The site provides the weld information and data required to attain the highest possible manual and automated weld quality, always at the lowest possible weld costs. This web site was first established in by Ed Craig. Contact Ed. Flux Cored Data Pipe and Plate.
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Cored WireVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What is Flux Cored Arc Welding? (FCAW)
The site provides the weld information and data required to attain the highest possible manual and automated weld quality, always at the lowest possible weld costs. This web site was first established in by Ed Craig.
Contact Ed. Flux Cored Data Pipe and Plate. When using the flux cored FCAW weld consumables recommended at this site, and those weld consumables are correctly applied, the flux cored weld slag should fall off during and after the weld. If the weld slag does not fall off, it should take only a few seconds to remove. A positive point in pipe welding is the removal of the weld slag gives the welder an opportunity to examine the weld between passes.
The issues with flux cored will be trapped slag which can impare weld fusion, porosity and worm tracks. If you use a "quality flux cored wire" with the correct technique and Ed's recommended parameters, and also use F interpass temp control with multi-pass welds, that flux cored weld slag should almost peel off as above..
On above left. Ed carrying out pipe root weld research c omparing MIG. On right Ed evaluating different gas shielded flux cored wires for the over head position with the Cold Lake, Canadian pipe welders, Visit this section for million dollar weld savings on large flux cored - MIG projects. Pipe weld management is wise when their focus is on;  the pipe side wall weld fusion p otential of the weld process - consumables utilized, especially with the first and second fill passes over the root,  the weld personnel awareness of the optimum process control, parameter ranges and technique requirements for weld defect prevention,  controlling pipe, alignment dimensions, edge preps and root gap dimensions to minimize the opportunity for pipe root weld and side wall fusion problems,  the wel d deposition rate poten tial of the weld process or consumables utilized,  how easy it is to utilize the process or consumables recommended,  how suitable and durable is the weld equipment selected for the shop or field work.
When welding with flux cored be aware that regular , low cost CV MIG equipment will outperform inverters, multi-process power sources and pulsed MIG equipment. The CV equipment will cost less, be more durable and easier to repair. In this position check the weld fluidity, ease of use and the weld transfer.
Take note of the weld spatter generated in the over head position. The weld spatter can end up in the nozzle blocking either the gas flow or the contact tip bore, causing porous welds, or a wire burn back. Sometimes in order to use a "narrow pipe bevel", the weld inspection may require "shear wave ultrasonic examination". This mode of inspection is necessary so the NDT equipment can size the weld flaw, and determine if the flaw is acceptable based on CTOD and fracture mechanic equations.
Pipe line companies are aware of this complex inspection criteria and the issues generated, and therefore may only consider the narrow bevel welds or low fusion MIG modes for small pipe line projects. Narrow gap and compound pipe joints require field machining and the pipe roundness deviation is always a concern. Note: When using narrow, bevel pipe weld joints, or weld processes such as pulsed MIG that provide minimum side wall weld fusion, extraordinary weld inspection methods may be required.
What you save on the narrow weld prep is often lost on the additional weld inspection required and the consequences of that magnified inspection. When making all position flux cored welds on vee groove welds on carbon steel plate with ceramic backing , two interesting questions would be, what would the minimum vee groove angle and weld gap be?
In ship yards where the typical steel thickness plate is 9 to 25 mm, when welding that vee groove with ceramic backing, the optimum root weld gap size is mm. The minimum , "combined" vee groove angle should be 40 degrees. In a ship yard, poor edge preps, oversized gaps, excess weld and extra weld rework and NDT costs can readily double the weld budget required per ship. Ed has developed a ship yard Welder Training Program so that both welders and fitters can have a greater understanding of the process requirements, the best weld practices and the weld cost and quality implications of their actions, See Ed's manual MIG and flux cored programs.
Question: Ed, in our shop when welding carbon steels we have a choice of either MIG, pulsed MIG, metal cored, self shielded flux cored, all position gas shielded or flat position flux cored wires. I would appreciate guidelines on when or where to use these processes and consumables. Answer: For welding carbon steels, the following weld process logic guidelines would apply;. For all welds made in the vertical, flat, and horizontal positions, on applications l ess than 0.
Best weld position "vertical down". Note I can now recommend pulsed MIG for most thin gage applications. For welds on parts 0. However in this application range, steels and stainless are also readily welded with an 0. Controlled globular transfer or low spray transfer settings with the 0. In contrast to spray the pulsed process with an 0. For greater weld fusion or improved arc consistency with automated welds, consider spray.
If the steel parts have mill scale or surface contaminates that effect the MIG weld transfer, weld quality or the arc stability, it's time to consider gas shielded flux cored. Do not use the all position flux cored wires if most of the flux cored welds are made in the flat position. Use the E70T-1 wires. FCAW electrode diameters 0. From a weldability perspective, and its weld current range and deposition potential, my first choice has always been the 0.
