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Research Laboratories are workplaces for the conduct of scientific research. This WBDG Building Type page will summarize the key architectural, engineering, operational, safety, and sustainability considerations for the design of Research Laboratories. The authors recognize that in the 21st century clients are pushing project design teams to create research laboratories that are responsive to current and future needs, that encourage interaction among scientists from various disciplines, that help recruit and retain qualified scientists, and that facilitates partnerships and development. Over the past 30 years, architects, engineers, facility managers, and researchers have refined the design of typical wet and dry labs to a very high level.

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Laboratories

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Research Laboratories are workplaces for the conduct of scientific research. This WBDG Building Type page will summarize the key architectural, engineering, operational, safety, and sustainability considerations for the design of Research Laboratories.

The authors recognize that in the 21st century clients are pushing project design teams to create research laboratories that are responsive to current and future needs, that encourage interaction among scientists from various disciplines, that help recruit and retain qualified scientists, and that facilitates partnerships and development. Over the past 30 years, architects, engineers, facility managers, and researchers have refined the design of typical wet and dry labs to a very high level.

The following identifies the best solutions in designing a typical lab. The laboratory module is the key unit in any lab facility.

When designed correctly, a lab module will fully coordinate all the architectural and engineering systems. A well-designed modular plan will provide the following benefits:.

Flexibility —The lab module, as Jonas Salk explained, should "encourage change" within the building. Research is changing all the time, and buildings must allow for reasonable change. A common laboratory module has a width of approximately 10 ft. The depth is based on the size necessary for the lab and the cost-effectiveness of the structural system.

The 10 ft. The 5 ft. Two-Directional Lab Module —Another level of flexibility can be achieved by designing a lab module that works in both directions. This allows the casework to be organized in either direction.

This concept is more flexible than the basic lab module concept but may require more space. The use of a two-directional grid is beneficial to accommodate different lengths of run for casework. The casework may have to be moved to create a different type or size of workstation.

Three-Dimensional Lab Module —The three-dimensional lab module planning concept combines the basic lab module or a two-directional lab module with any lab corridor arrangement for each floor of a building. This means that a three-dimensional lab module can have a single-corridor arrangement on one floor, a two-corridor layout on another, and so on. To create a three-dimensional lab module:. The relationship of the labs, offices, and corridor will have a significant impact on the image and operations of the building.

Do the end users want a view from their labs to the exterior, or will the labs be located on the interior, with wall space used for casework and equipment? Some researchers do not want or cannot have natural light in their research spaces. Special instruments and equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance NMR apparatus, electron microscopes, and lasers cannot function properly in natural light.

Natural daylight is not desired in vivarium facilities or in some support spaces, so these are located in the interior of the building. Zoning the building between lab and non-lab spaces will reduce costs.

Adjacencies with corridors can be organized with a single, two corridor racetrack , or a three corridor scheme. There are number of variations to organize each type. Illustrated below are three ways to organize a single corridor scheme:.

Single corridor lab design with offices clustered together at the end and in the middle. Single corridor lab design with office clusters accessing main labs directly. In today's lab, the ability to expand, reconfigure, and permit multiple uses has become a key concern. The following should be considered to achieve this:. Equipment zones—These should be created in the initial design to accommodate equipment, fixed, or movable casework at a later date. Mobile casework—This can be comprised of mobile tables and mobile base cabinets.

It allows researchers to configure and fit out the lab based on their needs as opposed to adjusting to pre-determined fixed casework.

Flexible partitions—These can be taken down and put back up in another location, allowing lab spaces to be configured in a variety of sizes. Overhead service carriers—These are hung from the ceiling. They can have utilities like piping, electric, data, light fixtures, and snorkel exhausts. They afford maximum flexibility as services are lifted off the floor, allowing free floor space to be configured as needed. Lab designed with overhead connects and disconnects allow for flexibility and fast hook up of equipment.

Space should be allowed in the utility corridors, ceilings, and vertical chases for future HVAC, plumbing, and electric needs. An interstitial space is a separate floor located above each lab floor. All services and utilities are located here where they drop down to service the lab below.

This system has a high initial cost but it allows the building to accommodate change very easily without interrupting the labs. Conventional design vs. Lab spaces adjoin a centrally located corridor where all utility services are located.

Maintenance personnel are afforded constant access to main ducts, shutoff valves, and electric panel boxes without having to enter the lab. Hence, the close coordination of these ensures a flexible and successfully operating lab facility. The following engineering issues are discussed here: structural systems, mechanical systems, electrical systems, and piping systems.

