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Manufacturing bread and bakery products enriched with proteins, vitamins and other additives

We know unrefined grains are better for us. We know that flour from unrefined grains is made from the WHOLE grain, not just a portion of it, so all of the original nutrition is still intact. Making white flour? Not so easy. Does white flour contain bleach? Oh my my, those are some serious questions.

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Enriched or Fortified Foods on Labels

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Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. Wheat varieties are called "soft" or "weak" if gluten content is low, and are called "hard" or "strong" if they have high gluten content. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and thus results in a loaf with a finer, crumbly texture.

White flour is made from the endosperm only. Brown flour includes some of the grain's germ and bran , while whole grain or wholemeal flour is made from the entire grain, including the bran, endosperm, and germ. Germ flour is made from the endosperm and germ, excluding the bran. To produce refined white wheat flour, [2] grain is usually tempered, i.

This softens the starchy " endosperm " portion of the wheat kernel, which will be separated out in the milling process to produce what is known to consumers as white flour. The addition of moisture also stiffens the bran and ultimately reduces the energy input required to shatter the kernel, while at the same time avoiding the shattering of bran and germ particles to be separated out in this milling process by sieving or sifting.

The balance of the kernel is composed of the bran and the germ which tend to be coarser. With the invention of the roller milling system in the late 19th century, the bran and the germ were able to be removed, dramatically improving the appeal of baked products to the public.

The moistened grain is first passed through the series of break rollers, then sieved to separate out the fine particles that make up white flour. The balance are intermediate particles of endosperm otherwise known as product middling or farina and coarse particles of bran and germ. The middling then makes multiple passes through the reduction rolls, and is again sieved after each pass to maximize extraction of white flour from the endosperm, while removing coarser bran and germ particles.

Therefore, these elements are first ground on another mill usually a pin mill. Wheat flour is available in many varieties; the categorization is regional, and the same name may have several different regional meanings. The W index is an indicator of a flour's strength which is commonly used by professional bakers.

It is measured using a Chopin Alveograph , and it takes into account both the toughness and elasticity of the flour's gluten. The W index is often not listed on commercial flour packaging, but it can be approximated based the flour's protein content [8].

In general, a higher W index flour will require a longer rising time for leavened bread products. Higher W index flour better retains the CO 2 produced during the fermentation process, because the gluten traps the produced gas.

During World War II, the British government promoted "National Flour"; it was adopted in as a healthy and economic alternative to importing wheat. Parliamentary questions on the exact constitution of National Flour in reveal that it was "milled from a grist consisting of 90 per cent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the very fine stone-milled whole wheat flour from the Indian subcontinent , see Atta flour. Cooking for Engineers. Retrieved Pomeranz ed. Wheat Chemistry and Technology Vol. II Chapter 1: Wheat flour milling. American Association of Cereal Chemists.

A Refined Grain? A Merrier World. The kitchn. Flour Advisory Board. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Archived from the original on 18 April Archived from the original on 5 March R Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.

Memoirs of a biscuit baron. East African Publishers. Wheat diseases list Wheat mildew Hessian fly. Anaphylaxis Gluten-related disorders coeliac disease non-celiac gluten sensitivity wheat allergy dermatitis herpetiformis ataxia. Authority control NDL : Categories : Wheat flour Wheat Flour. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

NDL :

Gerard Smith is a freelance photographer and photo illustrator who has collaborated with Wayne Gisslen since Educated at Pratt Institute, he specializes in food, travel, and commercial photography. Professional Baking.

The main processing aids used are enzymes. Historically, market trends have developed from the use of ingredients in greater quantities - to obtain specific effects in bread such as fat for crumb softness - to the use of additives at much lower levels max. We will describe the food additives used under each class, individually describing their mode of action and effects on dough rheology, during the breadmaking process, and on product quality. We will also describe the main enzymes currently used, dividing them according to the substrate they act on gluten, starch, lipids, non-starch polysaccharides or NSPS , individually describing their mode of action and effects on dough rheology, during the breadmaking process, and on product quality.

