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- Agricultural production in the period 1950-2015
- Field Crops and Crop Production
- The EU potato sector - statistics on production, prices and trade
- Occurrence and Distribution of Potato Pests and Diseases in Kenya
- Manufacturing, Agribusiness and Logistics Division
- Production of field crops
- Yam production in Nigeria
- Onion Production
- Table of Contents
- NCERT Class IX Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
Agricultural production in the period 1950-2015VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Rice is Made : Step by Step Growing Rice Paddy Farming, South India
George W. David M. Whitacre V. Structural formulae shown in this chapter are reproduced with permission from Alan Wood's Compendium of Pesticide Common Names. Insecticides are agents of chemical or biological origin that control insects. Control may result from killing the insect or otherwise preventing it from engaging in behaviors deemed destructive. Insecticides may be natural or manmade and are applied to target pests in a myriad of formulations and delivery systems sprays, baits, slow-release diffusion, etc.
The science of biotechnology has, in recent years, even incorporated bacterial genes coding for insecticidal proteins into various crop plants that deal death to unsuspecting pests that feed on them. The purpose of this brief chapter is to provide a handshake overview of what insecticides are, and a short background and a review of the major insecticide classes that have been or are used today to cope with insect pests.
Though by no means exhaustive, we will touch on major classes and technologies whether decades old or recently revealed.
Humanoids have been on earth for more than 3 million years, while insects have existed for at least million years. We can guess that among the first approaches used by our primitive ancestors to reduce insect annoyance was hugging smoky fires or spreading mud and dust over their skin to repel biting and tickling insects, a practice resembling the habits of elephants, swine, and water buffalo. Today, such approaches would be classed as repellents, a category of insecticides.
Historians have traced the use of pesticides to the time of Homer around B. Pliny the Elder A. Included among these were the use of gall from a green lizard to protect apples from worms and rot. Later, we find a variety of materials used with questionable results: extracts of pepper and tobacco, soapy water, whitewash, vinegar, turpentine, fish oil, brine, lye among many others.
At the beginning of World War II , our insecticide selection was limited to several arsenicals, petroleum oils, nicotine, pyrethrum, rotenone, sulfur, hydrogen cyanide gas, and cryolite. It was World War II that opened the Modern Era of Chemical control with the introduction of a new concept of insect control --synthetic organic insecticides, the first of which was DDT. The organochlorines are insecticides that contain carbon thus organo- , hydrogen, and chlorine. They are also known by other names: chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorinated organics, chlorinated insecticides, and chlorinated synthetics.
The oldest group of the organochlorines is the diphenyl aliphatics , which included DDT, DDD, dicofol, ethylan, chlorobenzilate, and methoxychlor. It is also fascinating, and remains to be acknowledged as the most useful insecticide developed. More than 4 billion pounds of DDT were used throughout the world, beginning in , and in the U. Environmental Protection Agency canceled all uses. The remaining First World countries rapidly followed suit.
DDT is still effectively used for malaria control in several third world countries. In , Dr. Paul Muller, a Swiss entomologist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his lifesaving discovery of DDT as an insecticide useful in the control of malaria, yellow fever and many other insect-vectored diseases.
Mode of action The mode of action for DDT has never been clearly established, but in some complex manner it destroys the delicate balance of sodium and potassium ions within the axons of the neuron in a way that prevents normal transmission of nerve impulses, both in insects and mammals. It apparently acts on the sodium channel to cause "leakage" of sodium ions. Eventually the affected neurons fire impulses spontaneously, causing the muscles to twitch-- "DDT jitters"-- followed by convulsions and death.
DDT has a negative temperature correlation--the lower the surrounding temperature the more toxic it becomes to insects. In its technical grade, there are five isomers, alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon.
