Diets for elderly must contain nutritious foods, fit their physiological limitations, and match with their food culture. Cereals and legumes are suggested food choices regardless of their cultures and beliefs. Ready-to-eat products containing suitable macronutrient patterns from cereals and legumes were developed. Carbohydrate sources were rice flour, brown rice flour, mung bean starch, which carbohydrate in rice flour was the most digestible on in vitro test.
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Plant Proteins from LegumesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Extrusion of cereal grains
Grains, beans, nuts and seeds are all seeds. Rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber, they form the base of most healthy food pyramids. Gluten intolerance, soy, corn, and peanut allergies are on the rise.
This is why there is so much confusion about peanuts, cashews, and almonds, which some people struggle to categorize. Is a peanut a nut or a legume? Is quinoa a grain or a seed? End of story. Seeds are designed to survive for a very long time in harsh environments, because they have to sit around and wait for what may be a very long time for conditions to be just right to take root and sprout.
They need to be able to resist cold, heat, insects, worms, bacteria, fungi, and seed-eating animals. In order to protect themselves from all of these dangers, seeds contain a variety of very smart chemicals, many of which have the potential to disrupt the health of unsuspecting humans.
Therefore, plants have evolved very clever ways of dispersing their seeds so that they will go forth and multiply. Some plants grow tasty fruits around their seeds to entice animals to eat them and carry them away.
But what about grass seeds that have no fruit? Grasses rely primarily on wind to disperse their seeds. Grains and legumes were not designed with the health of humans and animals in mind, so no special precautions were taken by the plant to minimize damage to our health. In fact, grains are toxic to humans in their raw state.
For the 2 million years before agriculture was invented, our hunter-gatherer ancestors likely ate few, if any grains, so they are clearly not essential. There have been numerous cultures throughout history the Inuit Eskimo is a good example who, even well into the 20 th century, ate a completely grain-free diet and were healthy.
The first time that grains and beans made up any significant portion of the human diet was between 5, and 10, years ago, when agriculture took hold. Before agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers who ate animals and a variety of fruits and vegetables, depending on where they lived and the time of year. Since dairy products were also added to the human diet at around the same time as grains and legumes, it is hard to be sure whether health declined due to seed foods, dairy products, or both.
We are told that we are supposed to eat at least 3 servings of grain per day, and that half of the grains we eat should be whole grains, yet there is no evidence that grains improve health. So, where does this advice come from? There are hundreds of studies proclaiming the health benefits of eating whole grains, but the problem is that these studies compare diets rich in whole grains to diets rich in refined grains and sugars.
These studies do show that whole grains are healthier for us than refined grains flours , but they do not prove that whole grains are healthy.
Pretty much any whole food is healthier for us than refined carbohydrates, so proving that whole grains beat refined carbohydrates is…well…a piece of cake. The reason for this is probably that pulverizing the grains into flour releases more of the carbohydrates and other potentially damaging contents lurking inside the kernel. If we eat grains whole, the tough outer bran coating, or hull, of the grain keeps more of these pesky particles inside the grain.
Our ancestors have probably been eating nuts and seeds for a lot longer than they have been eating grains and legumes, so even though nuts and seeds contain similarly risky ingredients, it is possible that our genes have learned how to better handle nut and seed compounds because we have been exposed to them for hundreds of thousands of years. The best theoretical explanation I can think of for why nuts in particular may be healthier than grains, beans, or seeds, is that nuts and seeds are protected by their hard shells and therefore may not need to incorporate as many defensive chemicals in their flesh as naked beans and grains, but I have not been able to find evidence of this possibility in the scientific literature [if you have information that can help to answer this question, please contact me ].
Grains are so low in nutritional value that most cereal products in the United States are fortified with vitamins and minerals. Of the four categories of seed foods, beans are usually thought of as being the most nutritious, due to their high protein content.
As you can see from the nutrition information for cooked pinto beans, they are mostly made of starch carbohydrate—something the body has no need for , along with some protein, fiber, and some iron. Yes, there is some protein and some iron in these foods as well. Seed proteins are typically of lower quality due to missing essential amino acids quinoa and soy are notable exceptions.