Food additive

Protein Concentrates from Distillers ByProducts. Nutritive Assessment and Potential Food Applications. Wheat Germplasm Resources The Program at. List of Attendees

Ascorbic acid

NCBI Bookshelf. The addition of nutrients to food, food constituents, or supplements, termed fortification, has a complex history in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this chapter is not to review the rationale for fortification, which remains debated in many circles, but to provide a brief overview of the history and current status of policies, guidelines, and regulations related to fortification. In the United States, mandatory fortification usually called enrichment refers to the situation when a product is formulated to conform to the standard of identity promulgated by the Food and Drug Administration FDA for the enriched version of the food. Discretionary fortification refers to all other forms of the addition of nutrients to food, including unenriched versions of products for which an enrichment standard has been promulgated by FDA. The addition of vitamins and minerals micronutrients to food in Canada is controlled under regulatory provisions first declared in Part D Division 3 of the Food and Drug Regulations [FDRs].

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Bread supplies a significant portion of the nutrients required for growth, maintenance of health and well-being.

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U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Bread is a staple food prepared by baking a dough of flour and water. The virtually infinite combinations of different flours and differing proportions of ingredients, has resulted in the wide variety of types, shapes, sizes, and textures available around the world. It may be leavened aerated by a number of different processes ranging from the use of naturally occurring microbes to high-pressure artificial aeration during preparation and baking, or may be left unleavened. A wide variety of additives may be used, from fruits and nuts to various fats, to chemical additives designed to improve flavour, texture, colour and shelf life.

You'll sometimes see the words enriched or fortified on processed foods, often with additional health or nutritional claims. In some ways, enrichment and fortification are similar, but the terms aren't truly interchangeable. You could say that enrichment is a form of fortification, but fortification is not the same as enrichment.

You'll sometimes see the words enriched or fortified on processed foods, often with additional health or nutritional claims. In some ways, enrichment and fortification are similar, but the terms aren't truly interchangeable. You could say that enrichment is a form of fortification, but fortification is not the same as enrichment. Foods that have the words enriched or fortified printed on their labels have had one or more nutrients added to them during the manufacturing process. For example, whole wheat is rich in B-complex vitamins and iron that live in the outer parts of the grain, which is called the hull. Whole wheat is nutritious and good for you, but most people prefer to use white flour for their bread, pastries and other baked products. So food manufacturers refine the whole wheat by removing the hulls, creating white flour. Of course, eliminating the hulls also removes most of the B-complex vitamins and iron so they're added back into the flour before packaging and shipping to grocery stores and restaurants.

BP functional ingredients incorporation on bakery products at 10% was that bakery products are enriched with various nutritional additives-enhancers and such as chapatti, bread, pizza, biscuits, cakes, and other bakery products (Martins, the presence of phenolic compounds, fibers, proteins, and vitamin C. evaluated.

Nutritional properties of bread

Bread has been a staple food around the world for thousands of years. People continue to consume it because of its convenience, portability, nutrition, and taste. There are many different types of bread, which people make in different ways, using a variety of ingredients. Examples include whole-grain bread, sweetened bread, cornbread, leavened and unleavened bread, flatbread, sourdough, sprouted grain bread, soda bread, and many more. This article looks at some aspects of bread that may make one type of bread more or less healthful than another. Carbohydrates are the primary nutrient in bread. Carbohydrates provide the body with fuel. Fruits, vegetables, beans, and minimally processed grains contain the most healthful dietary sources of carbohydrates. These foods also provide vitamins , minerals, fiber, and antioxidants.

Enriched or Fortified Foods on Labels

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What Are Food Additives

Food additive , any of various chemical substances added to foods to produce specific desirable effects. Additives such as salt , spices , and sulfites have been used since ancient times to preserve foods and make them more palatable.

Is bread healthful or should I avoid it?

Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients essential trace elements and vitamins to food. It can be carried out by food manufacturers, or by governments as a public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with dietary deficiencies within a population. The predominant diet within a region can lack particular nutrients due to the local soil or from inherent deficiencies within the staple foods; addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases. Food fortification has been identified as the second strategy of four by the WHO and FAO to begin decreasing the incidence of nutrient deficiencies at the global level.

Food fortification

Javascript is required to use a number of the features of the Sustain website. Find out how to enable Javascript here. Sign up to the email list. A look at the function of ascorbic acid in loaf manufacture and why is is not in the Campaign's definition of Real Bread.

When it comes to baking healthy bread, the simplest way to boost nutrition is to use whole-grain flours. Bread, like most foods, is generally healthier when made with whole, unprocessed ingredients without a lot of additives. I'll show you how to choose which flours and other ingredients are best for making healthy breads, and how to work with them so your bread turns out just right.

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