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The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Amazing Automatic Lines, Catching and Processing Fish Right on Ship, Big Catch in The Sea
What are the key issues affecting fisheries production and trade today and what trends to look out for? It cannot be repeated enough that fish and fish products are deeply connected to the world trade system. Around 38 percent of all fish, caught in the wild or raised in aquaculture, are traded.
But the landscape of fish catch and production is changing. While world catches from the wild have stabilised at around million tonnes per year, aquaculture has expanded rapidly, now contributing more than 90 million tonnes to the annual total. Aquaculture is now on track to be the main source of fish in the near future. For developing countries in particular exports of fish and fish products are an important foreign currency earner. The value of fish exports from developing countries exceeds those of most other cash crops, namely food grown for commercial rather than subsistence purposes, including coffee and rubber.
The Asian economy has become the most important producer and trader of fish products partly because it imports large quantities of unprocessed fish for processing and re-export. In developed countries it is a premium protein source and in many developing countries it is the main one.
Based on this current picture, key emerging issues around the future of fisheries trade include: the prospect for aquaculture; how to better manage capture fisheries; whether sustainability certification can address public concerns regarding fisheries and aquaculture; and how to curb illegal, unreported, and unregulated IUU fishing.
Trade is an important factor across each of these. Fish farming has developed more rapidly than any other food commodity and continues to exhibit strong growth potential.
Catches from the wild are unlikely to grow in the future as most fish stocks are currently fully exploited or over-exploited. Aquaculture nevertheless faces some constraints including, for example, potential negative impacts on local water quality and ecosystems. This is nevertheless very dependent on the type of production system. Land-based recirculating systems have minimal impacts while open pen cage systems can be risky if poorly managed.
Half of world production is made up of various finfish with the most important being carp; a quarter are various aquatic plants including seaweed; and the remainder are shrimps and crustaceans such as mussels and oysters. These countries all produce vastly different species, however, and in very different production systems.
A number of interactions exist between wild and farmed fish. Farmed carnivorous fish need some fishmeal and oil in their feed compounds and these are based on fish caught in the wild. Secondly fish from aquaculture and from capture fisheries ultimately end up in a common market for fish and fish products. While capture fish may carry a premium because of quality, size, and consumer preference for wild caught fish, farmed fish offer advantages for fish processors and retailers, including standard size, year-round availability, and a known production environment.
Both the fisheries and aquaculture sectors benefit from supportive policies including budgetary assistance for investment and operations. Such support, or subsidies, can alter the competitiveness of these sectors in a global market and can have unforeseen environmental and trade impacts particularly in relation to overfishing in the wild.
Increasing subsidies for fish products both farmed and captured could also lead to trade disputes and hamper growth in developing nations. This is an area trade policymakers need to address urgently at both regional and multilateral levels. More competition in global markets from aquaculture will also affect the capture fisheries sector.
The current situation in capture fisheries is challenging. Too many stocks are overfished or threatened by IUU fishing. Carrying on with business as usual will lead to low fisher incomes, lost economic potential, and undue environmental damage given the delicate balance of marine ecosystems. Governments need to be clear that reform of fisheries policies will make their capture fisheries more environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable.
Excess capacity, dependence on subsidies, and stressed coastal communities are all signs of an inefficient fishing sector. Market-based and community-based approaches to fisheries management have a track record in improving both stock management and economic efficiency. Rebuilding fisheries that are below their potential requires control of fishing effort and, at the same time, policymakers need to maintain the quality of the ecosystem accounting for biodiversity, habitat, and pollution.
Many marine spaces are increasingly subject to more diverse and intensive use. Placing fisheries policy in the context of a broader coastal and ocean economic strategy can help to mitigate spillover impacts and improve policy coherence across domains.
When undertaking fisheries sector reform policy packages that address concerns by stakeholders — such as fishermen, fish processors, wholesalers, and retailers — that stand to lose will be important and may sometimes need to include effective flanking measures to ensure buy-in for reform.
Co-operative management of high seas fisheries through Regional Fisheries Management Organisations RFMOs can also contribute substantially to sustainability. Many international shared fish stocks are overfished. It has been a challenge in some cases for RFMOs to limit the overall take on the resources given that high seas fish stocks are part of the global commons. In particular, this has been the case for a number of highly migratory tuna stocks, with the continued combination of high prices and readily available markets exacerbating the problem.
In certain cases subsidies to fleets have added additional fishing effort and further undermined sustainability efforts. This is yet another case for fisheries and trade policymakers to address. Certification that fish come from a sustainably managed resource took a big step forward in the fisheries sector in when consumer-goods company Unilever and conservation agency WWF announced plans to set up a fisheries certification system known as the Marine Stewardship Council MSC.
Since then several other certification standards have been developed covering both wild and farmed fish. Why did a multinational company and a major international NGO join forces to create a certification system for sustainable fish? After all, at least 20 years ago, these two players were seen as strange bedfellows.