For the book and the the most effective, CD, power point, FCAW process control training program ever developed, click. Note many weld shops use the fast freeze slag E71T-1, all position flux cored wires for the flat or horizontal weld positions , be warned these wires on these applications can result in severe porosity, slag inclusions, worm tracks, poor fusion and a pock marked weld surface.
Ed's Reply. In my opinion, Metal Cored wires are for the majority of carbon steel applications a complete waste of time and money. As the weld benefits in contrast to solid wires are miniscule the reality is, If there were no metal cored wires available for carbon steel welds, it would have zero impact on the welding industry.
Self Shield Flux Cored above: As you can see from this picture any an insane peson or a company like Chrysler would allow self shielded wires to make welds in their weld shop. E- Mail Weld Question June 19, I was pushing for gas shielded flux cored wires, but the engineers will not allow flux cored wires for our pipe procedures.
The engineers complain of poor mechanical properties from the flux cored wires on the HY metal. We can't use MIG spray as many of the welds are out of position. We are having a difficult time passing UT with our Miller Invision pulsed power source. The MIG pulsed parameters required provide a wide arc zone and long arc length, we end up with extensive, inconsistent weld fusion. We are thinking about switching to Lincoln Pulsed equipment, as they tell us with their equipment that we can get the controls we require from their unique pulsed wave forms.
The Miller Equipment does not allow wave form manipulation from the interface, you have to run off the factory resets. Pulsed variable parameters and pulsed arc length sensitivity combined with a lower energy pulsed MIG arc plasma and good deposition rates combine and often result in weld quality issues.
Of course to attain more weld energy with pulse one can always increase the pulse parameters and lower the trim volts, however there are optimum pulsed parameter limits and when those wire feed settings and pulsed paramet ers are slightly outside the optimum pulsed parameter range, you will not likely be pleased with the radiograph results. You may want to read one of my many experiences with the Lincoln Power Wave and the ineffective wave forms when this equipment created serious weld quality weld fusion issues for a tier one axle manufacturer.
The real issue here is not the weld issues, its the stupidity of your engineers for not allowing the superior flux cored process to be utilized. International Welding Specifications:. Flat and Horizontal positions.
With Gas shielded Flux Cored Wires:. The porosity can be trapped inside the weld or evident at the weld surface. Weld porosity is typically round in shape, but can also be elongated. Porosity is caused by the absorption of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen into the molten weld pool. The gases are then released during weld solidification. As the gases try to rise to the weld surface some gas pores will become trapped in the weld metal, some pores pass into the weld slag, while other pores will combine on the weld surface, usually in the weld center last area to solidify producing worm tracks.
Flux cored weld porosity from and Excess Gas Flow. Excessive gas flow causes weld surface turbulence. The shielding gas flow should be measured as it exits the gun nozzle. A localized group of small gas pores with random distribution. As seen in bottom picture the "wagon tracks" are typically found in the center of the gas shielded weld, parallel to weld axis, this is the last area for weld solidification so the porosity congregates as one. The worm holes or wagon tracks are elongated gas pores producing a herring bone appearance on a radiograph.
Worm hole porosity is common in gas shielded flux cored welds when the electrodes have too much moisture in the wire flux or the weld solidifies too rapidly. If you purchase the flux core wire from a third world or Eastern European Country, you are almost guaranteed weld problems such as severe porosity issues, and the often cheaper wire will typically provide greater the potential for Wagon Tracks especially when the weld shop you work has an either cold - damp or humid enviroment.
To reduce weld Porosity - weld Wagon Tracks,. Weld porosity scattered randomly throughout the weld. If the MIG weld surface is gray and looks oxidized, the porosity is typically a result of insufficient gas flow. If the weld surface looks clean with scattered porosity the porosity is usually caused by the base metal part or electrode contamination, or perhaps the weld data used causes the weld to freeze too rapidly. The above recommendations are intended to increase the weld arc energy and decrease the weld cooling rate.
If the porosity issues repeat, change your flux cored wire manufacturer. With mixes containing oxygen, the oxidation potential is increased and a resulting fillet root weld is typically narrow, finger shaped. The narrow root finger area solidifies rapidly trapping the oxide reactions porosity. Increase the weld parameters, slow the weld speed, increase the weld throat thickness and avoid weld weaves. And forget about that ridiculous three part, argon - CO2 - Oxy gas mix recommended by your local gas company.
There are many reasons for cracks to occur in a pipe or plate. Defects in the pipe or welds can grow due to fatigue during the pipe operation. In-service crack growth mechanisms include hydrogen induced cracking, stress corrosion cracking and sour service cracking. Part of the following crack data is from GE. Sour service pipelines are vulnerable to HIC in the presence of water. The cracks can occur in pipeline steels of any strength.
