You will find the shoe pattern is not the critical or special feature, the footwear materials are! Learning how to specify footwear materials is critical when you are learning how to make shoes! If you want to learn how to become a shoe designer, you must know how to spec footwear materials. Rich leathers, silky mesh, or high-tech synthetics, take your pick. The demands for footwear performance and manufacturing must be met.
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- Textile technologies for the manufacture of three-dimensional textile preforms
- How clothes and shoes can be made with renewable electricity
- Textiles, Clothing and Footwear
- Running Shoe
- Digital Manufacturing
- How to Select Footwear Materials
- ONE shoe, ONE material, ONE Person. All in ONE.
- Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Textile technologies for the manufacture of three-dimensional textile preformsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How it's made lyubov-morkov.come manufacturing process.
This paper aims to provide an overview of the current manufacturing methods for three-dimensional textile preforms while providing experimental data on the emerging techniques of combining yarn interlocking with yarn interlooping. The paper describes the key textile technologies used for composite manufacture: braiding, weaving and knitting.
The various textile preforming methods are suited to different applications; their capabilities and end performance characteristics are analysed. Such preforms are used in composites in a wide range of industries, from aerospace to medical and automotive to civil engineering. The paper highlights how the use of knitting technology for preform manufacture has gained wider acceptance due to its flexibility in design and shaping capabilities.
The tensile properties of glass fibre knit structures containing inlay yarns interlocked between knitted loops are given, highlighting the importance of reinforcement yarns. The future trends of reinforcement yarns in knitted structures for improved tensile properties are discussed, with initial experimental data.
Ishmael, N. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. The use of textiles for technical applications has been on the rise, particularly as composites for engineering purposes. Textiles can provide performance advantages, most notably in terms of high strength-weight ratios compared to metal counterparts Bannister, ; this is ideal for automotive applications, where reduced weight contributes to fuel efficiency and improves ease of handling in the manufacturing process.
Traditionally, composites are manufactured by manual lay-up of two-dimensional 2D laminates until the correct thickness and shape is achieved, a costly and labour-intensive method Mouritz et al. To overcome these problems, the textile industry has sought to produce near-net-shape reinforced three-dimensional 3D fibre architectures Mouritz et al.
As discussed by Ogale and Alagirusamy , textile preforms can be manufactured by weaving, knitting, braiding, stitching or non-woven methods. Mechanical properties can be tailored by orientating fibres in optimal directions to provide through-the-thickness reinforcement, which improves interlaminar shear and prevents delamination; a characteristic that traditional composites lack Bannister, ; Hufenbach et al.
Textile preforms can be injected with resin and subjected to heat and pressure for consolidation into a hard or soft flexible textile composite; alternatively, they can remain in their soft state for a range of applications, i. The resin contributes only a minor role in the load bearing capacity of the composite Heenkenda, ; instead, it is the reinforcement materials that provide the strength and load bearing capacity. In a soft composite, the textile structure is the major component to the composite Annis and Quigley, The production of 3D fabrics through fully automated textile machinery eliminates assembly operations, minimises waste and reduces cost Hu, ; Ionesi et al.
A significant advantage to 3D preforms is their ability to fit exactly into a mould for resin infusion without the need to precisely manoeuvre the textile structure into the correct shape Heenkenda, This paper addresses current technologies that achieve such preforms, and provides an understanding of how a combination of yarn arrangements interlocking and interlooping could improve the mechanical and physical properties of a structure.
The experimental results of the tensile properties of knit structures with inlay yarns supports further investigations into reinforced contoured material forms.
Textile forms are categorised as either 2D or 3D based on the degree of reinforcement in the z thickness direction Kamiya et al. Davies categorises 3D fabrics into two types based on their manufacturing process: those produced in a multi-step process where individual layers of 2D materials are joined together; and those produced in a single-step process creating a dense structure i. Hearle , on the other hand, divides 3D fabrics into two categories based on their form: either a fabric with an overall 3D shape or a fabric containing a complex internal 3D structure.
Table I provides examples of 2D and 3D fibre architectures for each of the main textile construction processes. Each fabric-forming process offers its own benefits and limitations, as summarised in Table II. Woven structures provide the highest strength and stability compared to any other fabric constructed from yarns Sondhelm, , whereas knitted fabrics can provide high drapeability and extensibility due to easy distortion of the loop structure Ray, Developing a method that can produce a contoured form with combined fabric-forming concepts will expand the scope of mechanical properties available in a single structure.