For the WWF it was yet another way of ensuring that fisheries resources would be sustainably managed and that consumers could make responsible choices in a world of food value chains. For its part, Unilever at that time purchased a quarter of all groundfish species sold globally for their processing lines, so it made very good sense for the company to secure their future fish supplies, production, and profits.
However, the proliferation of different eco-labels in the marketplace has since then led to concerns regarding consumer confusion, which may weaken the overall effectiveness of labelling. Moreover, multiple incompatible certification systems and labels could present an un-level playing field for fishers and aquaculture producers, and may act as a barrier to trade. International standardisation work related to eco-labelling in wild capture and inland fisheries as well as in aquaculture has been elaborated, most importantly in the context of the FAO.
One challenge moving forward is to ensure that the information given to the public is based on the facts at hand, is reliable, does not make false claims, and provides a basis for consumers to make informed decisions. Illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing is a major challenge to the sustainability of fisheries while also taking its toll on legal fishers and fish markets.
IUU occurs in both small-scale and industrial fisheries, in marine and inland water fisheries, as well as in fishing zones falling under national jurisdictions and on the high seas. However, despite such action, fish piracy continues to be part of almost every fishery and in every size of vessel. While the black market nature of IUU means it is often difficult to identify and measure, the bottom line is clear; fish pirates pursue their activities because it is profitable and will keep pursuing it as long as their revenue exceeds costs.
Higher penalties, more efficient monitoring, control and surveillance measures, and widespread use of catch and trade documentation schemes can increase the cost and risk associated with IUU fishing. Ultimately, for long-term success, international co-operation is needed. One way to do this would be to include all interested parties in the work of the RFMOs and establish management arrangements for areas of the high seas that are currently still unregulated.
Sharing lists across countries of vessels engaged in IUU activities and the implementation of port state inspection and certification schemes are additional measures that have been taken in recent years to tackle IUU fishing where it is most obvious, namely, at landing point. Once an IUU fish reaches the market, it becomes very difficult to identify and track, especially for internationally traded fish products.
That agreement is slated to enter into force 30 days after ratification by 25 parties and 11 have done so to date. However, while more regulation may be a central part in the overall combat of IUU fishing activities, these may be costly to implement. Investing in new, modern surveillance methods such as CCTV on vessels and automatic recognition of fish species brought on board could help to reduce these costs over time. In the case of unreported fishing, better use of existing systems to trace the origins of catches could be put in place, alongside a more generalised use of on-board observers.
Private legal operators have a strong incentive to ensure that their markets are not undermined by IUU fishing and can take a more active role in combating illegal activities. However, as long as it is profitable and as long as some states do not take sufficient action, IUU will not be completely eliminated.
Following the money trail of illegal activities, including IUU, looks to be a new and promising avenue for addressing the problem. Based on current trends, the OECD-FAO expects that total fish production will grow substantially by , driven entirely by growth in aquaculture production.
Aquaculture is estimated to grow However, the annual growth rate in aquaculture is estimated to be only 2. Lower annual growth rates are due to competing uses of the coastal space combined with higher costs of fishmeal, fish oil, and other feeds. Figure 1: Consumption of fisheries products, million tonnes.
While these predictions are generally positive for the fisheries markets, especially aquaculture products, new disruptive challenges such as ocean acidification and climate change will need to be addressed by policymakers and stakeholders.
Fish stocks and particularly calcifying animals, such as oysters and mussels, are vulnerable to changes in ocean pH values, an effect caused by the increasing levels of manmade carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, part of which is subsequently absorbed by oceans.
Changing ocean temperatures from climate-warming greenhouse gases will also likely alter the distribution and productivity of fish stocks. In certain areas of the world these phenomena are already having an impact. The shifting distribution of major fish stocks of herring and mackerel in the North Atlantic Sea is a case in point. These changes could potentially pose challenges to the international trading system. Mechanisms and policy dialogue to address such potential future changes are needed before they occur on a large scale and give rise to major trade conflicts.
This is another important agenda item for trade and fisheries policymakers and co-operation across these policy domains could make a significant contribution to future sustainable development. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of, and should not be attributed to, the OECD. Skip to main content. Toggle navigation.
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. Analysis and news on trade and environment. Overview News archive Issue archive About. Identifying current and emerging fisheries trade issues. Carl-Christian Schmidt. Moving to sustainable wild fisheries The current situation in capture fisheries is challenging. Sustainability certification Certification that fish come from a sustainably managed resource took a big step forward in the fisheries sector in when consumer-goods company Unilever and conservation agency WWF announced plans to set up a fisheries certification system known as the Marine Stewardship Council MSC.
Co-operation to tackle fish piracy Illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing is a major challenge to the sustainability of fisheries while also taking its toll on legal fishers and fish markets.
Fish will help feed growing populations Based on current trends, the OECD-FAO expects that total fish production will grow substantially by , driven entirely by growth in aquaculture production.
