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VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: No Man's Sky: Beyond - Industrial Issues / Suggestions with Extractors, Supply Depots, Etc.

Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Pipelines are systems of connected pipes used to transport liquids and gases — namely oil and natural gas — across long distances from source to market.

More than , km of pipelines criss-cross the country, part of a larger oil and gas sector that employs between , and , Canadians. Yet pipelines have also been controversial in Canada over fears that the fossil fuel use they facilitate could be significantly contributing to climate change.

In recent years, Indigenous groups, environmentalists, municipalities, mayors and labour unions have opposed numerous pipeline projects they believe could contaminate local waterways through spills and leaks. The construction of pipelines to carry crude oil and natural gas to domestic and eventually foreign markets soon followed. For a century after the Sarnia-area oil discovery, the pace of pipeline construction was slow, with just three major routes from Turner Valley , Alberta to Calgary ; coastal Maine to Montreal ; and the US Midwest to Ontario in production.

But in the late s, sufficient reserves of oil and natural gas were developed in Alberta at the Leduc No. By the end of the s, new pipelines were being built to ship oil from distant wells into Edmonton and, from there, to Vancouver and south to link up with American pipelines. This capacity expanded greatly from the s to s with the construction of additional pipelines linking Canadian oil and natural gas fields with refineries in Alaska, Illinois and Oklahoma.

Today, more than , km of pipelines are laid out across Canada, beginning in Alberta and going west to British Columbia , north to the Northwest Territories , south to Texas, and east to Quebec.

Gathering pipelines, feeder pipelines and transmission pipelines transport crude oil , natural gas and liquefied natural gas from wells to collection points, across provincial and national borders. Distribution pipelines deliver some natural gas products directly to consumers. According to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Many large-scale pipeline projects have been rejected by the federal government or withdrawn in recent years see Politics and Controversy ; Notable Pipelines Proposals.

Another TC Energy project, the Energy East pipeline, was intended to carry upward of , barrels of oil each day from Alberta to refineries in Quebec and New Brunswick.

The Mackenzie Gas Project, which would have transported natural gas from the Mackenzie Delta to northern Alberta, was cancelled by Imperial Oil and its partners in A simple pipeline is a long length of connected pipes with pumps, valves and control devices to help convey liquids or gases. A pipeline network consists of gathering systems, trunk lines and distribution systems — parts that are analogous to the roots, trunk and branches of a tree.

The gathering system transports a mixture of oil, gas and sometimes water from a production well to collection points, such as processing plants or refineries. Here, any water or contaminants in the pipeline are removed from the fossil fuel. The trunk consisting of the main pipelines moves oil or gas at high pressures over long distances through large-diameter pipes from a collection point to markets. The energy needed to overcome friction in the pipes themselves is supplied by pump stations for liquids and compressor stations for gas spaced at intervals.

In the case of oil, trunk lines supply the refineries that, in turn, distribute the fossil fuel to retailers by truck or product pipelines. Natural gas is withdrawn from the trunk line and delivered to consumers through the distribution system. This part of the network is the longest of the three systems. Typically, the pipes in this system are of small diameter and operate at low pressure. Most pipelines are constructed of steel , although plastic and aluminum are occasionally used in the construction of natural-gas distribution networks.

Steel pipelines are formed by welding sections of pipe together. After the welds are X-rayed to detect any flaws, the pipe is wrapped with a protective coating and buried.

All pipelines, regardless of type, are then inspected and pressure tested before being put into service. For plastic lines of a small diameter, the pipe can be unreeled from a large spool pulled by a large tractor, a quicker method for laying pipeline. The usual depth of burial is about 1. Canada is a world leader in winter pipeline construction, having developed unique trenching machines for permafrost and muskeg. Canadian pipeline companies have designed and constructed pipelines in Russia, China and Southeast Asia.

Pipelines operate every day of the year. Computerized operation allows pressure, flow and energy consumption throughout the line to be continuously monitored. Computers can perform leak detection calculations quickly and initiate remedial actions in case of emergency, such as closing emergency valves, shutting off pumps and alerting repair crews see also Computer Systems Applications.

However, research suggests that operating stations catch only about 15—20 per cent of pipeline leaks. The term pigging is derived from a squeal noise made as the bristles rub against the pipe wall. This federal legislation created guidelines and safety requirements for how and where pipelines were built.

A decade later, the federal government established the National Energy Board NEB , an independent agency that has the authority to regulate pipelines crossing provincial or international borders and the export of crude oil and natural gas. In addition, the NEB also considers issues related to pipeline construction, such as petroleum reserve estimates, costs, environmental factors, and engineering and safety practices.

Historically, the NEB has also conducted environmental assessments of proposed energy infrastructure projects. Pipeline construction has been a political flashpoint. Photo taken 17 November The Trans Mountain Expansion Project, originally owned by Kinder Morgan and now owned by the Canadian government, has also been a focus of ongoing political conflict. Months of feuding between the provinces followed.