Braiding is typically suited to produce cylinder components where a continuous linear material is produced. However, yarn interlacement can also occur directly over a shaped mandrel or inner core to produce varied shaped composites Potluri et al. Weaving is suitable for high-performance applications, where the nature of straight inlaid yarns provides high strength and stiffness. However, the straightness of yarns can prevent drapeability to complex shapes.
Conversely, the interlooping characteristics of knitted structures provide superior elastic behaviour compared to woven and braided fabrics, contributing to its enhanced drapeability Lau and Dias, ; Heenkenda, The formability and design capabilities of knitted structures makes them ideal for reinforcements of complex-shaped preforms and has led to their wider acceptance for composite manufacture Leong et al.
However, the loop structure leads to its main disadvantage of distortion during manufacture, resulting in inferior strength and stiffness properties as compared to woven preforms Leong et al. As early as , it was noted that knitted-fabric-reinforced composites would not be suitable for highly stressed structures, such as those in aviation, but could be used in car body parts and secondary load-bearing structures Mayer et al.
The design capabilities of woven structures are often seen as limited, primarily due to the fixed width restricted by the fixed weaving area. This is influenced by the following factors: weft insertion methods, jacquard harness set-up for jacquard looms and the number of permitted headless on the shafts for dobby looms.
There have been limited developments that have allowed for easy movement of the warp to vary the width of the fabric; this concept of fixed width is similar to the restrictions in warp knitting. Weft knitting technology can increase or decrease its dimensions at any point by varying the number of needles in action. The structure can be knitted into its final shape component, eliminating the cutting process after fabric formation and minimising waste.
The various fibre placement methods discussed create a wide scope of fibre orientations, pore geometries, fabric densities and net-shape capabilities. These factors impact the structural performance; therefore, the manufacturing method is integral in producing a product fit for purpose Ko and Du, Brown highlights medical uses of 3D fabrics, particularly a complex woven structure as a vascular draft intended to redirect blood flow in the body.
Braiding manufacturing techniques have developed over the years; however, the fundamental principal of intertwining two or more yarns has remained the same Kamiya et al. Braiding was the first textile process used to manufacture 3D fibre preforms for composites Mouritz et al.
The main principle to the braiding process is that two or more sets of yarn carriers bobbins rotate along a track in opposing directions, resulting in yarn interlacement at an angle bias to the machine axis. The yarns are thread through bobbins, which travel in a predetermined path, creating a braided pattern.
Design capabilities of braiding technology is limited by the width of the machine, with high costs added if large widths are required Heenkenda, Braiding serves a broad range of applications — from ropes and electrical cables to medical items, bicycle frames and industrial tubes Kyosev, ; Branscomb et al. Yarn interlacement can also occur directly over a shaped mandrel to enable complex shaped composites to be produced Potluri et al. Mandrels serve as a mould to support the intertwined yarns and determine the internal geometry of the structure.
In some instances, the mandrel forms part of the final component Potluri et al. Strong outlined that mandrels have been used as linings in high-pressure tanks containing fuel.
When removal of the mandrel is needed, it is made to be soluble, collapsible or inflatable Baker et al. Braiding has a number of advantages over competing processes such as weaving.
Braiding is a flexible process, where structures can be produced as flat fabrics with a continuous selvedge, or as tubular forms with the ability of branching to produce complex shapes, whilst maintaining fibre continuity Potluri et al.
The braiding process can also produce holes without losing yarn continuity, with greater stability than machined holes Bannister, Braiding is considered 3D when at least three yarn systems are used Wendland et al. However, 3D braiding machines are slow and expensive Potluri et al. The multi-axis technique consists of yarns oriented in various directions and planes, creating multiple layers and enabling zero delamination Bilisik, The reduction in weight in braided reinforced composites is a significant factor that makes braiding technology ideal for car components and influences further research in the automotive industry Bilisik et al.
Braided composites, as an alternative to heavy metals, can create structural components such as beams and connecting rods; the significant reduction in vehicle weight improves fuel efficiency and emission rates, making car manufacturers seek this technology.
Braided composites have also become a popular choice for sporting equipment, particularly due to their lower costs and reduced weight.
Munich Composites GmbH and designer Benjamin Hansbauer used the braiding technique to develop a bicycle preform made from carbon fibre. The braided sleeve is manufactured on a near-net-shape contoured core, with fibre continuity around the entire shape to form the frame of the bicycle JEC Composites Magazine, Traditional bicycle frames are manufactured out of a prepreg, where fabrics are cured in tubular shapes that then need to be joined together — a labour-intensive method.
