By: Dave Asprey. You may have noticed that essential oils are popping up in day spas, home parties, and medicine cabinets near you. To be honest, more than ten years ago I wrote essential oils off as basically useless after diligently trying a bunch of expensive ones from Australia. So powerful in fact that we use them to enhance recovery in the 40 Years of Zen intensive neurofeedback brain training program.
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- Essential quality
- Exporting essential oils for food to Europe
- The Future of Natural Essential Oils in the Flavor and Fragrance Industry
- Essential Oils: Market and Legislation
- Essential oil
- The production of minor essential oils in the united states
- Study of Essential Oils Obtained from Tropical Plants Grown in Colombia
Essential qualityVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Essential oil manufacturing, production, distilling - Silvestris
This chapter presents a brief description of essential oil extraction and chemical characterization techniques, followed by a representative list of references to publications on EO composition obtained from tropical aromatic plants that grow in Colombia. Opportunities for the development of interesting products for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, hygiene, and food industries are illustrated with a few selected works on the evaluation of cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antiviral, antigenotoxic activities, and repellence of these essential oils.
Essential Oils - Oils of Nature. The country is rich in many natural resources and water. Contrasting landscapes and varied climatic conditions have made it after Brazil, the second most biodiverse country. This biodiversity includes medicinal and aromatic plants; most native aromatic plants remain unexamined. The aromatic herbs and spices commonly used in everyday life were brought to Colombia by the Spanish conquerors five centuries ago basil, chamomile, mint, parsley, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, etc.
These plantations are located mainly in the Andean region, some in the Eastern Plains of Colombia. The crop of medicinal and aromatic plants amounted to 16, tons in This vegetal material was used for many applications different from essential oil EO extraction, in over companies and commercial establishments [ 1 ]. Colombia has currently no commercial enterprise dedicated to the cultivation of aromatic plants destined to produce essential oils for export or the national market.
Since there is no essential oil production, the EO exported amounts corresponded to commercialization of previously imported oils. The transition point was marked by the creation in of a network of research groups that joined their expertise around the development of the EOs agroindustry. Over scientific articles comprise the results of its investigations, which have been focused on the multidisciplinary and systematic search of promising native plants and on introduced species such as ylang-ylang, palmarosa, turmeric, patchouli, mints, basils, citrus, geraniums, and others.
Researchers from more than 10 universities have carried out their work in areas of botany and taxonomy, plant physiology, and ecology; on the study of secondary plant metabolites, crop and post-harvest improvement, EO distillation and its optimization, and design of rural stills; on the study of volatile fractions from plants and flowers, obtainment of extracts with solvents and supercritical fluids SFE-CO2 , and catalytic transformation of EOs or their main components; and on the study of their diverse biological properties antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antiviral, and others.
The primary metabolites proteins, lipids, sugars, etc. For sure and with all the experimental details studied, the role played by secondary metabolites in plants is not completely known, because they fulfill several functions and operate through different mechanisms. Among many secondary metabolites isolated from plants, there are some very special, widely used in various branches of industry, medicine, and in many products of everyday life.
This class of substances is called EOs, volatile oils, ethereal oils, or essences. Numerous substances are part of these oils; they are a complex mixture of volatile compounds with very diverse chemical nature. What most characterizes and highlights them is their smell, generally pleasant and intense, that evokes the fragrance of the plant or of the fruit or wood, from which these oils come.
The essence can be remembered as the smell, for example, of a freshly cut grass or vanilla, sweet and cloying, among other aromatic tones that an EO has, formed by a complex range of volatile substances with different fragrant notes and different sensory thresholds for their perception.
Isolated from flowers rose, orange blossom, lily, ylang-ylang , seeds coriander, celery, carrot, anise, cardamom , leaves and stems basil, thyme, mint, lavender, oregano , bark cinnamon , wood pine, sandalwood , roots valerian, vetiver , and rhizomes ginger, turmeric. EOs can be considered as the soul of the plants, their spirit, which characterizes, highlights, evokes, and makes them memorable in time; oils, generally, produce a pleasant sensation, especially when diluted.
The EOs in the plants can be found in the different oil cells ginger, turmeric, vanilla , in the secretory channels pine, artemisia, anise, angelica , in the glands citrus, eucalyptus , or in the trichomes many plants of Labiatae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Geraniaceae families. The plant material aromatic plant , when subjected to water vapor, releases a liquid odoriferous mixture EO of various volatile substances; this mixture can have from 50 to more than chemical substances and is composed of terpene hydrocarbons, their oxygenated derivatives, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones, as well as ethers, esters, phenolic compounds, phenylpropanoids, and other derivatives [ 3 ].
