Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. Wheat varieties are called "soft" or "weak" if gluten content is low, and are called "hard" or "strong" if they have high gluten content. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and thus results in a loaf with a finer, crumbly texture. White flour is made from the endosperm only.
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Wheat flourVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: From Milling the Flour to Baking the Loaves: The Best Way to Make Your Own Bread from Scratch
Flour is a finely ground powder prepared from grain or other starchy plant foods and used in baking. Although flour can be made from a wide variety of plants, the vast majority is made from wheat.
Dough made from wheat flour is particularly well suited to baking bread because it contains a large amount of gluten, a substance composed of strong, elastic proteins. The gluten forms a network throughout the dough, trapping the gases which are formed by yeast, baking powder, or other leavening agents. This causes the dough to rise, resulting in light, soft bread. Flour has been made since prehistoric times. The earliest methods used for producing flour all involved grinding grain between stones.
These methods included the mortar and pestle a stone club striking grain held in a stone bowl , the saddlestone a cylindrical stone rolling against grain held in a stone bowl , and the quern a horizontal, disk-shaped stone spinning on top of grain held on another horizontal stone.
These devices were all operated by hand. The millstone, a later development, consisted of one vertical, disk-shaped stone rolling on grain sitting on a horizontal, disk-shaped stone. Millstones were first operated by human or animal power.
The ancient Romans used waterwheels to power millstones. Windmills were also used to power millstones in Europe by the twelfth century. The first mill in the North American colonies appeared in Boston in and was powered by wind. Most later mills in the region used water. The availability of water power and water transportation made Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the center of milling in the newly independent United States.
The first fully automatic mill was built near Philadelphia by Oliver Evans in During the next century, the center of milling moved as railroads developed, eventually settling in Minneapolis, Minnesota. During the nineteenth century numerous improvements were made in mill technology. This device consisted of a vibrating screen through which air was blown to remove bran from ground wheat. The resulting product, known as middlings or farina, could be further ground into high-quality flour. In , the first important roller mill was used in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
This new type of mill used metal rollers, rather than millstones, to grind wheat. Roller mills were less expensive, more efficient, more uniform, and cleaner than millstones.
Modern versions of middlings purifiers and roller mills are still used to make flour today. Although most flour is made from wheat, it can also be made from other starchy plant foods.
These include barley, buckwheat, corn, lima beans, oats, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, rice, and rye. Many varieties of wheat exist for use in making flour. Flour intended to be used to bake bread is made from hard wheat. The high percentage of protein in hard wheat means the dough will have more gluten, allowing it to rise more than soft wheat flour. Flour intended to be used to bake cakes and pastry is made from soft wheat. All-purpose flour is made from a blend of soft and hard wheat.
Durum wheat is a special variety of hard wheat, which is used to make a kind of flour called semolina. Semolina is most often used to make pasta. Flour usually contains a small amount of additives. Bleaching agents such as benzoyl peroxide are added to make the flour more white. Oxidizing agents also known as improvers such as potassium bromate, chlorine dioxide, and azodicarbonamide are added to enhance the baking quality of the flour. These agents are added in a few parts per million.
Self-rising flour contains salt and a leavening agent such as calcium phosphate. It is used to make baked goods without the need to add yeast or baking powder. Most states require flour to contain added vitamins and minerals to replace those lost during milling. The most important of these are iron and the B vitamins, especially thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin. An illustration from The Young Millwright and Miller's Guide, depicting the processes of an automated grain mill. In the book, simple theories are transformed into a set of mechanical devices that form a flour mill.
At the back of the book is a drawing, illustrating how these devices make a continuous production line in which the human hand is eliminated from the beginning of the process to the end of production. The author of this book was Oliver Evans, himself the son of a miller. He and his brothers ran their own mill, developed the systems, and perfected the operations that led to the automated grain mill.
Today, Evans is considered one of America's most ambitious mechanical innovators. He used his understanding of the way in which water turned a mill wheel and developed it into a viable grain-milling system. Most important was the fact that his system contained the idea of the integrated and automated factory. When a machine substitutes human intervention, the problems of the fully automated assembly line are solved.
This concept was not fully applied until the s by Henry Ford, who was able to develop a successful, operational assembly line.
Ford had the advantage of living at the end of the machine age, but Oliver Evans was the first to present the concept of automation before it was even possible. One device, known as a disk separator, moves the wheat over a series of disks with indentations that collect objects the size of a grain of wheat. Smaller or larger objects pass over the disks and are removed.
The quality control of flour begins when the wheat is received at the flour mill. The wheat is tested for its protein content and for its ash content. The ash content is the portion which remains after burning and consists of various minerals. During each step of the purification process, several samples are taken to ensure that no foreign matter ends up in the flour.
Since flour is intended for human consumption, all the equipment used in milling is thoroughly cleaned and sterilized by hot steam and ultraviolet light. The equipment is also treated with antibacterial agents and antifungal agents to kill any microscopic organisms which might contaminate it. Hot water is used to remove any remaining traces of these agents. The final product of milling is tested for baking in test kitchens to ensure that it is suitable for the uses for which it is intended.
The vitamin and mineral content is measured in order to comply with government standards. The exact amount of additives present is measured to ensure accurate labeling. A kernel of wheat consists of three parts, two of which can be considered byproducts of the milling process. The bran is the outer covering of the kernel and is high in fiber.