The HIC is typically associated with non-metallic inclusions such as elongated manganese sulfides. With x-rays or ultra sonic evaluation, the HIC in the pipe walls will appear as cracks, but near the pipe surface may appear as rough convex bumps. Acid corrosion will take place on H2O wet areas inside the pipeline and hydrogen will be produced by this corrosion reaction.
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Getting to Know Flux-cored Wires
Technically the introduction of this process was not new. It was just a new type of an electrode that can be used on a MIG welding machine. Flux cored arc welding is a process similar to MIG welding. Both processes using continues wire feeds, and similar equipment. They are both considered semi automatic processes, and have a very high production rate. The main difference between flux cored arc welding and MIG welding is the way the electrode is shielded from the air.
Flux-cored arc welding
The entire arc area is covered by a shielding gas, which is produced during the process, along with liquid slag that protects the weld pool from the atmosphere. Depending on the filter, FCA can be used with or without an additional shielding gas. FCAW is often used for welding structural steel, heavy equipment repair, and bridge construction, among other applications. The Flux Core Welding process — developed during the s — is virtually interchangeable with MIG welding, including the machine.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: mig wire plant video
Flux-cored wires are available in self-shielded and gas-shielded varieties for welding base materials, including mild steel, low-alloy steel, stainless steel, and nickel alloys. This graphic details their operation. No single filler metal is suitable for every job. The mechanical and chemical properties of the base material, the required welding position, the available equipment, and the welding operator's skill set, among other considerations, all factor in making the best selection. When you are seeking to increase productivity through higher deposition rates, flux-cored wires often are a viable option. These wires are known for high performance and weld quality in industries ranging from general fabrication and manufacturing to construction, offshore, and shipbuilding. Flux-cored wires have unique welding characteristics and requirements, advantages, and limitations. Knowing these can help you determine whether they are the right choice. Flux-cored wire comes in self-shielded and gas-shielded varieties, some of which are designated for all-position welding for example, American Welding Society [AWS] E71T-1C , or for flat and horizontal applications E70T-1C. Both types are gas-shielded and produce a slag that helps protect the liquid weld metal during cooling, but this slag must be removed after welding and between passes.
flux cored welding wire production line
FCAW requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux and a constant- voltage or, less commonly, a constant- current welding power supply. An externally supplied shielding gas is sometimes used, but often the flux itself is relied upon to generate the necessary protection from the atmosphere, producing both gaseous protection and liquid slag protecting the weld. The process is widely used in construction because of its high welding speed and portability.
Yoder is a supplier of tooling and equipment, understanding the unique requirements of each application. Flux cored wire is produced with either a lap or butt seam, to retain the flux material within the tube. Powdered flux is metered into the roll forming process, after which the tube is drawn down to the final wire diameter and recoiled, typically at speeds ranging from to FPM. Yoder provides roll forming machinery and tooling that is integrated to the FCW production system. Recently, Yoder has partnered with Lamnea Bruk, Sweden , to supply the roll forming equipment and form tooling which is integrated to their FCW Production system. The integral gear box and roll stand design makes for a compact, modular machine, easily integrated to an FCW Production system. Within the processing of forming cored wire, the alloys are introduced to the roll former either a powder flux, much like the manufacture of weld wire, or a solid core. The alloy is metered into the roll forming machine. In application, the finished cored wire product must be precision fed into the molten metal so the desired amount of alloy element s added. The jacket roll formed over the core serves as a carrier, to transport the alloy into the molten material, so it is not lost in the surface slag.
flux cored wire production line
One added benefit — the process produces its own shielding gas, making it good in windy conditions. However, there are some challenges. The handle is the positive side, meaning the electricity flows from the metal to the welding handle. This generates high, steady, heat to the electrode and a stable arc. Before welding, check the contact tip , the roller speed, and set the wire tension. FCAW uses a continuous wire feed over rollers. Too much tension crushes the electrode in the rollers. Wire speed controls wire flow to the weld joint. Changing wire speed changes the amperage.
Start with the basics: Understanding flux-cored wires
Learn About Our Industrial Ovens. Become a Keen Distributor. What are the differences between flux-cored electrode wire and solid electrode wire? Is one type of electrode better than the other for welding? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of wire? There are two types of flux-cored wire electrodes: gas-shielded and self-shielded. As its name implies, the gas-shielded type of flux-cored wire requires an external shielding gas. The self-shielded variety does not.
Flux-Cored Welding: The Basics for Mild Steel
By arming yourself with some basic knowledge, you can choose and use flux-cored wires for your own welding applications confidently. Flux-cored arc welding FCAW wires certainly aren't new, but like any part of the welding process, understanding them can be confusing—without the right information. Becoming acquainted with some basics, including the most appropriate applications, general classifications and characteristics, and advantages and limitations, of flux-cored wires can yield significant results.
Flux cored welding wire production line
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