For example, wheat protein is particularly low in lysine. Corn is especially low in tryptophan. Legumes including soybeans are especially low in sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Some of the proteins in seeds are naturally difficult for us to digest because of their special structure. Lectins can recognize friend from foe by reading carbohydrates on the surfaces of the cells of would-be invaders.
When a seed is stressed or damaged, lectins are released to identify and attack potential enemies. One of the many ways they can fend off an attack is to zero in on targets such as bacteria , bind to their signature carbohydrates, and then cause them to clump together agglutination so they cannot advance. Insects, not people, are the natural predators of grains, so lectins can also cause infertility in insects. Lectins are found in all plants and animals, not just in beans and grains.
However, animal lectins and plant lectins are different; animal lectins are not known to harm the cells of other animals, whereas plant lectins can be risky for humans and other animals. The highest concentrations of the most potent plant lectins are found in the seeds, roots, young shoots, and bark of plants. In seeds, lectins are primarily found in the bran-rich outer coating, which is one reason why even whole grains are not necessarily healthy. Lectins can also be found in the oils of seeds and nuts.
The most important food sources of lectins are grains, beans, nuts, seeds, tomatoes, white potatoes, limes, cinnamon, and Jerusalem artichokes.
Lectins, because they bind to specific carbohydrates on the surfaces of living cells, are very reactive.
You can think of them as being sticky. Lectins can bind to glycoproteins on the surface of our intestinal cells. Lectins have been shown in laboratory studies in vitro to damage human intestinal cells and in animal studies to poke holes in their intestinal linings, causing increased intestinal permeability leaky gut. We know that lectins cross into our bloodstream because healthy people have antibodies to lectins in their blood.
Clumped blood cells are then destroyed by the body, so high doses of lectins can cause anemia. Lectins can also bind to our immune cells and cause them to clump together, weakening our immune system.
However, lectins can also bind to immune cells mast cells and T cells and activate them; this is a potential path to allergies and autoimmune diseases. They can also trigger white blood cells to release pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Lectins can enter cells, and once inside, they can bind to and inactivate ribosomes, which are the tiny protein factories inside of our cells. In laboratory studies, lectins can bind to immune cells called lymphocytes T cells in particular and trigger cancerous changes. In clinical human studies, ingestion of peanuts has been shown to have the ability to cause cancerous proliferation of colon cells. Most lectins can be completely inactivated by pre-soaking foods and then bringing them to a full boil for 15 minutes.
Dry heat baking or roasting is not as effective as prolonged boiling, so baked goods made with grain or bean flours are not as safe as boiled products. Toasted wheat germ contains active lectins, as well. Lectins laugh at stomach acid, and many lectins resist digestion by our intestinal enzymes. Lectins are the reason why grains and beans should never be eaten raw kidney bean lectin is very toxic if eaten raw or undercooked, and will cause severe vomiting.
Sprouting reduces but does not eliminate lectins because once the seed starts to germinate and form a baby plant, much of the lectin protein gets broken down to nourish the growing seedling. However, some lectins remain to protect the growing plant. There are many different types of lectins, with different carbohydrate targets, attack strategies, and potencies.
In the future I will be writing more about these foods and their specific lectins. Gluten is not a single protein; there are hundreds of proteins in the gluten family. Glutens are proteins found only in the following grains:. Glutens are simply seed storage proteins—they are designed to nourish the plant embryo when it comes time to sprout.
Sounds innocent enough…yet, glutens are not only the well-established cause of Celiac disease, a serious autoimmune condition affecting more than 1 in people, but are also the cause of gluten sensitivity, which affects probably many more than 7 in people. Glutens and other storage proteins are found on the inside of all seed foods in the endosperm , not in the bran-rich outer coating, which is probably why refined powdered grains are potentially less healthy than whole grains.
