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- Smart Sensor Systems for Wearable Electronic Devices
- Energy autonomous electronic skin
- Top 15 Sensor Types Being Used Most By IoT Application Development Companies
- Recent Advances in Tactile Sensing Technology
- 12 Commonly Used Components on PCBs for Beginners
- Active and Passive Electronic Components
- Lm358 replacement
- List of semiconductor fabrication plants
Smart Sensor Systems for Wearable Electronic DevicesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Electronics Manufacturing UK - PCB Assembly
Today's electronic equipment is filled with integrated circuits, interconnection boards, and other devices that are all manufactured by chemical processes. The medium used for the transmission of information and data over distances has evolved from copper wire to optical fiber.
It is quite likely that no wire-based information transmission systems will be installed in the future. The manufacture of optical fibers, like that of microcircuits, is almost entirely a chemical process. Early data storage memory was based on ferrite core coils containing a reed switch that mechanically held bits of information in either an on or off state.
Today, most data is permanently stored through the use of magnetic materials and devices, and the next generation of data storage devices, based on optoelectronic materials and devices, is beginning to enter the marketplace.
Ferrite cores were manufactured by winding coils and mechanically mounting the individual memory cells in large arrays. Magnetic and optical storage media are manufactured almost entirely by chemical processes. Chemical reactions are used to achieve the fine structures present in current integrated circuits. This electron micrograph shows a transistor in a "cell" of a random access memory chip. A crystal is any solid material in which the component atoms are arranged in a definite pattern and whose surface regularity reflects its internal symmetry.
It consists of millions of individual structural units of atoms called unit cells. These cells are repeated in all directions to form a geometric pattern, which is manifested by the number and orientation of external planar surfaces called crystal faces. A fundamental property of crystals is symmetry, and all crystals can be classified on the basis of their dominant symmetry elements. There are seven basic systems: isometric, trigonal, hexagonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic systems.
Some classifications consider hexagonal and trigonal to be subdivisions of the hexagonal system. A number of sequentual chemical steps are used to take the pure silicon wafer and pattern it so that integrated circuits can be laid down. The manufacture of integrated circuits requires both expertise in electronic design and chemical processing. Chemical process steps are important to the preparation of silicon materials, to the steps from oxidation of silicon wafers through establishment of bonding pads, and to the final assembly of chips in individual packages.
Click on image for larger view. Chemical vapor deposition CVD is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a large variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. In a typical CVD process, reactant gases often diluted in a carrier gas at room temperature enter the reaction chamber. The gas mixture is heated as it approaches the deposition surface, which is heated radiatively or placed upon a heated substrate.
Depending on the process and operating conditions, the reactant gases may undergo a series chemical reactions in the gas phase before contacting the surface. Near the deposition surface the temperature, velocity, and chemical composition of the gas change rapidly. Chemical reactions between the inlet source gases or reactive intermediate species formed from the gas phase reactions and the solid deposition surface occur, creating the deposited film.
Gaseous reaction by-products are then transported out of the reaction chamber. Conceptual diagram of chemical plant for producing ultrapure silicon tetrachloride, which is used in the production of optical fibers. Excess hydrochloric acid generated in the reactor is removed 2 and the stream is passed along to two distillation columns, or stills, 3,4 , where contaminants are removed. On-line optical sensing 5 is used to monitor final product purity.
A cross-section showing multilevel connections in a bipolar device. Fourteen separate layers are laid down in the fabrication of interconnections such as that shown here.
Today, information is collected, processed, displayed, stored, retrieved, and transmitted by an array of powerful technologies that rely on electronic microcircuits, light wave communication systems, magnetic and optical data storage and recording, and electrical interconnections.
Materials and devices for these technologies, along with photovoltaic materials and devices, are manufactured by sophisticated chemical processes. The United States is now engaged in fierce international competition to achieve and maintain leadership in the design and manufacture of these materials and devices.