The germ is the innermost portion of the kernel and is high in fat. The endosperm makes up the bulk of the kernel and is high in proteins and carbohydrates. Whole wheat flour uses all parts of the kernel, but white flour uses only the endosperm.
Bran removed during milling is often added to breakfast cereals and baked goods as a source of fiber. It is also widely used in animal feeds. Wheat germ removed during milling is often used as a food supplement or as a source of edible vegetable oil.
Like bran, it is also used in animal feeds. Besant, Lloyd. Grains: Production, Processing, Marketing. Chicago Board of Trade, Kent, N. Pergamon Press, Sokolov, Raymond. Wrigley, Colin W. University of Saskatchewan College of Agricultural Sciences. December 7, Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 3 Flour Flour. Periodicals Sokolov, Raymond. Other "How Flour is Made.
Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. Also read article about Flour from Wikipedia. User Contributions: 1. Austine kruz. How do u make a small scale flour production. I wnt 2 build a bakery nd i wnt 2 b grinding my own wheat into flour. Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: Name:. E-mail: Show my email publicly. Human Verification:. Public Comment: characters.
Sixty percent of the wheat flour milled in the UK is used in bread manufacture. Annual flour consumption is estimated to be around 74 kg per person. Commercially grown wheat varieties vary in their molecular composition, and the flours made from the grain will show corresponding differences in their suitability for various baked goods. A component of wheat that is of particular importance is gluten protein although gluten is most often thought of with regard to wheat, it is also present in other cereal grains such as barley and rye. Hard wheats contain high levels of gluten, soft wheats contain relatively little.
Wheat has accompanied humans since remote times as far back as to BC in their evolution and development, evolving itself in part by nature and in part by manipulation from its primitive form emmer wheat into the presently cultivated species. The more important modern wheat species are hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Except for the very warm tropics, wheat adapts to all diverse climatic conditions prevailing in agricultural lands and, therefore, it is harvested in the world all year around. Its wide adaptation to diverse environmental conditions, along with its unique characteristic of possessing a viscoelastic storage protein complex called gluten, are the main factors making wheat the most important food crop in the world. There are quite large differences in grain composition and processing quality among wheat cultivars within a species. Hence, one cultivar may be suitable to prepare one food type but unsuitable to prepare a different one.
Хейл выжидал. Стояла полная тишина, и он внимательно прислушался. Ничего. Вроде бы на нижней ступеньке никого .SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Science: What is Gluten? Here's How to See and Feel Gluten
Стратмор разработал план… и план этот Фонтейн не имел ни малейшего намерения срывать. ГЛАВА 75 Пальцы Стратмора время от времени касались беретты, лежавшей у него на коленях.
Сьюзан сообщила Дэвиду, что ее работа заключается в изучении шифров, взламывании их ручными методами и передаче расшифрованных сообщений руководству. Но это было не совсем. Сьюзан переживала из-за того, что ей пришлось солгать любимому человеку, но у нее не было другого выхода. Все, что она сказала, было правдой еще несколько лет назад, но с тех пор положение в АН Б изменилось.
Да и весь мир криптографии изменился. Новые обязанности Сьюзан были засекречены, в том числе и для многих людей в высших эшелонах власти. - Шифры, - задумчиво сказал Беккер - Откуда ты знаешь, с чего начинать. То есть… как ты их вскрываешь.
Сьюзан улыбнулась: - Уж ты-то мог бы это понять.
Честно говоря, - нахмурился Стратмор, - я вообще не собирался этого делать. Мне не хотелось никого в это впутывать. Я сам попытался отправить твой маячок, но ты использовала для него один из новейших гибридных языков, и мне не удалось привести его в действие. Он посылал какую-то тарабарщину.
Сьюзан спустилась по лестнице на несколько ступенек. Горячий воздух снизу задувал под юбку.
Чего же он ждет. Он засмеялся. Ведь пилот может радировать Стратмору. Усмехнувшись, Беккер еще раз посмотрелся в зеркало и поправил узел галстука. Он уже собрался идти, как что-то в зеркале бросилось ему в. Он повернулся: из полуоткрытой двери в кабинку торчала сумка Меган. - Меган? - позвал. Ответа не последовало. - Меган.
Бринкерхофф почувствовал, как его тело покрывается холодным. Мидж продолжала читать. Мгновение спустя она удовлетворенно вскрикнула: - Я так и знала. Он это сделал. Идиот! - Она замахала бумагой. - Он обошел Сквозь строй.
Но, сеньор, она занята с клиентом. - Это очень важно, - извиняющимся тоном сказал Беккер. Вопрос национальной безопасности. Консьерж покачал головой: - Невозможно. Быть может, вы оставите… - Всего на одну минуту. Она в столовой.
Сьюзан это показалось разумным. Цифровая крепость впервые запустила функцию переменного открытого текста; быть может, ТРАНСТЕКСТ сумеет взломать шифр за двадцать четыре часа. Но честно говоря, она в это уже почти не верила. - Пусть ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает, - принял решение Стратмор.
С Дэвидом все в порядке. Просто мне приходится быть крайне осторожным.
А что это за звездочка? - спросила Сьюзан. - После цифр стоит какая-то звездочка. Джабба ее не слушал, остервенело нажимая на кнопки. - Осторожно! - сказала Соши.
Они же пустые. - Пустые, но мои, черт тебя дери. - Прошу прощения, - сказал Беккер, поворачиваясь, чтобы уйти.