However, the braiding technique allows for fully automated fibre lay-up, resulting in higher precision, lower costs and better reproducibility. Munich Composites GmbH also developed braided preforms for hockey sticks, whereby the braiding technique solved fibre wrinkling and allowed the curved shape to be made in a highly automated process Black et al.
Zeng et al. The inner radius and thickness of the tubes, as well as the braid angle were varied to characterise the energy absorption properties when these parameters are changed.
A main finding, to be expected, was that when the thickness of the tube wall increased, the energy absorption also increased as there was an increase in fibre to share the energy load. Fangueiro et al. The research tested the viability of the composites to be used as a substitute for metal as reinforcement rods in concrete. The braided composites with carbon as the reinforcement fibre repeatedly achieved the highest modulus of elasticity compared to other reinforcement fibres of glass, polyethylene and sisal that were tested.
This means more force is needed on the carbon reinforced samples to deform the material. The braided samples were compared with commercial steel rods, and the carbon braided rods were found to have higher ultimate stress, but the modulus of elasticity was significantly lower. The modulus of elasticity is an important parameter in civil engineering applications, which would need to be increased to compete with commercial steel components.
The addition of inlay yarns within the braided structure could contribute in achieving higher tensile properties. Although the yarn interlacement of straight yarns in braiding provides structural integrity for high performance applications, the maximum width and cross-section of 3D braided preforms are limited Bilisik et al.
The alternating yarn paths in braiding are concepts that could be transferred to warp insertion within knitted structures. This would create a twisting action of the warp yarns around knitted loops, causing a locking effect with minimum yarn shearing, potentially improving mechanical strength.
Traditionally, weaving is characterised as the interlocking of perpendicular yarns to create a 2D structure Chen et al. However, over the years, the complexity of woven designs has increased with the possibility of producing 3D structures. However, the lack of through-the-thickness reinforcement limits impact resistance and causes delamination between layers. As an alternative, 3D structures that contain a through-the-thickness yarn that binds layers at varying angles are being used Chen et al.
This alternative method for producing composites with substantial thickness eliminates the labour-intensive manual lay-up of individual fabric layers. A limitation to the use of woven structures in composite applications is the inherent crimp produced during the interlocking of yarns Badawi, , which reduces overall strength. However, orthogonal structures exhibit significantly high in-plane stiffness and strength due the layers of straight yarns with zero crimp.
The yarns are arranged perpendicularly to one another in the X, Y and Z directions, as shown in Figure 2. The bias yarns provide substantial improvements to conventional woven preforms, whereby the in-plane properties are improved Bilisik, In recent years, prototypes for 3D multi-axis weaving have been developed to characterise the preform properties and to improve the different techniques for producing such fabric Labanieh et al.
Labanieh et al. This technique was further investigated to identify the influence of the presence of bias yarns on the mechanical properties of composites Labanieh et al. Both were impregnated with epoxy resin by vacuum infusion process. Such findings include lower and non-linear response to tensile testing in the bias direction for the orthogonal structure, compared to the multi-axial structures, which required much higher stress for lower strains. It is possible to produce woven spacer structures through the traditional velvet weaving technique, whereby pile yarns connect two sets of warp yarns that are woven as separate layers Deshpande et al.
Dresdon University of Technology have further developed woven spacer structures with the use of woven cross-link fabrics rather than pile yarns for the connection of the outer layers, as shown in Figure 3 Mountasir et al.
While most footwear protects and supports the foot, the running shoe goes beyond what one would expect of the ordinary shoe. Its advantages have been the subject of intense scrutiny in recent years, a focus that results from an increasingly health- and leisure-conscious population in general, and from the popularity of running in particular. As more people have become involved in the sport, more and more varied equipment has become available to runners. Consequently, the running shoe has evolved quite dramatically over the past 15 years. Running as a sport can be traced back to the ancient Greeks, who advocated a culture based on sound bodies and sound minds.
How clothes and shoes can be made with renewable electricity
This paper aims to provide an overview of the current manufacturing methods for three-dimensional textile preforms while providing experimental data on the emerging techniques of combining yarn interlocking with yarn interlooping. The paper describes the key textile technologies used for composite manufacture: braiding, weaving and knitting. The various textile preforming methods are suited to different applications; their capabilities and end performance characteristics are analysed. Such preforms are used in composites in a wide range of industries, from aerospace to medical and automotive to civil engineering.
