Raw materials-sand, soda ash, limestone and other ingredients Batching-raw materials are stored in silos to be measured and delivered to batch mixers. Raw materials are processed according to stringent qualifications. The timeline for raw materials to be converted into molten glass takes 24 hours for a batch. Correct temperature is extremely important to deliver a finished product.
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- Glass and Glass Product Manufacturing: Global Markets to 2020
- Glass Manufacturing Process
- A glass production process to be proud of
- Archive:Glass production statistics - NACE Rev. 1.1
- How Are Glass Bottles Made
- Building Brands, Transforming Moments
- Introducing Solarshield®Majestic Grey
- Glass – production, application and recycling
Glass and Glass Product Manufacturing: Global Markets to 2020VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Riedel Glass Production - The Wine Glass Company
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Kelechukwu Ekpo. It was instituted in order to provide the opportunity for students in tertiary institutions to gain a hands — on experience in their field of study before the completion of their program in their respective institutions and also to correct the general deterioration in the quality of graduates from Nigerian universities, caused by lack of equipment in the university laboratories.
The primary aim of the S. S is to bridge the gap between the knowledge acquired in the lecture room and the skills required in the work place. This training usually varies from a period of three months to one year depending on the level, institution, and course of study. The bodies involved in the management of S. Therefore the success of the SIWES depends on the efficiency of the ministries, ITF, institutions, employers of labor and the general public involved in articulation and management of the program.
Thus the evaluation of SIWES in tertiary institutions in meeting up with the needs for the establishment of the program is necessary. In compliance with the aims and objectives of the S.
S program, I carried out my Industrial Training I. I was assigned to the Quality Assurance department Chemical laboratory section where I carried out various analysis on both raw materials and manufactured products in the laboratory.
I was also given an opportunity to tour various sectors of the factory to observe and hence, gain a general idea and experience of their operations. The activities carried out in the quality assurance department are of immense value to a materials and metallurgical engineer. The main objectives of S. The Company was listed on the exchange since In , the company acquired the assets of the former African Glass located at Ikeja, Lagos state, Nigeria.
The company has manufacturing plants in Agbara, Ogun state and in Ughelli, Delta state. It also has three furnaces with a capacity of approximately tons of produced glass containers per day. The Company provides packaging solutions to a range of customers operating in the soft drinks, beer, spirit, cosmetics and pharmaceutical market segments.
PRODUCTS Beta Glass Plc Guinea Plant is engaged in the manufacture, distribution and sale of glass bottles and containers for the leading breweries, soft drinks, wine and spirit, pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies. The major products manufactured during my I. This is because it forms a strong interlocking connection with every other department in the company. These sections are: a Chemical laboratory department.
These two sections are in charge of ensuring optimum product quality. For the duration of my I. I was assigned to the chemical laboratory section under the Quality Control department. It is delegated with the following responsibilities; 1. Inspection of raw materials brought in from external sources.
Analysis of raw materials in use. Some of these analysis include: i. Moisture content determination of in-use raw materials. Chemical content determination of in-use raw materials e. Grain size distribution of raw materials in-use.
Analysis on glass products. These analysis include: I. Colour transmittance using a spectrophotometer. Applied colour label test. Glass density. Density determination of fuel sources at the point of entrance into the company 5. Monitoring and treatment of water used in the company. There are seven different water samples analysed each day. These include: raw, process treated, compressor cooling, shear spray, forming drinking, canteen treated, and effluent treated water.
The hardness and PH of these various water samples are monitored each day and treated when necessary to ensure proper dissolution and mixing of the raw materials. GLASS Glass is an inorganic amorphous solid material that is usually transparent or translucent as well as hard, brittle, and impervious to the natural elements. Defined according to modern scientific beliefs, glass is a solid material that has the atomic structure of a liquid.