The economic stakes are large; national productivity and security interests dictate that we make the strongest possible effort to stay ahead in processing science and technology for this area. In the manufacturing of components for in- formation and photovoltaic systems, there has been a long-term trend away from mechanical production and toward production by chemical processes. Chemists and chemical engineers have become increasingly involved in several areas of research and process development.
Worldwide, however, many high-technology industries, such as microelectronics, still have surprisingly little strength in chemical processing and engineering. The United States has a particular advantage over its international competitors in that its chemical engineering research community leads the world in size and sophistication. The United States is in a position to exploit its strong competence in chemical processing to regain leadership in areas where the initiative in manufacturing technology has passed to Japan and to maintain or increase leadership in areas of U.
Chemical engineering contributes to research on information and photovoltaic materials and devices in a variety of ways. As a discipline it is involved in the large scale synthesis of materials, the design and optimization of reaction and deposition processes, the treatment of waste streams arising from materials processing, and process integration and automation associated with packaging and assembly.
The array of materials processed by chemical engineers in this industry is far too large to mention. Elements from almost every column in the periodic table have been used to make insulators, semiconductors, conductors, waveguides, optical transmitters and sensors, and protective coatings. Within the microelectronics industry, two classes of materials have received a lot of attention since the invention of the transistor.
Different combinations of III-V elements are used to make binary, ternary, and quaternary alloys that have optoelectronic properties, that is, they emit light when electrical current is passed through them. We know these as solid state lasers, among other things, such as those found in barcode scanners at supermarket checkouts. An exciting component of working in these industries is the direct interaction with other disciplines. Chemical engineers have had to become able to communicate across disciplinary lines, as the technologies discussed in this section involve solid-state physics and chemistry, electrical engineering, and materials science.
The manufacturing methods used to produce integrated circuits, interconnections, optical fibers, recording media, and photovoltaics also share characteristics.
All involve a sequence of individual, complex steps, most of which entail the chemical modification or synthesis of materials. The individual steps are designed as discrete unit or batch operations and, to date, there has been little effort to integrate the overall manufacturing process. Chemical engineers can play a significant role in improving manufacturing processes and techniques, and investments in chemical processing science and engineering research represent a potentially high-leverage approach to enhancing our competitive position.
Before the invention of the transistor in , the electronics industry was based on vacuum tube technology, and most electronic gear was assembled on a metal chassis with mechanical attachment, soldering, and hand wiring. A rapid evolution occurred in the electronics industry after the invention of the transistor and the monolithic intelrated circuit: Today's electronic equipment is filled with integrated circuits, interconnection boards, and other devices that are all manufactured by chemical processes.
The importance and sophistication of current chemical manufacturing processes for electronic, photonic, and recording materials ant devices are not widely appreciated. A more detailed description serves to highlight their central role in these technologies. Microcircuits A semiconductor microcircuit is a series of electrically interconnected films that are laid down by chemical reactions. The successful growth and manipulation of these films depend heavily on proper design of the chemical reactors in which they are laid down, the choice of chemical reagents, separation and purification steps, and the design and operation of sophisticated control systems.
Microelectronics based on microcircuits are commonly used in such consumer items as calculators, digital watches, personal computers, PDAs, GPSs, cell phones, pagers, and even microwave ovens and in information processing units that are used in communication, defense, space exploration, medicine, and education. Microcircuitry has been made possible by our ability to use chemical reactions and processes to fabricate millions of electronic components or elements simultaneously on a single substrate, usually silicon.
This stunning achievement is just one step in a long-term trend toward the design and production of integrated circuits of increasing complexity and capability. There is still considerable room for further increases in component density in silicon-based microelectronics, not to mention possible advances in component density that would result from alternative methods of storing and transferring information e.
Chemical reactions and processes in the manufacture of microcircuits begin with the basic material for integrated circuits, high-purity polycrystalline silicon for each trillion atoms, less than are elements other than silicon. A tiny seed crystal of silicon with the proper crystalline orientation is inserted into the melt and slowly rotated and withdrawn at a precisely controlled rate, forming a large cylindrical single crystal 6 inches 14 cm in diameter and about as tall as an adult human being 1.