This article is published under. Previous article Fisheries. A view from industry on fisheries trade with Jim Cannon. Fisheries and fisheries trade play a vital role in a number of communities the world over.
All pieces are based on research being conducted for the forthcoming World Resources Report. Check out more posts in this series. Finfish and shellfish currently make up one-sixth of the animal protein people consume globally. As the global wild fish catch peaked in the s, aquaculture—or fish farming—has grown rapidly to meet world fish demand, more than doubling production between and
Commercial Fish Production
What are the key issues affecting fisheries production and trade today and what trends to look out for? It cannot be repeated enough that fish and fish products are deeply connected to the world trade system. Around 38 percent of all fish, caught in the wild or raised in aquaculture, are traded. But the landscape of fish catch and production is changing. While world catches from the wild have stabilised at around million tonnes per year, aquaculture has expanded rapidly, now contributing more than 90 million tonnes to the annual total. Aquaculture is now on track to be the main source of fish in the near future. For developing countries in particular exports of fish and fish products are an important foreign currency earner.
Total fisheries production (metric tons)
Fishermen use a wide range of gear to land their catch. Every type has its own effects on the ocean. By selecting the right gear for the right job, the fishing industry can help minimize its impact on the environment. Seines are long nets, with long ropes on each end, which herd fish when dragged or towed. Seines are suspended vertically in the water with floats and weights, and some have a bag for catching fish. Beach seines are hauled in from the shore and are used to catch species like Atlantic croaker, Florida pompano and striped mullet.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Fishing and processing on a freezing trawler.
Turkey is targeting a major increase in fisheries production over the next decade, reports David Hayes. This is part of government plans to promote economic and social development in coastal and inland areas by supporting growth of freshwater and marine aquaculture fisheries to create employment and raise family incomes in less developed coastal and inland rural regions. As part of its Vision targets for the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector, the government is aiming for Turkey to be the largest fisheries producer in the European Union of which Turkey intends to become a member by the next decade. Both marine and freshwater fisheries production is due to increase in coming years backed by government support and growing private investment in fisheries development schemes. Most increase in fisheries production is expected to occur in the aquaculture sector which is planned to grow in size to produce about , tons annually, a threefold increase compared with current yearly output of , tons. Increased fishery production is expected to lead to an improvement in the typical Turkish diet of which animal meat currently forms the major source of protein, particularly in inland regions. EU countries are expected to provide an important market, though Turkey also has important trade links with Balkan countries and the Middle East.
Data Protection Choices
With capture fishery production relatively static since the late s, aquaculture has been responsible for the continuing impressive growth in the supply of fish for human consumption. NOTE: Excludes aquatic mammals, crocodiles, alligators and caimans, seaweeds and other aquatic plants. In , 88 percent of the total fish production million out of million tonnes was for direct human consumption.
Jose A. Fernandes, Susan Kay, Mostafa A. Hossain, Munir Ahmed, William W. Cheung, Attila N. The fisheries sector is crucial to the Bangladeshi economy and wellbeing, accounting for 4. Fish is vital to the 16 million Bangladeshis living near the coast, a number that has doubled since the s. Here, we develop and apply tools to project the long-term productive capacity of Bangladesh marine fisheries under climate and fisheries management scenarios, based on downscaling a global climate model, using associated river flow and nutrient loading estimates, projecting high-resolution changes in physical and biochemical ocean properties, and eventually projecting fish production and catch potential under different fishing mortality targets. We place particular interest on Hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha , which accounts for ca. However, these impacts are larger for the two target species. The results demonstrate that management can mitigate or exacerbate the effects of climate change on ecosystem productivity.
World fisheries production
Significant production increases foreseen over coming decade - Sector faces major challenges. The latest edition of the agency's The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture SOFIA report projects that by combined production from capture fisheries and aquaculture will grow to million tonnes. But future growth will require continued progress in strengthening fisheries management regimes, reducing loss and waste, and tackling problems like illegal fishing, pollution of aquatic environments, and climate change, the report adds. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture reports that Generally, the amount of fish being captured in the wild plateaued starting in the s and has remained largely stable since.
The global commercial production for human use of fish and other aquatic organisms occurs in two ways: they are either captured wild by commercial fishing or they are cultivated and harvested using aquacultural and farming techniques. In addition, 1. The following table shows the capture production by groups of species fish, crustaceans , molluscs , etc. The following table shows the fish production in and projections for and later simulation target years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
From conveyor belt sushi to grilled fish stalls on the streets of Bangkok, the popularity of seafood as a source of protein is on the rise globally. This is particularly so in Asia Pacific, which is predicted to account for 70 per cent of global seafood sales in the next 13 years, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO.
It gives an overview of recent statistics relating to fishing fleets , fish catches , fish landings and aquaculture production in the European Union EU. Fish are a renewable and mobile natural resource.