All seeds contain storage proteins, but only the wheat family contains glutens. Glutens contain stretches of repetitive amino acid sequences rich in proline and glutamine that are particularly difficult for our enzymes to digest.
All grains contain prolamins, but the types found in wheat gliadin , rye secalin , and barley horedin , seem to be particularly irritating to the immune systems of susceptible individuals. The problem with gluten being poorly digestible is not just that we have a hard time extracting nutritious proteins from gluten-rich foods. People who are have a true allergy to wheat are reacting to a specific wheat protein called omega-5 gliadin.
This protein is only found in wheat—not in barley, rye, or triticale. Antinutrients in seed foods include enzyme inhibitors and phytic acid.
Seed foods contain compounds that work against our digestive enzymes, making it harder for us to break foods down. These include protease inhibitors , which block protein digestion, and amylase inhibitors , which block starch digestion. Amylase inhibitors do not survive digestion, so they are not a concern. Protease inhibitors are mostly destroyed by cooking, so, in well-cooked seed foods, these would also not be a problem. Phytic acid, however, cannot be destroyed by cooking. It is located primarily in the bran-rich outer coating of seeds, which is one reason why even whole grains are not necessarily healthy.
Phytic acid is a mineral magnet. It binds to certain minerals in the foods we eat, and removes them from our bodies. This can lead to mineral deficiencies, such as iron deficiency anemia. This demonstrates that, even in people who have been eating high-plant diets for years, the body does not adapt to the antinutrient effects of phytic acid:.
Phytic acid can also bind to food proteins and to our digestive enzymes, interfering with protein absorption. Phytic acid is found in all parts of plants, and therefore is found in all plant foods; however, the vast majority of it is located in seeds, where its job is to hold on tightly to the essential minerals phosphorus, iron, zinc, etc.
Once the seed begins to sprout, phytic acid gets broken down so that those vital minerals can be released to the baby plant. This is why non-seed parts of the plant contain extremely low concentrations of phytic acid. The phytic acid content of nuts runs the gamut from low to high. Most phytic acid is not digested; it survives our stomach acid and our intestinal enzymes, making it all the way down into the colon, where bacteria can start to break it down.
Phytic acid does not appear to be absorbed by our systems, so it can only interfere with minerals in our digestive tract, not in our bloodstream or inside of our cells.
Grains, beans, nuts and seeds are all seeds. Rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber, they form the base of most healthy food pyramids. Gluten intolerance, soy, corn, and peanut allergies are on the rise. This is why there is so much confusion about peanuts, cashews, and almonds, which some people struggle to categorize. Is a peanut a nut or a legume? Is quinoa a grain or a seed?
The Role of Legumes in Human Nutrition
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Shahriar Ahmed. Crops harvested as green for forage, silage or grazing are classified as fodder crops. For international trade classifications, fresh cereals other than sweet corn , whether or not suitable for use as fresh vegetables, are classified as cereals.
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Plant breeding and production is key to the quest to meet the global challenge of providing enough quality food for a growing population. Our research has traditionally focussed on grain wheat, barley, pulses and fibre cotton commodities across the production cycle. Research predominantly looks to identify solutions to production problems caused by environmental variability, the presence of disease and pests as well as meeting end-point quality requirements of industry and consumers. Our research breadth also extends to horticultural turf grass, tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, ornamental flowering crops and domestic forestry industries. Our research expertise is captured across the production pipeline with strengths in soil based investigation intimately linked to plant, microbe and atmospheric interactions. We specialise in advanced trait discovery for translatable genetic solutions to current and future issues facing agriculture. Our plant breeding and production research has a long history focused on plant genetics and breeding.