Indigenous consultation and approval of pipeline projects have become key factors in their acceptance by governments, regulators and the public. A central concern of many Indigenous communities is the risk that comes with situating oil and gas infrastructure in or near the habitats of wild food sources on which they rely.

Health risks are also a concern at points of extraction: beyond contaminated drinking water is the fear that living in close proximity to fossil fuel extraction may increase cancer rates, as was shown in a University of Manitoba - Health Canada study of the Athabasca Chipewyan and Mikisew Cree First Nations in see also Dene ; Cree.

Certain pipeline projects have received the support of Indigenous communities. The Eagle Spirit pipeline, a proposed alternative to Northern Gateway, is backed by several First Nations seeking to build an Indigenous-owned pipeline. Environmentalists have begun to insist that oil companies, governments and the NEB consider the upstream greenhouse gas implications of pipelines that facilitate the extraction and combustion of more fossil fuels.

At the Paris Climate Change Conference in December , Canada agreed to reduce its carbon emissions to megatonnes per year by , equivalent to a 30 per cent reduction below levels. While Canada is already unlikely to meet its Paris targets, some have argued that task will be made impossible by increasing pipeline capacity linked to the Alberta oil sands.

See also Climate Change. In the winter of —17, a government-appointed expert panel met with industry, stakeholder and Indigenous groups as part of a massive push to overhaul how the NEB reviews and approves projects in the future. In recent years, proposed pipeline projects have generated much discussion in Canada, charting a complex path through political, legal and social channels. Existing pipeline segments would be reactivated, and approximately km of new pipeline would be built parallel to existing pipelines that had been owned and operated by Kinder Morgan since The project has faced political and legal hurdles at the federal and provincial levels.

Within a year of the expansion proposal, dozens of protesters were arrested on Burnaby Mountain for attempting to block pipeline survey work. The federal government intervened to ensure a thorough environmental review was conducted. It approved the project in An order from the BC Supreme Court prohibited protesters from approaching within 5 m of construction zones at two Burnaby terminals owned by the company.

Alberta NDP premier Rachel Notley responded that such a decision was unconstitutional and violated trade rules. She also retaliated by temporarily halting the import of BC wine to her province. The feud escalated into the spring. Alberta passed a bill that threatened to prevent its existing oil exports from reaching BC, to which BC responded with a lawsuit.

Amid mounting pressure from Canadian business leaders to get the pipeline built, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau interrupted a trip abroad for an emergency meeting with the two premiers. The federal government also promised to compensate Kinder Morgan for financial losses resulting from construction delays. The dispute remained at an impasse. Notley and some business leaders celebrated the decision, but politicians across the political spectrum criticized it as a misuse of tax dollars.

On 30 August , the Federal Court of Appeal ruled on lawsuits that six First Nations , the City of Vancouver, the City of Burnaby and two environmental groups launched against the Trans Mountain Expansion Project after it received government approval in According to the court, this meant that the NEB failed to consider its obligations, under the Species At Risk Act , to propose measures to lessen the impact of oil-tanker traffic on endangered killer whales. Premier Notley announced that Alberta would withdraw from the national carbon pricing plan until the federal government clears the way for construction to begin.

The day after the Federal Court of Appeal released its decision, Kinder Morgan completed its sale of the Trans Mountain pipeline and expansion project to the Government of Canada. In February , the NEB released its reconsideration report on the expansion project, the reassessment ordered by the Federal Court of Appeal the previous year.

The agency once again recommended that the project be approved, concluding that it was in the national interest. The government intends to sell the project, and it has specifically encouraged Indigenous investors. It expects construction to begin before the end of Economic benefits to Canada — and Alberta in particular — from salaries, wages and property taxes are also cited.

The project has drawn significant opposition from environmental groups, ranchers, and numerous Indigenous communities in Alberta, Montana and Nebraska. Many fear the additional crude oil shipped by the pipeline could pollute lands and rivers. On 24 March , President Donald Trump issued a presidential permit approving the project. The judge ordered that the State Department complete a more thorough environmental assessment before work on Keystone XL can continue.

Expected to be in service in , the L3RP project will upgrade inch-diameter pipes to inch-diameter pipes and allow for , barrels of light, medium and heavy crude oil to flow to the Superior Station and Terminal Facility in Wisconsin daily.

On 29 November , the Canadian government announced its approval. While the decision was hailed by proponents such as the United Steelworkers union and Saskatchewan premier Brad Wall , some environmental groups suggested the Canadian government would be better to invest in renewable energy than approve pipeline expansions.

Enbridge began construction on 1 August Most of the work on the Canadian portion of the pipeline is complete. Construction of the Minnesota portion has hit several delays. It ordered further reviews by state regulators before construction can continue. It was projected to carry diluted bitumen approximately 1, km from Bruderheim, Alberta to a terminal on the Pacific Ocean at Kitimat , British Columbia.