Surprisingly, only the gamma isomer has insecticidal properties. Consequently, the gamma isomer was isolated in manufacture and sold as the odorless insecticide lindane. In contrast, technical grade HCH has a strong musty odor and flavor, which can be imparted to treated crops and animal products. Because of its very low cost, HCH is still used in many developing countries. In , the U. EPA removed all food-related tolerance-requiring uses of lindane from the U. Mode of action The effects of HCH superficially resemble those of DDT, but occur much more rapidly, and result in a much higher rate of respiration in insects.
The gamma isomer is a neurotoxicant whose effects are normally seen within hours as increased activity, tremors, and convulsions leading to prostration. It too, exhibits a negative temperature correlation, but not as pronounced as that of DDT. There were other cyclodienes of minor importance developed in the U. Most of the cyclodienes are persistent insecticides and are stable in soil and relatively stable to the ultraviolet of sunlight.
As a result, they were used in greatest quantity as soil insecticides especially chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, and dieldrin for the control of termites and soil-borne insects whose larval stages feed on the roots of plants. To appreciate the effectiveness of these materials as termiticides, consider that wood and wooden structures treated with chlordane, aldrin, and dieldrin in the year of their development are still protected from damage—after more than 60 years!
The cyclodienes were the most effective, long-lasting and economical termiticides ever developed. Because of their persistence in the environment, resistance that developed in several soil insect pests, and in some instances biomagnification in wildlife food chains, most agricultural uses of cyclodienes were canceled by the EPA between and , and their use as termiticides canceled in Mode of action Unlike DDT and HCH, the cyclodienes have a positive temperature correlation--their toxicity increases with increasing ambient temperature.
Their modes of action are also not clearly understood. However, it is known that this group acts on the inhibitory mechanism called the GABA g-aminobutyric acid receptor. This receptor operates by increasing chloride ion permeability of neurons. Cyclodienes prevent chloride ions from entering the neurons, and thereby antagonize the "calming" effects of GABA. Cyclodienes appear to affect all animals similarly, first with the nervous activity followed by tremors, convulsions and prostration.
Only two polychloroterpenes were developed--toxaphene in , and strobane in Toxaphene had by far the greatest use of any single insecticide in agriculture, while strobane was relatively insignificant. Toxaphene was used on cotton, first in combination with DDT, for alone it had minimal insecticidal qualities. Then, in , after several major cotton insects became resistant to DDT, toxaphene was formulated with methyl parathion, an organophosphate insecticide mentioned later.
Toxaphene is a mixture of more than carbon polychlorinated derivatives. These materials persist in the soil, though not as long as the cyclodienes, and disappear from the surfaces of plants in weeks.
This disappearance is attributed more to volatility than to photolysis or plant metabolism. Toxaphene is rather easily metabolized by mammals and birds, and is not stored in body fat nearly to the extent of DDT, HCH and the cyclodienes.
Despite its low toxicity to insects, mammals and birds, fish are highly susceptible to toxaphene poisoning, in the same order of magnitude as to the cyclodienes. Mode of action Toxaphene and strobane act on the neurons, causing an imbalance in sodium and potassium ions, similar to that of the cyclodiene insecticides.
Organophosphates OPs is the term that includes all insecticides containing phosphorus. Other names used, but no longer in vogue, are organic phosphates, phosphorus insecticides, nerve gas relatives, and phosphoric acid esters.
All organophosphates are derived from one of the phosphorus acids, and as a class are generally the most toxic of all pesticides to vertebrates. Because of the similarity of OP chemical structures to the "nerve gases," their modes of action are also similar. Their insecticidal qualities were first observed in Germany during World War II in the study of the extremely toxic OP nerve gases sarin , soman, and tabun.
Initially, the discovery was made in search of substitutes for nicotine, which was heavily used as an insecticide but in short supply in Germany. The OPs have two distinctive features: they are generally more toxic to vertebrates than other classes of insecticides, and most are chemically unstable or nonpersistent. It is this latter characteristic that brought them into agricultural use as substitutes for the persistent organochorines.
