Most of us love new clothes. They are "perfect". Colors are bright, the lines are crisp, and the embellishments pristine. So why would you ever wash them and risk changing the look before you even get a chance to wear them? Most fabrics made from synthetic fibers polyester , acrylic are colored with azo-aniline dyes. These dyes can cause severe skin reactions for people, especially small children, who are allergic to them.
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- Is Flannel Flammable
- Natural fibre
- How Viscose Rayon Fabric Masquerades as Bamboo Clothing
- Know Your Fibers: Cotton vs. Viscose Rayon
- Eco Fashion. Ethical Fashion. Luxury Quality. Affordable womenswear
- Do You Really Need To Wash New Clothes Before You Wear Them? An Immunologist Weighs In
- Table of Contents
- History of clothing and textiles
Is Flannel Flammable
Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Typical body constituents 2. Manufacturing processes 3. Selected chemical additives 4. Refractory usage by industry in the USA 5. Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes.
For example, all are fundamentally based on the use of naturally occurring raw materials in powder or fine particulate form which are transformed by heat into the desired products. Therefore, despite the range of processes and products encompassed in this group, these common processes allow a common overview of potential health hazards associated with these industries.
Since the various manufacturing sectors are composed of both small, fragmented segments e. There are common safety and health hazards encountered in manufacturing of products in these business sectors. The hazards and control measures are discussed in other sections of the Encyclopaedia. Process-specific hazards are discussed in the individual sections of this chapter.
Most of the industrial manufacturing processes receive dry solid raw materials in bulk form or individual bags. Bulk solid raw materials are unloaded from hopper rail cars or over-the-road trucks into bins, hoppers or mixers by gravity, pneumatic transfer lines, screw conveyors, bucket conveyors or other mechanical transfer.
Pallets of bagged raw materials 20 to 50 kg or large bulk fabric bag containers 0. Individual bags or raw materials are removed from pallets manually or with powered lift assists. Bagged raw materials are typically charged into a bag dumping station or directly into storage hoppers or scale hoppers.
Potential safety and health hazards associated with the solid raw material unloading, handling and transfer processes include:.
Manufacturing products in these business sectors involves drying, melting or firing processes in kilns or furnaces. Potential hazards presented from firing or melting processes include:. Material-handling, fabrication and packaging processes differ to a large extent in this business sector, as do the size, shape and weights of products. The high density of materials in this sector or bulky configurations present common material-handling hazards.
Manual lifting and material handling in production, fabrication, packaging and warehousing in this industry accounts for many disabling injuries. Injury reduction efforts are focusing on reducing manual lifting and material handling.
For example, innovative packaging designs, robotics for stacking and palletizing finished products, and automatic guided transport vehicles for warehousing are starting to be used in select parts of this business sector to eliminate manual material handling and associated injuries. Use of conveyors, manned lift assists e. The use of robotics to eliminate manual material handling is playing a major role in prevention of ergonomic injuries.
Robotics has reduced ergonomic stresses and severe laceration injuries that have been historically associated with material handling e. However, increased utilization of robotics and process automation introduces moving machinery and electric power hazards, which transforms the types of hazards and also transfers risks to other workers from production to maintenance workers.
Proper designs of electronic controls and logic sequencing, machine guards, total energy lockout practices and establishing safe operating and maintenance procedures are fundamental ways to control injuries to maintenance and production workers. Numerous potential health and safety hazards are encountered during periodic major rebuilds or cold repairs to furnaces or kilns. A wide range of hazards associated with construction activities may be encountered. Examples include: ergonomic hazards with material handling e.
Obsidian, for instance, is a naturally occurring combination of oxides fused by intense volcanic heat and vitrified made into a glass by rapid air cooling. Its opaque, black colour comes from the relatively high amounts of iron oxide it contains. Its chemical durability and hardness compare favourably with many commercial glasses.
Glass technology has evolved for 6, years, and some modern principles date back to ancient times. The origin of the first synthetic glasses is lost in antiquity and legend. Faience was made by the Egyptians, who molded figurines from sand SiO 2 , the most popular glass-forming oxide. The copper oxide gave the article an appealing blue colour. A most important development in glass technology was the use of a blow pipe see figure 5 , which was first used in approximately years BC.
From then onwards, there was a rapid development in the technique of manufacturing glass. The first glass was coloured because of the presence of various impurities such as oxides of iron and chromium. Virtually colourless glass was first made some 1, years ago. At that time glass manufacturing was developing in Rome, and from there it moved to many other countries in Europe.