An estimated oil tankers were expected to cross the turbulent waters around the Great Bear Rainforest en route to the Pacific, ferrying some of the , barrels of dilbit shipped each day to the terminal at Kitimat.

Many feared marine spills in the difficult-to-navigate waters of the Douglas Channel were inevitable, threatening vital habitat for fin whales , killer whales and humpback whales see also Water Pollution. The NEB held public consultations on the project spanning days from to The overwhelming majority of those who testified at the hearings voiced opposition to the project. In June , Prime Minister Stephen Harper approved the pipeline, two months after Kitimaat, the home community of the Haisla Nation , voted against it.

Just like music can be sorted into types like rap, rock or country, engineering can be sorted into 7 main areas. Use the drop-down filter to view the different kinds of engineering in each main area. Aerospace engineers design and build aircraft, spacecraft, aerospace equipment, satellites and missiles.

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Pipelines in Canada

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Types of Engineering

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We deliver optimum solutions for the planning, design and development of marine terminals and pipelines.

Pipeline , line of pipe equipped with pumps and valves and other control devices for moving liquids, gases, and slurries fine particles suspended in liquid. Pipeline sizes vary from the 2-inch- 5-centimetre- diameter lines used in oil-well gathering systems to lines 30 feet 9 metres across in high-volume water and sewage networks. Pipelines usually consist of sections of pipe made of metal e. The sections are welded together and, in most cases, laid underground. Most countries have an extensive network of pipelines. Because they are usually out of sight, their contribution to freight transport and their importance to the economy are often unrecognized by the general public. Yet, virtually all the water transported from treatment plants to individual households, all the natural gas from wellheads to individual users, and practically all the long-distance transportation of oil overland goes by pipeline. Pipelines have been the preferred mode of transportation for liquid and gas over competing modes such as truck and rail for several reasons: they are less damaging to the environment , less susceptible to theft, and more economical, safe, convenient, and reliable than other modes. Although transporting solids by pipeline is more difficult and more costly than transporting liquid and gas by pipeline, in many situations pipelines have been chosen to transport solids ranging from coal and other minerals over long distances or to transport grain, rocks, cement, concrete, solid wastes, pulp, machine parts, books, and hundreds of other products over short distances.

Types of Engineering

Thomas Krogh-Jacobsen , April 16, Also, there are numerous innovations for animators, mobile developers, and graphics experts, and multiple updates that streamline project workflows and simplify Editor tasks. In the next few weeks we will also release the

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Within industry , piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids liquids and gases from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. Industrial process piping and accompanying in-line components can be manufactured from wood , fiberglass , glass , steel , aluminum , plastic , copper , and concrete. The in-line components, known as fittings , [3] valves , and other devices, typically sense and control the pressure , flow rate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually are included in the field of piping design or piping engineering , though the sensors and automatic controlling devices may alternatively be treated as part of instrumentation and control design. If necessary, pipes can be cleaned by the tube cleaning process. Piping sometimes refers to piping design, the detailed specification of the physical piping layout within a process plant or commercial building. In earlier days, this was sometimes called drafting , technical drawing , engineering drawing , and design, but is today commonly performed by designers that have learned to use automated computer-aided drawing or computer-aided design CAD software. Plumbing is a piping system with which most people are familiar, as it constitutes the form of fluid transportation that is used to provide potable water and fuels to their homes and businesses. Plumbing pipes also remove waste in the form of sewage , and allow venting of sewage gases to the outdoors. Fire sprinkler systems also use piping, and may transport nonpotable or potable water , or other fire-suppression fluids.

years of industrial pump experience and years Crude oil, refined products and NGL pipeline systems plant for further extraction and refining. Ship, tank car and truck Design of damping devices to reduce the effects of high-.

Digitalisation and Energy

Follow these great tips from Unity field engineer Valentin Simonov that will help you set up a smart and efficient development pipeline, and ultimately ship better and more performant content. The most important part of any software development project because decisions made in the this phase will be difficult to change later on in the development cycle. Optimizing graphics performance. Modeling characters for optimized performance. Art assets best practice guide. After building a prototype and getting it approved by the management, strongly consider starting it from scratch. Wrong practices and mistakes during development slow the team down and undermine the quality of the final product.

Azure Pipelines

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This document is part of a series that explores how to migrate your upstream data pipelines, which load data into your data warehouse. This document discusses data pipelines: what they are and what to think about when migrating them. This document helps you understand what a data pipeline is, what procedures and patterns it can employ, and which migration options and technologies are available in relation to the larger data warehouse migration.

Digital technologies are everywhere, affecting the way we live, work, travel and play. Digitalisation is helping improve the safety, productivity, accessibility and sustainability of energy systems around the world.

Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Pipelines are systems of connected pipes used to transport liquids and gases — namely oil and natural gas — across long distances from source to market.

Piping for industrial plants and marine applications. This code prescribes minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations, industrial institutional plants, central and district heating plants.

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