Mode of action The OPs work by inhibiting certain important enzymes of the nervous system, namely cholinesterase ChE. The enzyme is said to be phosphorylated when it becomes attached to the phosphorous moiety of the insecticide, a binding that is irreversible. Classification All OPs are estersof phosphorus having varying combinations of oxygen, carbon, sulfur and nitrogen attached, resulting in six different subclasses: phosphates, phospho-nates, phosphorothioates, phosphorodithioates, phosphorothiolates and phosphoramidates.
These subclasses are easily identified by their chemical names. The OPs are generally divided into three groups-- aliphatic, phenyl , and heterocyclic derivatives.
The aliphatic OPs are carbon chain-like in structure. The phenyl OPs are generally more stable than the aliphatics, thus their residues are longer lasting.
The first phenyl OP brought into agriculture was parathion ethyl parathion in The term heterocyclic means that the ring structures are composed of different or unlike atoms, e. The first of this group was diazinon introduced in These few materials have very low toxicity to insects and are used only as acaricides miticides. They contain two phenyl rings, resembling DDT, with sulfur in place of carbon as the central atom.
The carbamate insecticides are derivatives of carbamic acid as the OPs are derivatives of phosphoric acid. And like the OPs, their mode of action is that of inhibiting the vital enzyme cholinesterase ChE. More of it has been used worldwide than all the remaining carbamates combined. Two distinct qualities have made it the most popular carbamate: its very low mammalian oral and dermal toxicity and an exceptionally broad spectrum of insect control. Carbamates more recently introduced include primicarb, indoxacarb registered in , alanycarb and furathiocarb.
Mode of action Carbamates inhibit cholinesterase ChE as OPs do, and they behave in almost identical manner in biological systems, but with two main differences. Some carbamates are potent inhibitors of aliesterase miscellaneous aliphatic esterases whose exact functions are not known , and their selectivity is sometimes more pronounced against the ChE of different species. Second, ChE inhibition by carbamates is reversible. When ChE is inhibited by a carbamate, it is said to be carbamylated , as when an OP results in the enzyme being phosphorylated.
In insects, the effects of OPs and carbamates are primarily those of poisoning of the central nervous system, since the insect neuromuscular junction is not cholinergic, as in mammals.
The only cholinergic synapses known in insects are in the central nervous system. The chemical neuromuscular junction transmitter in insects is thought to be glutamic acid. The formamidines comprise a small group of insecticides. Their current value lies in the control of OP- and carbamate-resistant pests.
Field Crops and Crop Production
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization report, in , Nigeria produced According to the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture , Nigeria accounted for about 70 percent of the world production amounting to 17 million tonnes from land area 2,, hectares under yam cultivation. Yam is in the class of roots and tubers that is a staple of the Nigerian and West African diet, which provides some calories of energy per capita daily. In Nigeria, in many yam-producing areas, it is said that "yam is food and food is yam". However, the production of yam in Nigeria is substantially short and cannot meet the growing demand at its present level of use. It also has an important social status in gatherings and religious functions, which is assessed by the size of yam holdings one possesses. Yam, a tropical crop in the genus Dioscorea , has as many as species out of which six are economically important staple species.
The EU potato sector - statistics on production, prices and trade
Jump to Main Content. Federal government websites always use a. Economic Research Service. Links to Outlook reports, year projections, data sets, and online Briefing Rooms on individual crops. Foreign Agriculture Service. Presents information on weather, soil moisture, vegetation and growing season for many field crops across several regions worldwide.
The word "pesticide" is a broad term that refers to any device, method, or chemical that kills plants or animals that compete for humanity's food supply or are otherwise undesirable. Pesticides include insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, nematocides used to kill nematodes, elongated cylindrical worms , and rodenticides. Of these various pesticides, insecticides have a longer and more noteworthy history, perhaps because the number of insects labeled "pests" greatly exceeds the number of all other plant and animal "pests" combined. Hence, this article focuses on the use of agricultural insecticides. Since they first began cultivating crops around B. Some cultures relied on the practice of planting during certain phases of the moon. Other early agricultural practices that indirectly kept insect populations low were rotating crops; planting small, varied crops; and selecting naturally resistant plants. People picked bugs off plants by hand and made noise to ward off grasshoppers. Chemicals were also used early on.
