Some articles on Internet claim a vehicle ground should involve a large copper buss connection, or the frame. While well-intentioned and laced with true statements, the overall conclusion and some of the wisdom is not true.

The length of a ground stud or bolt is so short that resistance and voltage drop does not matter very much. The biggest issue is having a good, reliable, corrosion-free connection to the body shell and ground lug. If the connection stud were three feet long, it would be another story. If you doubt this, look at the bolt size in modern car batteries. Current comes out through a fairly small terminal and bolt, neither of which is generally copper. As a matter of fact, ALL of the connections in the battery are lead, which is a terrible conductor!

Why would any logical person go through the bother of attaching a large surface area, short length, copper ground plate to the body shell when the battery terminals and connections are lead? It is easy to make insignificant things a worry, the old "making a mountain from a mole hill" adage.

Ground stud or ground conductor length is usually so short and so wide or thick that the material resistance in the ground stud is one of the least significant factors. Corrosion and clamping pressure is much more of a factor than use of low resistance materials like copper.

While copper terminals can be good in some applications, like insulated power entrance bolts to very high current devices like starting relays, starters, or alternators; copper studs or copper buss bars are normally a very poor general application choice for body-to-lug or frame-to-lug bolted connections.

To avoid galvanic corrosion , we do not want two metals with significantly different electro-chemical rankings in contact in the presence of salt and moisture. Materials choice varies with the environment and application, and is far more than material resistivity alone! Bare copper is generally a poor choice for a bolted ground connection point in a car. Copper in direct pressure contact with steel will erode the steel, and form insulating oxide layers.

We are much better off using proper stainless or galvanized fasteners, even though material resistivity is higher. Avoid soft fasteners, fasteners that corrode easily, or fasteners that cause the vehicle metal to corrode. This rules out copper or aluminum in direct contact with a steel or galvanized steel body. Heat also causes resistance to increase, but this is normally a small or insignificant change in proper sized and length wires.

Hotter wires have higher resistance, which is another reason to oversize long wires. Heat related changes are negligible on short length wires, because they do not have that much resistance to start with. Increasing almost nothing by a few percent is still nothing.

Copper is a mineral and an element essential to our everyday lives. It is a major industrial metal because of its high ductility, malleability, thermal and electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion.

Speaker Wire A History. This material is copyrighted No portion of this site may be reproduced in whole or in part without written permission of the author. Cable Resistance Too Low? What About Oxygen Free Wire? What About Silver Wire and Conductivity? For many years, wires that were used to connect speaker systems were often zip or line cord.

Metal Wires

Thank you Your Enquiry has been sent successfully. Catering to various industries, this range is manufactured using qualitative raw-material sourced from the famed vendors. Nichrome is a non-magnetic alloy of nickel, chromium, and often iron. Nichrome products are corrosion-resistant and confer relatively high electrical resistivity. We deliver them as per the exact preferences of our clients.

Copper Facts

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History and Inventors 2. How they work basic 2. Types of AC Electric Motors 4. Types of DC Electric Motors. The early "motors" created spinning disks or levers that rocked back and forth. These devices could not do any work for humankind but were important for leading the way to better motors in the future. Davenport's various motors were able to run a model trolley on a circular track and other tasks. The trolley later turned out to be the first important application of electric power it was not the light bulb. Rudimentary full sized electric trolleys were finally built 30 years after Davenport's death in the s.

6 Common Wire Connection Problems and Their Solutions

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Although no charge or fee is required for using TeachEngineering curricular materials in your classroom, the lessons and activities often require material supplies. The expendable cost is the estimated cost of supplies needed for each group of students involved in the activity.

A great many electrical problems around the house are traced to different versions of the same essential problem: wire connections that are made improperly or that have loosened over time. You may have inherited the problem from a previous owner or from an electrician who did an inadequate job, or perhaps it's the result of work you did yourself. Many wire connection problems are no one's fault but are simply the result of time. Wires are under a constant cycle of heating and cooling, expansion and contraction. Every time a switch is used or appliances are plugged in, and the natural result of all this usage is that wire connections can loosen over time. Your electrical system has a lot of safeguards against danger from bad wire connections, such as its grounding system, its circuit breakers, and GFCI and AFCI protection. Still, there is danger from sparking and arcing whenever there is a loose wire connection in your system. Many of these problems are quite easy for a homeowner to spot and repair, while others are best handled by a professional electrician. Understanding where these problems commonly occur will help you decide how to handle them. By far the most common problem is when screw terminal connections at wall switches and outlets become loose.

*Excludes insulated wire and cable produced and consumed in insulating plants in the production of "Excludes figures for industry , Metal Sanitary Ware.

Solid vs Stranded Cable - The Pros and Cons of Each

Student manual on electrical safety with information on recognizing, evaluating and avoiding hazards related to electricity. January Summary Statement Student manual on electrical safety with information on recognizing, evaluating and avoiding hazards related to electricity. The first step toward protecting yourself is recognizing the many hazards you face on the job. To do this, you must know which situations can place you in danger. Knowing where to look helps you to recognize hazards. Electrical systems and tools that are not grounded or double-insulated are dangerous.

Wire drawing

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Trunk Mounted Battery Installation. For the past 40 years, I have designed products that consume, produce, or measure significant current. These products are used on high voltage power mains and low voltage systems.

Wire drawing is a metalworking process used to reduce the cross-section of a wire by pulling the wire through a single, or series of, drawing die s. There are many applications for wire drawing, including electrical wiring, cables, tension-loaded structural components, springs, paper clips, spokes for wheels, and stringed musical instruments.

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