Crystal growth kinetics, heat and mas transfer relationships, and chemical reactions all play important roles in this process of controller growth. The resulting single crystal ingots are sawed into wafers that are polished to a flatness in the range of from 1 to 10 microns 0. What is a crystal?
The resist is then removed with an oxidizing agent such as sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide H 2 SO 4 -H 2 O 2 mixture, and the wafer is chemicall cleaned and ready for other steps in the fabrication process. The patterned wafer might next be placed in a diffusion furnace, where a first doping step is performed to deposit phosphorous or boron into the holes in the oxide layer.
A new oxide film can then be grown and the photoresist process repeated. Optical fiber technology is now almost 25 years old, but it did not become a commercial reality until the early-to-mid 's.
It is now a multi-billion dollar industry annually. The data transmitting capacity volume of data per unit time of optical fiber systems doubled every year from to the early 's. Although capacity no longer doubles each year, it nevertheless continues to increase. Other applications for light guides, such as optical fiber sensors and transducers, are receiving a great deal of attention.
Image transmission e. Light wave media and devices include the guiding medium optical fibers , sending and receiving devices, and associated electronics and circuitry. The transmission of light signals through optical fibers must occur at wavelengths where the absorption of light by the fiber is at a minimum. In other words, the best transmission, and commensurate least losses due to absorbtion occur in this glass fiber when the wavelength of light is either 1.
Optical signal processing for integrated optics and optical computing is still at a relatively early stage but is certain to be an important area for future technological development.
The processing involved in making optoelectronic devices is very similar to that used in microcircuit manufacture, but with considerable utilization of the III-V compound semiconductors discussed in the last section, lithium niobate, and a variety of polymeric materials. Developmental manufacturing processes for optoelectronics emphasize reactive ion etching, epitaxy e.
All these processes are based on chemical reactions that require precise process control to produce useful devices. What is chemical vapor deposition CVD? A variety of important chemical engineering research issues dominate the contribution of this profession to the microelectronics, photonics, storage media, and thin film industries.
These issues are quite broad and cut across the spectrum of materials, devices, and applications. Process integration is the key challenge in the design of efficient and cost-effective manufacturing processes for electronic, photonic, and recording materials and devices. Except for magnetic tape, these products are often manufactured through a series of individual, isolated steps. To improve process reliabilty and enhance our capabilities, it is crucial that its overall manufacturing methodology be examined and that integrated manufacturing approaches be implemented.
Historically, all industries have benefited both economically and in the quality and yield of products by the use of integrated manufacturing methods. As individual process steps become more complex and precise, the final results of manufacturing e. Thus, it becomes increasingly important to automate and integrate individual process steps into an overall manufacturing process.
The concepts of chemical engineering are easily applied in meeting the challenge of process integration, particularly because many of the key process steps involve chemical reactions. For example, in the manufacture of microcircuits, chemical engineers provide mathematical models and control algorithms for the transient and steady-state operation of individual chemical process steps e.
As another example, in microcircuit manufacture, chemical engineers provide needed simulations of the dynamics of material movement through the plant and thus optimize the flow of devices or wafers through a fabrication line. The continuous production of photovoltaic devices will require similar studies with even more emphasis on automation.
Wearable human interaction devices are technologies with various applications for improving human comfort, convenience and security and for monitoring health conditions. As a result, wearable electronic devices are receiving greater attention because of their facile interaction with the human body, such as monitoring heart rate, wrist pulse, motion, blood pressure, intraocular pressure, and other health-related conditions. In this paper, various smart sensors and wireless systems are reviewed, the current state of research related to such systems is reported, and their detection mechanisms are compared. Our focus was limited to wearable and attachable sensors.