Textiles, Clothing and Footwear
Transforming the garment sector to run on renewable energy is vital for a more sustainable society. Customers are also increasingly concerned with how their clothes are made. Fashion, designer and retail companies are increasingly working to reduce their carbon footprint. Using renewable energy in their operations and supply chain is an important step in achieving this. Fashion for Good is another global initiative that is working to ensure that all stages of the fashion supply chain are good — clean and renewable energy is one of the fundamental ways to improve the process. The Five Goods represent an aspirational model to work towards.
For information on other areas of manufacturing please visit the Manufacturing cluster page, the Automotive cluster page, and the Food and Pharmaceutical cluster page. All data sources are available at the end of the page. Employment in the Textiles, Leather, Clothing and Footwear manufacturing sector has been trending downwards over time. Employment numbers have dropped from around 92, in to around 41, in By employment is predicted to be about 39, Within these industry sectors the two largest occupational groups are Sewing Machinists and Clothing Trades Workers. For both occupations there is predicted to be a considerable decrease in employment numbers by , particularly for Sewing Machinists. Program enrolments and program completions have declined between and , with around 6, enrolments in The most common intended occupations for the training were Sewing Machinist around 1, enrolments , followed by Clothing Patternmaker around 1, enrolments , then Clothing Trades Workers around 1, enrolments.
Digital control gives designers access to a wide range of property extremes using one starting formulation set. Go from prototyping to production in a matter of weeks, reacting to market trends and consumer demands in real time. Eliminate cost barriers for limited releases while simultaneously lowering the cost of volume production.
Не обращая внимания на устремленные на него любопытные взгляды десятков пар глаз, Беккер шагнул в толпу. Он ослабил узел галстука и рухнул на стул у ближайшего свободного столика.
Вначале он хотел выстрелить Беккеру в голову, но, будучи профессионалом, решил не рисковать. Целясь в торс, он сводил к минимуму возможность промаха в вертикальной и горизонтальной плоскостях. Эта тактика себя оправдала. Хотя в последнее мгновение Беккер увернулся, Халохот сумел все же его зацепить. Он понимал, что пуля лишь слегка оцарапала жертву, не причинив существенного ущерба, тем не менее она сделала свое.
Контакт был установлен. Жертва ощутила прикосновение смерти, и началась совершенно иная игра. Беккер мчался, не видя ничего вокруг, постоянно сворачивал, избегая прямых участков. Шаги неумолимо приближались. В голове у него не было ни единой мысли - полная пустота. Он не знал ни где он находится, ни кто его преследует и мчался, подгоняемый инстинктом самосохранения.
Да. Немало. - В Севилью - по делам? - настаивал Ролдан. Ясно, конечно, что это никакой не полицейский, это Клиент с большой буквы. - Дайте мне угадать: наш номер вам дал приятель. Сказал, чтобы вы обязательно нам позвонили. Я прав.
How to Select Footwear Materials
- Этим ты лишь усугубишь свое положе… - Он не договорил и произнес в трубку: - Безопасность. Говорит коммандер Тревор Стратмор. У нас в шифровалке человек взят в заложники.
Быстро пришлите сюда людей. Да, да, прямо. К тому же у нас вышел из строя генератор. Я требую направить сюда всю энергию из внешних источников. Все системы должны заработать через пять минут.
ONE shoe, ONE material, ONE Person. All in ONE.
Далекий гул генераторов теперь превратился в громкое урчание. Чатрукьян выпрямился и посмотрел. То, что он увидел, больше напоминало вход в преисподнюю, а не в служебное помещение.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Фонд электронных границ сразу увидел в этом конфликт интересов и всячески пытался доказать, что АНБ намеренно создаст несовершенный алгоритм - такой, какой ему будет нетрудно взломать.
Чтобы развеять эти опасения, конгресс объявил, что, когда алгоритм будет создан, его передадут для ознакомления лучшим математикам мира, которые должны будут оценить его качество. Команда криптографов АНБ под руководством Стратмора без особого энтузиазма создала алгоритм, который окрестила Попрыгунчиком, и представила его в конгресс для одобрения.
Зарубежные ученые-математики проверили Попрыгунчика и единодушно подтвердили его высокое качество.
- Что ты сказала. Чем ты занята. - Я ничего не говорила, - ответила Сьюзан.
Бринкерхофф уже пожалел, что не дал ей спокойно уйти домой. Телефонный разговор со Стратмором взбесил .