Following a definition given in by the physicist W. Zachariasen, glass is an extended, three-dimensional network of atoms that form a solid which lacks the long-range periodicity or repeated, orderly arrangement typical of crystalline materials. Simply stated, glass is a super cooled liquid. Glass has been made into practical and decorative objects since ancient times, and it is still very important in applications as disparate as building construction, housewares, and telecommunications.
It is formed upon the cooling of a molten liquid in such a manner that the ordering of atoms into a crystalline formation is prevented. Instead of the abrupt change in structure that takes place in a crystalline material such as metal as it is cooled below its melting point, in the cooling of a glass-forming liquid there is a continuous stiffening of the fluid until the atoms are virtually frozen into a more or less random arrangement similar to the arrangement that they had in the fluid state.
Conversely, upon application of heat to solid glass, there is a gradual softening of the structure until it reaches the fluid state. This monotonically changing property, known as viscosity, enables glass products to be made in a continuous fashion, with raw materials melted to a homogeneous liquid, delivered as a viscous mass to a forming machine to make a specific product, and then cooled to a hard and rigid condition.
The varieties of glass differ widely in chemical composition and in physical qualities. Most varieties, however, have certain qualities in common. They pass through a viscous stage in cooling from a state of fluidity; they develop effects of color when the glass mixtures are fused with certain metallic oxides; they are, when cold, poor conductors both of electricity and of heat; most types are easily fractured by a blow or shock and show a conchoidal fracture; they are but slightly affected by ordinary solvents but are readily attacked by hydrofluoric acid.
Glass is chiefly preferred as a packaging media on account of its many properties. Some of these properties are discussed below.
For wine, impermeability protects the wine from being contaminated by the odours of the ambient and from losing the organoleptic properties which is important for the long term storage of quality wines mainly red. Glass products also cannot be perforated by syringes and this is a big advantage to avoid and prevent product boycotting and bio-terroristic attacks. This is nowadays a more and more important issue for the food Companies. Normally bottles for red wines are dark to protect wine from light, mainly ultraviolet component of sunlight which is responsible of the oxidation of coloured o po e ts of red i es.
For jam, transparent containers are used, since the effect of light is not a big issue. Rigidity implies also that wine bottles and jam jars are not deformed during transportation handling and volume declared on the label is reliable. Even after it has served it service use, it can still be recycled as cullet and used in manufacturing other glass products. During manufacture of glass products, the defective products can be recycled as cullet thereby saving cost.
Other reasons for glass use include its chemical durability, low thermal insulating properties, unreactive nature, long shelf life, etc. WEIGHT: a bottle of sparkling wine can weigh up to grams which is roughly equal to the weight of the product! A PET bottle, on the contrary, can weigh less than one tenth 75 grams. In addition to that, PET bottles can be transported as a pre-form having a much lower volume of the final content. High demand of water needed in production process, mainly for cooling.
This is a restri tio fa tor for areas of lo ater a aila ilit. Water footpri t is ha ing an increasing importance in those countries of environmental friendly culture.
FIG 2. There are three ajor stages i ol ed i the a ufa ture of glass produ ts. This is due to a fact that no product can be manufactured without the availability of its necessary raw materials. Care must also be taken to ensure that the raw materials meet standard specifications required for the manufacture of top quality products. This stage demands dire attention because if the raw materials brought in fall short of the standard specifications then the manufactured glass products would have a high tendency to be defective resulting in energy and time wastage as well as waste of funds and resources.
The raw materials brought in for glass bottle production are summarized in the table below with their respective sources included. TABLE 3. Cullet is crushed glass, generally of the same composition as the mineral mixture, and comes from regrind from previous production runs and recycling sources. It is a important energy savings ingredient that both lowers the amount of energy needed for the melting process and in turn helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The cullet brought in usually consist of green, amber and flint glass pieces. In summary cullet can be referred to as recycled glass that helps reduce the amount of raw materials and energy needed to make new glass. It is a source of magnesia which reduces devritification while reducing setting rate. Alumina Al2O3 , one of the major ingredients in feldspar gives the glass bottles their chemical resistance.