Energy autonomous electronic skin
Top 15 Sensor Types Being Used Most By IoT Application Development Companies
Research on tactile sensing technology has been actively conducted in recent years to pave the way for the next generation of highly intelligent devices. Sophisticated tactile sensing technology has a broad range of potential applications in various fields including: 1 robotic systems with tactile sensors that are capable of situation recognition for high-risk tasks in hazardous environments; 2 tactile quality evaluation of consumer products in the cosmetic, automobile, and fabric industries that are used in everyday life; 3 robot-assisted surgery RAS to facilitate tactile interaction with the surgeon; and 4 artificial skin that features a sense of touch to help people with disabilities who suffer from loss of tactile sense. This review provides an overview of recent advances in tactile sensing technology, which is divided into three aspects: basic physiology associated with human tactile sensing, the requirements for the realization of viable tactile sensors, and new materials for tactile devices. In addition, the potential, hurdles, and major challenges of tactile sensing technology applications including artificial skin, medical devices, and analysis tools for human tactile perception are presented in detail.
All about Active and Passive Electronic Components. Active and Passive Electronic Components are two classes of electronic components. Both these classes of electronic components are different from each other. This article explains all about active and passive electronic components with examples and the difference between the two. Active electronic components are those that can control the flow of electricity. Different Types of Printed Circuit Boards have at least one active component. Some examples of active electronic components are transistor, vacuum tubes, silicon-controlled rectifiers SCRs. Here is complete list of most common and widely used Active Electronic Components. I have not mentioned the Obsolete Components. Examples of passive electronic components are capacitors, resistors, inductors, transformers, and some diodes.
Recent Advances in Tactile Sensing Technology
It presents the current knowledge on …. This injection locked frequency divider is implemented using the TSMC 0. Polymide synonyms, Polymide pronunciation, Polymide translation, English dictionary definition of Polymide. The IOP implant achieves a pressure sensitivity of 0.
In this circuit, the piezo is put through a full-wave rectifier bridge the four diodes to make its voltage always positive. LT from Linear and second sourced from Texas is a direct replacement with much, much better parametrics. No restocking fee. An LM is a comparator IC which allows us to compare different input voltages to determine which is larger. This is a low power dual operational amplifier. The LM is a similar design, but it's not intended for linear applications, and would probably tend to oscillate if you try to connect it as a linear amplifier. The LM is a low power dual operational amplifier integrated circuit originally introduced by National Semiconductor. Hi guys, I am looking for LM replacement.
12 Commonly Used Components on PCBs for Beginners
This is a list of semiconductor fabrication plants : A semiconductor fabrication plant is where integrated circuits ICs , also known as microchips , are made. They are either operated by Integrated Device Manufacturers IDMs who design and manufacture ICs in-house and may also manufacture designs from design only firms fabless companies , or by Pure Play foundries , who manufacture designs from fabless companies but do not design their own ICs. SAW Filters . NOTE: Some fabs located in Asia don't use the number 4, or any 2 digit number that adds up to 4, because it is considered bad luck; see tetraphobia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Active and Passive Electronic Components
So what do you do when your inverter is off or broken? Check the inverter circuit. All you need is a 12volt battery. Add an inverter symbol that you generated in the schematic entry tutorial click. Frequency inverters are used to control the speed, torque, acceleration, deceleration, and direction of the motor.
Terminal blocks are electronic components. I believe that many workers in the electrical industry often say that electronic components, but can not clearly point out which are not part of the scope of electronic components, to sort out today. Electronic components and components is the general term. Electronic components: refers to the factory production and processing does not change the molecular composition of the finished product.
List of semiconductor fabrication plants
Despite living in a world full of electronics gadgets, electronics still retains a veil of mystery. The workings mechanisms of electronic projects seem so abstract, as nothing can be seen working away to make gadgets work. Without moving gears, shafts and the like, nothing is visually happening on the printed circuit board.
Сотрудникам службы безопасности платили за их техническое мастерство… а также за чутье. Действуй, объясняться будешь. Чатрукьян знал, что ему делать.
Болван этот полицейский. Ну только подумайте. Усадить человека моих лет на мотоцикл. Просто позор.