Many glass works were built in Venice, and an important development took place there. In the 13th century, many of the glass plants were moved from Venice to a nearby island, Murano. Murano is still a centre for the production of hand-made glass in Italy.
By the 16th century, glass was made all over Europe. Now Bohemian glass from the Czech Republic is well known for its beauty and glass plants in the United Kingdom and Ireland produce high-quality lead crystal glass tableware.
Sweden is another country that is home to artistic glass crystalware production. In North America the first manufacturing establishment of any sort was a glass factory. English settlers started to produce glass at the beginning of the 17th century at Jamestown, Virginia.
Today glass is manufactured in most countries all over the world. Many products of glass are made in fully automatic processing lines. Although glass is one of the oldest materials, its properties are unique and not yet fully understood. The glass industry today is made up of several major market segments, which include the flat glass market, the consumer houseware market, the glass containers market, the optical glass industry and the scientific glassware market segment.
The optical and scientific glass markets tend to be very ordered and are dominated by one or two suppliers in most countries. These markets are also much lower in volume than the consumer-based markets.
Each of these markets has developed over the years by innovations in specific glass technology or manufacturing advancements. The container industry, for example, was driven by the development of high-speed bottle-making machines developed in the early s.
The flat glass industry was significantly advanced by the development of the float glass process in the early s. Both of these segments are multi-billion-dollar businesses worldwide today. Depending upon the specific category, a variety of other materials compete for market share, including ceramics, metals and plastics. Glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Glass is typically hard and brittle and has a conchoidal fracture.
Glass may be manufactured to be coloured, translucent or opaque by varying the dissolved amorphous or crystalline materials that are present.
When glass is cooled from the hot molten state, it gradually increases in viscosity without crystallization over a wide temperature range, until it assumes its characteristic hard, brittle form.
Cooling is controlled to prevent crystallization, or high strain. While any compound which has these physical properties is theoretically a glass, most commercial glasses fall into three main types and have a wide range of chemical compositions.
A commercial glass batch consists of a mixture of several ingredients. However, the largest fraction of the batch is made up of from 4 to 6 ingredients, chosen from such materials as sand, limestone, dolomite, soda ash, borax, boric acid, feldspathic materials, lead and barium compounds. The remainder of the batch consists of several additional ingredients, chosen from a group of some 15 to 20 materials commonly referred to as minor ingredients.
These latter additions are added with a view to providing some specific function or quality, such as colour, which is to be realized during the glass preparation process. Figure 6 illustrates the basic principles of glass manufacture. The raw materials are weighed, mixed and, after the addition of broken glass cullet , taken to the furnace for melting.
Small pots of up to 2 tonnes capacity are still used for the melting of glass for hand-blown crystalware and special glasses required in small quantity. Several pots are heated together in a combustion chamber. In most modern manufacture, melting takes place in large regenerative, recuperative or electric furnaces built of refractory material and heated by oil, natural gas or electricity.
Electric boosting and cold top electric melting were commercialized and became extensively utilized globally in the late s and s. The driving force behind cold top electric melting was emission control, while electric boosting was generally used in order to improve glass quality and to increase throughput.
The most significant economic factors concerning the use of electricity for glass furnace melting are related to fossil fuel costs, the availability of various fuels, electricity costs, capital costs for equipment and so on. However, in many instances the prime reason for the use of electric melting or boosting is environmental control.
Various locations worldwide either already have or are expected soon to have environmental regulations that strictly restrict the discharge of various oxides or particulate matter in general.
Thus, manufacturers in many locations face the possibility of either having to reduce glass melting throughputs, install baghouses or precipitators in order to handle waste flue gases or modify the melting process and include electric melting or boost.
The alternatives to such modification may in some cases be plant shutdowns. In addition, all types of glass are subjected to further controlled cooling annealing in a special oven or lehr. Subsequent processing will depend on the type of manufacturing process. Automatic blowing is used on machines for bottle and lamp bulb production in addition to traditional hand-blown glass. Simple shapes, such as in insulators, glass bricks, lens blanks and so on, are pressed rather than blown.
Some manufacturing processes use a combination of mechanical blowing and pressing. Wired and figured glass is rolled. Sheet glass is drawn from the furnace by a vertical process which gives it a fire-finished surface. Owing to the combined effects of drawing and gravity, some minor distortion is inevitable.
Plate glass passes through water-cooled rollers onto an annealing lehr. It is free from distortion. Surface damage can be removed by grinding and polishing after fabrication.