Once the basic lab module is determined, the structural grid should be evaluated. In most cases, the structural grid equals 2 basic lab modules.

If the typical module is 10 ft. A good rule of thumb is to add the two dimensions of the structural grid; if the sum equals a number in the low 50's, then the structural grid would be efficient and cost-effective. Key issues to consider include: efficiency and flexibility, modular design, initial costs , long-term operational costs , building height and massing , and design image.

Normal power circuits are connected to the utility supply only, without any backup system. Loads that are typically on normal power include some HVAC equipment, general lighting, and most lab equipment. Emergency power is created with generators that will back up equipment such as refrigerators, freezers, fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, emergency lighting, exhaust fans, animal facilities, and environmental rooms.

Examples of safe and efficient emergency power equipment include distributed energy resources DER , microturbines , and fuel cells. An uninterruptible power supply UPS is used for data recording, certain computers, microprocessor-controlled equipment, and possibly the vivarium area.

Protecting human health and life is paramount, and safety must always be the first concern in laboratory building design. Security-protecting a facility from unauthorized access-is also of critical importance. Today, research facility designers must work within the dense regulatory environment in order to create safe and productive lab spaces.

The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per square foot than the typical office building due to intensive ventilation requirements and other health and safety concerns.

Therefore, designers should strive to create sustainable , high performance, and low-energy laboratories that will:. There are three research laboratory sectors. They are academic laboratories, government laboratories, and private sector laboratories. For GSA, the unit costs for this building type are based on the construction quality and design features in the following table.

This information is based on GSA's benchmark interpretation and could be different for other owners. The following agencies and organizations have developed codes and standards affecting the design of research laboratories. Note that the codes and standards are minimum requirements. Architects, engineers, and consultants should consider exceeding the applicable requirements whenever possible. Laboratory: Dry , Laboratory: Wet. All rights reserved. Skip to main content.

Research Laboratory. Single corridor lab design with labs and office adjacent to each other. Typical lab structural grid.

Shafts in the middle of the building. Shafts at the end of the building. Exhaust at end and supply in the middle. Multiple internal shafts. Shafts on the exterior.

United States. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development.

Construction Technology Laboratories Group Wll. Success in an evolving technical business environment means keeping pace with rapidly changing technology and procedures. It received the award for its new, high-performance adhesive technology used in lightweight construction in the field of transportation. Our unique electronic reporting system delivers field and laboratory reports rapidly, giving the construction team valuable information on a timely basis.

Research Laboratory

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Господи Иисусе! - шумно вздохнул Хейл.  - Похоже, Стратмор здорово промыл тебе мозги.

Стратмор не скрывал недовольства. - Он ничего не спрашивал про ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Нет. Но если он посмотрит на монитор и увидит в окне отсчета значение семнадцать часов, то, будьте уверены, не промолчит. Стратмор задумался. - С какой стати он должен на него смотреть? - спросил. Сьюзан взглянула ему в. - Вы хотите отправить его домой. - Нет.

Весьма сомнительно, чтобы Танкадо связал свои ощущения с выстрелом. - И все же он отдал кольцо, - сказал Фонтейн. - Вы правы, сэр.

Зараженный файл существует, сэр. Но он прошел Сквозь строй.

Она точно знала, что на такой пароль уходит меньше десяти минут. - Должно ведь быть какое-то объяснение. - Оно есть, - кивнул Стратмор.  - Тебя оно не обрадует. - В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ сбой. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ в полном порядке. - Вирус. - Никакого вируса. Выслушай меня внимательно, - попросил Стратмор. Сьюзан была ошеломлена. ТРАНСТЕКСТ еще никогда не сталкивался с шифром, который не мог бы взломать менее чем за один час.

4) Type of drive system, and effect on total energy 5) Cost of materials, energy to Such analyses might best be conducted by National Laboratories with.

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Похоже, он и на сей раз добьется своей цели. Ключ совсем. Танкадо мертв. Партнер Танкадо обнаружен. Сьюзан замолчала. Танкадо мертв.

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- Это должно быть что-то фундаментальное. Соши пожирала глазами текст. - Подождите… сейчас посмотрю… отлично… - Сорок пять секунд! - раздался крик. Сьюзан взглянула на ВР.

ГЛАВА 31 Сьюзан вернулась в Третий узел. После разговора со Стратмором она начала беспокоиться о безопасности Дэвида, а ее воображение рисовало страшные картины. - Ну, - послышался голос Хейла, склонившегося над своим компьютером, - и чего же хотел Стратмор.

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