EOs can be obtained from plant material by three main methods Figure 1. This process is carried out with a superheated dry steam, usually generated by a boiler or steam generator, which penetrates the plant material at higher than atmospheric pressure; the steam current breaks the cells or oil channels in the plant and drags the volatile mixture, which condenses after passing through a cooling system heat exchanger.
Generally, the oils are lighter than water and with very little soluble in it; therefore, they can be separated by decantation. The exception is the clove oil, which is heavier than water and is collected under it.
The steam distillation method is used to extract oils from rhizomes, roots, seeds vetiver, valerian, ginger, anise, cardamom, etc. In this extraction system, wet steam is used, coming from the boiling water, which passes through the plant material suspended above and supported on a mesh. Most herbaceous plants are distilled by this method.
This method is used for the distillation of more delicate plant material, for example, flowers e. The citrus peel orange, tangerine, lime EOs are also obtained by cold-pressing or by scraping their surfaces.
Steam generation is one of the main components of the operation costs. Current trends point toward the use of lignocellulosic waste as biofuel for the furnace. Still capacity is determined by the crop size. This is mainly to prevent mold formation. Patchouli and vetiver are two exceptions to this rule, because a curing period of several days or months vetiver recommended to enhance oil yield and organoleptic quality. The reality is that a large part of Colombian small growers have low purchasing power, low economic performance and productivity, and not very sophisticated technology level in rural operations and processes.
Traditional agricultural production faces a complex problem that includes low prices, low profitability, and the increasingly acute lack of rural labor, because young people migrate to the cities.
The EO industry is a very important rural development alternative in which the harvested vegetal material is no longer the final product, but the start of an added-value product chain.
The common goal of these projects has been the development of the EO value chain. The economic, agronomic, and quality viability of EOs obtained in several productive units have been studied. A mobile autonomous version that uses a radiator as condenser received a patent [ 4 ]. The farmers are trained on good agricultural practices, post-harvest treatment, and steam distillation.
All activities are accompanied by permanent technical assistance Figure 2. These small rural projects constitute an opportunity for a commercializing enterprise that consolidates the various producers around quality control guidelines and provides the technical support to connect them with buyers abroad. The university provides the technical support for chemical characterization with modern instrumentation, production of technical data sheets, and quality assurance.
The analytical technique routinely used for the instrumental chemical analysis of EOs is gas chromatography GC , because the constituents of oils are volatile monoterpenoids, esters, etc. A chromatographic system comprises four fundamental blocks: 1 sample introduction system injector , 2 separation system column , 3 detection system for analytes eluted from the column detector , and 4 data analysis and operation control system.
The GC can have conventional, e. The separation is based on achieving different distribution constants of the components between the two phases, stationary and mobile. This is obtained by establishing the optimal operational conditions temperature, type of mobile phase, its velocity, stationary phase polarity, carrier gas pressure, temperature program, etc.
Figure 4 and by correctly choosing the chromatographic column, i. The EOs contain compounds of very different polarities, both nonpolar terpene hydrocarbons and polar alcohols, aldehydes. This implies that for their analysis, columns with different stationary phase polarities will be required.
Ylang-ylang essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers. GC-MS analysis. Injection modes: A. Split 1, ; B. With higher temperature rate, poorer separation of germacrene D and benzyl acetate is observed. The detection system differentiates the analyte molecules from those of the mobile phase carrier gas , to which the detector is transparent.
The response of the detector is based on the measurement of one of the physical properties of the system, e. The analog signal becomes digital, graphic, i. Through a combination of specialized software data system , its accessories, interfaces, and analog-digital converters, the work of the chromatographic system and all its operational parts hardware is harmonized.
For the EO analysis, which are very complex mixtures, two GC detectors are mainly used, namely, the flame ionization detector and the mass selective detector MSD or the mass spectrometry MS detector. The preliminary or presumptive tentative identification of the EO components may be obtained once the retention indices are determined.
The analysis in modern equipment uses a program for the column temperature; in these cases, linear retention indexes are calculated, which are part of many databases and bibliographic references [ 5 , 6 ]. The complementarity of the chromatographic analysis screening with confirmatory spectral data mass spectra is achieved using the combination of two techniques, GC and MS. EOs contain both nonpolar monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and polar compounds their oxygenated derivatives, aliphatic alcohols, ketones, oxides, phenolic compounds and their derivatives, phenylpropanoids, and rarely acids, among others.
The compounds reach the end of the column in the increasing order of their boiling points. In the polar column, poly ethylene glycol , the elution order of the components is more difficult to predict, because it is related to the intermolecular forces between the analyte and the stationary phase and depends both on the dipole moment of the molecule the polarity and on the possibility of hydrogen bond formation between the substance and the stationary phase.