This process has largely been replaced by the float glass process, which was introduced in recent years see figure 7.
Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line , from the use of a linen flax thread to determine a straight line. The collective term " linens " is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers.
Not all bamboo clothing is what it seems. Conscientious clothiers are working to distinguish themselves from those who use materials, mainly viscose rayon fabric, that require toxic production methods. By Haniya Rae. Some of the biggest U.
How Viscose Rayon Fabric Masquerades as Bamboo Clothing
The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the development, use, and availability of clothing and textiles over human history. Clothing and textiles reflect the materials and technologies available in different civilizations at different times. The variety and distribution of clothing and textiles within a society reveal social customs and culture. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies, though it is not known exactly when various peoples began wearing clothes. Anthropologists believe that animal skins and vegetation were adapted into coverings as protection from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission BCP has published a list of the main chemicals used in the manufacturing of low-cost clothing, mainly from China. China is the world's largest manufacturer of textile products, however, Chinese manufacturers are not the only offenders. Many global fashion brands outsource their production to countries with cheaper labor and low wages for maximum profit. Medical restrictions in these countries are often not strict and allow international brands to use hazardous chemicals for processing and dyeing clothes. The list of the Commission for Consumer Product Safety - 5 potentially toxic chemicals found in clothing made in China:. Purpose: manufacturers prefer to use lead for dyeing fabrics, and most often it is found in brightly colored products. Impact on the body: according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, excessive lead exposure can affect the state of the whole body. And since there are no obvious signs of its harmful effects, this is often overlooked. According to the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, lead poisoning in children under 6 years of age can seriously affect their mental and physical development.
Know Your Fibers: Cotton vs. Viscose Rayon
A textile is a flexible material composed of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, braiding, knotting, or pressing fibers together. In addition, the fibers themselves may be referred to as textiles.
Learn More:. Some of the tree-related facts with regard to viscose rayon are chilling--while cotton plants are replaced seasonally on the farm, pine trees, for example, take years to regenerate after harvesting for viscose rayon. Furthermore, nearly 30 percent of the viscose rayon used in the fashion industry are harvested from ancient and endangered forests worldwide. The harvested trees go through a harsh chemical process to remove everything bark, lignin, etc. Both of these molecular qualities combine to make cotton fiber much stronger than rayon fiber. The same two molecular properties also lead to the amazing fact that cotton fibers increase in strength when wet, whereas viscose rayon fibers lose strength when wet. Improved wet strength is important for nonwovens like dry wipes that are used to absorb spills, and also for added strength in pre-moistened wet wipes. Higher wet strength is also an asset for medical products that are used to clean and protect, absorb bodily fluids, and even to support organs during surgery.
Eco Fashion. Ethical Fashion. Luxury Quality. Affordable womenswear
Conventional cotton cultivation uses copious amounts of chemical inputs. These pesticides are absorbed by the leaves and the roots of the plants. Most pesticides applied to plants have a half life of less than 4 days before degredation. With time, as the cotton fibers degrade, these residual chemicals are released. We could find no studies which looked at the fibers themselves to see if pesticides could be removed by washing, but we did find a study of laundering pesticide-soiled clothing to see if the pesticide could be removed. Most of the damage done by the use of pesticides is to our environment — our groundwater and soils. Not so. Processing that fiber into cloth, however, requires between 2. And this toxic bath is used on both organic fibers as well as non-organic fibers — the fibers are just the first step in the weaving and finishing of a fabric.
Do You Really Need To Wash New Clothes Before You Wear Them? An Immunologist Weighs In
Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes. Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties. Most textile fibres are slender, flexible, and relatively strong. They are elastic in that they stretch when put under tension and then partially or completely return to their original length when the tension is removed. The use of natural fibres for textile materials began before recorded history. The oldest indication of fibre use is probably the discovery of flax and wool fabrics at excavation sites of the Swiss lake dwellers 7th and 6th centuries bce. Several vegetable fibres were also used by prehistoric peoples.
Table of Contents
Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M.
History of clothing and textiles
In cases where these groupings correspond with major groups, the major group heading is also in italics. The assembly of products from component parts is considered to be Manufacturing, except in cases where the activity is appropriately classified under Construction.
Polyester is one of the most polluting fabrics out there. Polyester is a plastic-like material made from coal, oil, and water. You might have noticed that a lot of apparel is made with polyester.
Is it necessary to wash new clothes from the store prior to wearing them? Answer by Tirumalai Kamala , Immunologist, Ph.