It usually contains some impurities such as iron oxide and magnesium oxide MgO. Its serves as calcium to the glass bottle i. The addition of lime calcium oxide, CaO , supplied by the limestone, renders the glass insoluble, but too much makes the glass prone to devitrification - i.
It usually contains about Soda ash Na2CO3 : also known as sodium carbonate. This material plays a vital role as it acts as a flux. It makes available the fluxing agent sodium oxide which reduces the melting point of the silica in the glass batch.
Sodium sulphate: this material prevents scum formation in the molten glass during refining and also acts as a flux for the molten glass.
It equally acts as a fining agent in molten glass, removing small air bubbles and imperfections during the blowing and casting process.
Glass Manufacturing Process
As well as the more obvious uses, glass has many other applications, advantages and a lot of potential. Glass is already used in several ways in new technology, from electrical insulation, to passivate components or as a hermetic seal. These existing and potential uses will see the demand for glass rise exponentially, and manufacturers and suppliers need to be ready for that. The traditional glass production process very much follows the linear model of extracting resources, manufacturing a product, using it and then seeing it disposed of. This is a resource and energy intensive way of creating a product and does not make the most of the value available within the material.
A glass production process to be proud of
This research report categorizes the glass and glass products manufacturing market by type. BCC Research analysts craft reference reports with a unique end noted referencing methodology, which allows users to cross reference and trace market numbers back to their source. These individuals are experts in secondary research and primary forecasting - compiling and layering existing data with their original research and analysis. The team has decades of combined experience covering a wide range of industries, including healthcare, advanced materials and emerging technologies. When do I get the report? Most reports are fulfilled immediately. In some cases, it could take up to 24 hours. In what format does this report get delivered to me? We will send you an email with login credentials to access the report. You will also be able to download the pdf.
Archive:Glass production statistics - NACE Rev. 1.1
This Statistics Explained article is outdated and has been archived - for recent articles on structural business statistics see here. This article belongs to a set of statistical articles which analyse the structure, development and characteristics of the various economic activities in the European Union EU. Glass products include:. Glass comes in a range of forms for a range of functions. The majority of EU glass production in was in the form of container glass bottles and jars used for preserving and packaging drinks, food and perfumes among other products , the production of flat glass principally float glass for buildings and automotive vehicles in the form of windows and windscreens being about one half of that of container glass. The combined production of domestic tableware glass for example, drinking glasses and oven dishes , special glass for example, optical glass, electrical equipment screens and lighting glass and filament glass fibre principally for the reinforcement of composite materials was about one third of that of flat glass in There were These glass manufacturing enterprises employed
How Are Glass Bottles Made
Attractive, modern, impressive, glamorous. These words describe the distinctive feature of the diagonal waves running around the entire bottle shape. The design is inspired by an antique oil can and represents American and the vintage industrial era. On the go consumption — packaged in an artfully designed compact, amber, stubby bottle that features a clean cylindrical shape and generously rounded shoulder. Customized engraving speaks to heritage and the tradition of craft. The container offers innovation through simplicity. The conical shape cradles in the palm of the hand, allowing for a secure grip. The generous heel communicates happiness and movement, and provides for easy stacking. Glass is enchanting and versatile.
Building Brands, Transforming Moments
At Vetropack, glass production is based on the principles of sustainability and long-term success. We are prudent in our business, environmentally aware in our actions, and mindful of our social responsibility. Our pioneering work to develop a system for glass recycling in the mids is an excellent example. We constantly work on our process technologies, because every innovation improves the energy balance of our glass manufacturing. Every gram of the 1.
Introducing Solarshield®Majestic Grey
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Glass – production, application and recycling
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Have you ever wondered how is glass made? The glass — float glass as we know - is manufactured by the PPG process. This process was invented by Sir Alistair Pilkington in and is the most popular and widely used process that describes how to make glass for architectural purposes in the world today. Fine grained ingredients closely controlled for quality, are mixed to make a batch, which flows into the furnace, which is heated up to degree Celsius.
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