Co-injection of the essential oil and n-paraffin mixture to calculate retention indices RI. The elution order of some compounds in columns with different stationary phases may be reversed.
When the chromatographic parameters t R , t RR , or retention indices and spectroscopic parameters, i. However, when retention indexes and mass spectra are used, extracted from the specialized literature [ 6 , 7 ] or from the databases e. Each one of the mentioned spectroscopic techniques contributes with some structural information, but the combined results allow to assemble the puzzle and elucidate the chemical structure unequivocally. Ethyl benzoate mass spectrum.
Methyl m-methyl benzoate mass spectrum. Benzyl acetate mass spectrum. The biggest challenge in EO analysis is the complete separation of its components Figure 7 because their frequent coelution occurs due to their very close or equal distribution constants. Some conventional strategies, e. Multidimensional chromatography makes it possible to separate the peaks of partially or totally co-eluted substances.
This method has played an important role in the development of separation techniques for complex mixtures, including EOs [ 8 , 9 ]. Multidimensional chromatography requires at least two detectors and can have configurations of up to three columns in the same oven or in separate chromatographic ovens.
Ylang-ylang essential oil chromatogram GC-MS fragment. In comprehensive gas chromatography GC x GC , two columns are used, linked together by means of a modulator.
In contrast to conventional multidimensional gas chromatography, the GC x GC requires a single detector with high processing frequency; both columns can be in the same oven or in two separate ovens. There are different types of modulators, e. The second column, therefore, must be short and very thin and separate the components in just a few seconds.
In most cases, a time-of-flight TOF mass detector is used, which is the best option—though expensive—to make a quantitative analysis and identification of compounds in such complex mixtures, as are EOs Figure 8. Further technical details for EO chemical characterization and that of their components can be found elsewhere [ 12 , 13 ].
In summary, EO characterization necessary for its quality control and the determination of authenticity, as part of a technical data sheet necessary for its commercialization, can be divided into four main stages or areas: 1 organoleptic properties, 2 physicochemical determinations, 3 qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components present in the oil chemical composition , and, finally, 4 some other determinations, e.
CENIVAM has studied Colombian plants widely used in popular medicine or in culinary, for example, anise [ 14 ], oregano [ 15 ], rue [ 16 , 17 ], and other species introduced from Asia, such as lemongrass, citronella, ginger, citrics [ 18 , 19 , 20 ], vetiver, and ylang-ylang [ 21 , 22 , 23 ], as well as several native species, among others, Copaifera officinalis [ 24 ], Spilanthes americana [ 25 ], Lepechinia schiedeana [ 26 ], Lippia alba [ 27 ], Xylopia americana [ 28 ], Hyptis umbrosa [ 29 ], Callistemon speciosus sims DC.
Table 1 summarizes the composition of several Lippia EOs, according to compound families. The knowledge of the chemical composition has been the basis for the interpretation of the results of bioactivity assays such as genotoxicity [ 41 , 42 , 43 ], antiviral [ 44 ] and antifungal [ 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 ] activities, insect repellence [ 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 ], antioxidant capacity [ 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 ], cytotoxic [ 30 , 66 , 67 , 68 ], antituberculosis [ 69 ], and anti-protozoarial activities [ 70 , 71 ].
A few examples are highlighted in the following section.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile easily evaporated at normal temperatures chemical compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils , ethereal oils , aetherolea , or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An essential oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the "essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived. Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation , often by using steam.
Exporting essential oils for food to Europe
A recent study done by the Aromatic Plant Research Center APRC , the leading state-of-the-art essential oil research and testing facility, found that of the 50 essential oil companies tested, only three produced oils that were not adulterated. Due to confidentiality agreements, the names of the other two companies cannot be released. The most common way essential oils are adulterated is by adding individual chemicals to the oil. Adding a carrier oil, such as cooking oil, is another way some companies extend their products to increase profit.
The Future of Natural Essential Oils in the Flavor and Fragrance Industry
The outcome also includes revenue forecasts, statistics, market valuations which illustrates its growth trends and competitive landscape as well as the key players in the business. This report focuses on Essential Oil volume and value at global level, regional level and company level. From a global perspective, this report represents overall Essential Oil market size by analyzing historical data and future prospect. The Essential Oil Market Report provides key strategies followed by leading Essential Oil industry manufactures and Sections of Market like- product specifications, volume, production value, Feasibility Analysis, Classification based on types and end user application areas with geographic growth and upcoming advancement. The Essential Oil market report provides comprehensive outline of Invention, Industry Requirement, technology and production analysis considering major factors such as Revenue, investments and business growth. Essential oils also known as ethereal oils, volatile oils, and aetherolea are extracted from plants. In terms of geography, Europe led the global essential oil market.