Legumes are valued worldwide as a sustainable and inexpensive meat alternative and are considered the second most important food source after cereals. In addition to their nutritional superiority, legumes have also been ascribed economical, cultural, physiological and medicinal roles owing to their possession of beneficial bioactive compounds. Research has shown that most of the bioactive compounds in legumes possess antioxidant properties, which play a role in the prevention of some cancers, heart diseases, osteoporosis and other degenerative diseases. Because of their composition, legumes are attractive to health conscious consumers, celiac and diabetic patients as well as consumers concerned with weight management. The incorporation of legumes in diets, especially in developing countries, could play a major role in eradicating protein-energy malnutrition especially in developing Afro-Asian countries. Legumes could be a base for the development of many functional foods to promote human health. Legumes are plants belonging to the family Leguminosae also called as Fabaceae that produce seeds within a pod [ 1 , 2 ].
what are cereal crops and pseudocereals, examples
Both common almond, soy, coconut, and rice nondairy milk alternatives as well as less common peanut, pea, oat, and other nondairy milk alternatives are described, as well as their manufacturing steps and quality control. History, Market, and Nutrition Plant-based milks have a long history in many cultures around the world. Of all the plant-based milks, coconut milk has the longest tradition of use. It originated in India and Southeast Asia and has been used as both a drink and an ingredient for nutrition and ceremonial offerings.
Cereal processing , treatment of cereals and other plants to prepare their starch for human food , animal feed , or industrial use. Cereals, or grains, are members of the grass family cultivated primarily for their starchy seeds technically, dry fruits. Wheat, rice, corn maize , rye, oats, barley, sorghum, and some of the millets are common cereals; their composition is shown in the table. Starch , a carbohydrate stored in most plants, is a major constituent of the average human diet, providing a low-cost energy source with good keeping qualities. Cereals are high in starch, which may be used in pure or flour form. Starches are also obtained from such root sources as potatoes and from the pith of tropical palm trees. Various starches are used commercially in food processing and in the manufacture of laundering preparations, paper, textiles, adhesives, explosives, and cosmetics. This article treats the processing and utilization of the major cereals—wheat, rice, barley, rye, oats, corn, sorghum, millet, and buckwheat; of important starchy foods consumed in certain countries instead of cereals, including potatoes and cassava; and of soybeans, legumes widely used in the bakery industry. Wheat species are treated in detail, other cereals in a more general way.
List of Grains and Field Crops
Drought and heat in dryland agriculture challenge the enhancement of crop productivity and threaten global food security. This review is centered on harnessing genetic variation through biotechnology-led approaches to select for increased productivity and stress tolerance that will enhance crop adaptation in dryland environments. It begins by highlighting the adverse impact of the increasing intensity and duration of drought and heat stress due to global warming on crop productivity and its impact on food and nutritional security in dryland environments. This synthesis of technological innovations and insights in seed-based technology offers crop genetic enhancers further opportunities to increase crop productivity in dryland environments. Global warming overall is predicted to have negative effects on agricultural output and productivity.
Bioactive Molecules in Food pp Cite as. Legumes are part of the human edible panel since prehistory times but the remains that reached our last centuries were all from a period posterior to fire domestication. In all parts of the world where human civilizations developed, pulses were associated with cereals and the combination of their proteins managed to cover the essential amino-acid requirements of Humans and animals. Legumes gathering more than 19, different species, all present high protein content due to specific symbiosis with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizae present in the soils. These associations are thought to originate from first symbiotic events dating from more than 60 million years before present. They allow the plants to fix nitrogen that is used for protein biosynthesis. The nutritional value of actual pulses is generally higher than that of other crops especially since domestication and the genetic selection processes operated by humans.
Development of cereal and legume based food products for the elderly
The name F. Schule stands for inventiveness and long-standing experience in cereals processing in all cereals-producing countries in the world. Since our company has been well acquainted with all cereals-producing countries in the world - and the corresponding cereals treatment methods.
How Plant-Based Milks Are Processed
Jump to Main Content. Federal government websites always use a. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. Lists alternative crop and livestock species and related enterprises with links to Extension sources that help evaluate and start non-conventional farming enterprises.
Cereal crops are interchangeably called grain crops. In many publications and correspondence, they are simply called grains or cereals.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed , with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods , such as starchy fruits plantains , breadfruit , etc. This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture , since they can be mechanically harvested , transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos , and milled for flour or pressed for oil.