Occurrence and Distribution of Potato Pests and Diseases in Kenya
Storage is an important marketing function, which involves holding and preserving goods from the time they are produced until they are needed for consumption. Underground storage structures are dugout structures similar to a well with sides plastered with cowdung. They may also be lined with stones or sand and cement. They may be circular or rectangular in shape.
Tobacco production in Georgia involves more than growers who produce flue-cured tobacco on more than 14, acres in 26 counties across the state. Tobacco at UGA UGA's tobacco site features links to the budgets, equipment availability, a grower's guide, upcoming events, pest control information, hotlines and related links. Sustainable Agriculture at UGA Brings together information on sustainable agriculture including crop rotation, cover crops, and other resources. Impact Statements: Tobacco Descriptions of Extension efforts to improve knowledge and practices related to tobacco. International Tobacco Growers' Association Non-profit organization founded in with the objective of presenting the cause of millions of tobacco farmers to the world. Site features information about membership, social responsibility, tobacco itself, as well as a newsletter and information about upcoming events. Tobacco Associates Resources to assist manufacturers keep their products competitive in the global tobacco market. Displaying farm gate values for Values are tallied in October for the previous year. Classes, Workshops, and Club Meetings UGA Extension offers a wealth of personalized services like workshops, classes, consultation, certifications, camps, and educator resources.
Manufacturing, Agribusiness and Logistics Division
Weather conditions, including lower than average precipitation in several parts of Canada, are expected to drive down production see map and lower anticipated yields for some crops. In addition, high temperatures in some areas may have contributed to an expected decrease in production and average yields for some crops. Farmers were asked to report their estimated area, yield and production of grains, oilseeds and special crops. Farm surveys collect data from Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta for all five survey cycles during the crop year from March to December. The harvested area is first estimated based on the ratio obtained from the sum of harvested areas of the last three years over the sum of the seeded areas of the last three years. This average ratio is applied to their current year's seeded acreage from the June survey. This harvested area is then multiplied by the average yield of the last three years to estimate production.
Production of field crops
Georgia was the first colony to produce cotton commercially, first planting it near Savannah in In school teacher Eli Whitney invented and patented the cotton gin. The first major textile mill was built in near Washington, Ga. Cotton was an ingredient in the first light bulb, the telegraph, the Wright brothers' plane, and the first automobile tires. Georgia ranks third nationally in cotton production and acres planted, and UGA Extension continues to aid in the growth of cotton production. Sustainable Agriculture at UGA Brings together information on sustainable agriculture including crop rotation, cover crops, and other resources. Impact Statements: Cotton Descriptions of Extension efforts to improve knowledge and practices related to cotton. Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics IPBGG faculty actively engage in training of graduate students, the development of new crop varieties, and basic research on the genetics and understanding of crop traits important to agriculture and human kind. Georgia Cotton Commission GCC site featuring annual meeting information, guest speaker profiles, state statistics, cotton lint and seed facts, educational resources, and related links. Displaying farm gate values for
Yam production in Nigeria
This study is the first wide-scale survey to determine the occurrence and distribution of common potato pests and diseases in Kenyan seed certified and quality declared and ware crops. Potato crops growing on farms in 21 districts were examined.
We know that all living organisms need food. India is a very populous country. This can be done by farming on more land. But India is already intensively cultivated.
Table of Contents
So if you have an extra piece of land free of bacterial wilt and other potato plant diseases, it might be a very good ideal to pay a visit to KEPHIS Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service and find out from them how to go about such a venture. Skip to main content. Introduction 2. On-farm production of potato seed tubers by smallholder farmers in small seed-plots 3.
NCERT Class IX Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Typical body constituents 2.