This chapter provides an overview of the market for essential oils and describes its fundamental regulation in the European Union EU. Both processes and trends in essential oils production, trade, and consumption are analysed. The market is also attractive to subsistence farmers of developing countries as the raw materials plants and plant parts , for essential olis are generally obtained from small farms. In the EU, product categories operate under specific regulations to enhance product quality and to maintain market homogeneity and consumer protection. This chapter focuses on EU legislation of general interest to the essential oils industry and regulations inherent to flavourings for food, cosmetics, and additives for animal nutrition. Potential of Essential Oils. This chapter provides an overview of the essential oils market and illustrates the main regulatory aspects for their primary uses in the European Union EU. Both sources indicate that essential oils are distilled products, as opposed to extracts [ 3 ], liquid products obtained from plant parts leaves, stems, bark, seeds, fruits, roots, and plant exudates , or, at times, may be produced by other processes, including solvent extraction. They are generally of complex composition and contain alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, esters, ethers, and terpenes in varying proportions. Distillation is the most common method to isolate essential oils, but other processes—including enfleurage extraction using fat , maceration, solvent extraction, and mechanical pressing—are used for specific products.
Essential Oils: Market and Legislation
The global essential oils market size was USD 7. The global food and beverage industry is undergoing gradual, yet significant transition concerning ingredients formulations - the growing consumer's inclination towards natural and organic products have made essential oils a crucial ingredient of choice for food processors. There has been a gradual increase in the consumer's understanding about the detrimental health effects of synthetic chemicals added for flavor applications; manufacturers are thus encouraged to utilize natural inputs such as essential oils for increasing the aesthetic appeal of food products alongside improving the nutritional and functional properties, which will contribute significantly to essential oils market growth.
Essential oils are valuable ingredients in our formulations. But how should they be stored to ensure they remain of the highest quality? Our researchers investigated this question — and uncovered some completely new findings in the process. Natural essential oils play an important role in our formulations. Hauschka Skin Care products. These oils are only ever extracted using physical processes, usually steam distillation. The oil yield is extremely low in relation to the raw plant material used: generally in the one or two-digit range per mil. To obtain one litre of essential rose oil, for example, requires around four tonnes of rose flowers.
This chapter presents a brief description of essential oil extraction and chemical characterization techniques, followed by a representative list of references to publications on EO composition obtained from tropical aromatic plants that grow in Colombia. Opportunities for the development of interesting products for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, hygiene, and food industries are illustrated with a few selected works on the evaluation of cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antiviral, antigenotoxic activities, and repellence of these essential oils. Essential Oils - Oils of Nature. The country is rich in many natural resources and water. Contrasting landscapes and varied climatic conditions have made it after Brazil, the second most biodiverse country. This biodiversity includes medicinal and aromatic plants; most native aromatic plants remain unexamined.
The production of minor essential oils in the united states
The European demand for essential oils is strong. Increasing competition for these natural ingredients from emerging markets and pressure on raw material production spur European importers to search for new sources. For you as an exporter, the production of essential oils can be much more profitable than the production of the raw materials only. European buyers are looking for this added value, because they can use the essential oils to manufacture a wide range of foods and drinks. Essential oils are obtained from vegetable raw materials mostly plant parts by distillation with water or steam. They can also be produced from citrus peels by pressing the peels.
Study of Essential Oils Obtained from Tropical Plants Grown in Colombia
The second edition of Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications provides a much-needed compilation of information related to the development, use, and marketing of essential oils. It focuses particularly on the chemistry, pharmacology, and biological activities of essential oils, with contributions from a worldwide group of expert authorities on their historical, biological, regulatory, and biotransformation aspects. New chapters on the natural variability of components that often occurs in essential oils and on the natural processes that cause adulteration of essential oils. Splits a previous chapter on biological activities of essential oils into two separate chapters on biological activities and antioxidative properties.
The oils of dill, lemon-grass, tansy, wormseed and wormwood are distilled from cultivated plants; those of cedarleaf, cedarwood, erigeron, pennyroyal, sassafras, sweet birch, wintergreen and witch-hazel from wild plants; and together they all constitute a minor industry for which production figures are not readily available. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Little journeys to chemurgic industries —Witch-hazel.
Leading producer of essential oils and extracts for perfumes, cosmetics and flavors, BIOLANDES offers today a range of products extracted from 90 plants collected in 30 countries. Essential oils. Natural extracts. Organic essential oils.