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Warehouse space woodworking machine tools

The development of stationary planing machines can be traced back to the beginning of the 19th century. On the first machines of this type, the workpiece was clamped to a carriage and fed below a horizontal shaft fitted with blades extending over the full working width. In a planing machine was built in Germany on which the workpiece was fed over a cutterblock located between two tables used to position and to support the workpiece. Apart from technical improvements this basic design has been maintained to this day. Such a machine is called a surface planing machine or a jointer see figure 1. More recently, machines were designed to plane the upper surface of a workpiece to a predetermined thickness by means of a horizontally rotating cutterblock.

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General Profile Debra Osinsky. Woodworking Processes Jon K. Traditionally, furniture factories have been located in Europe and North America. With the increased cost of labour in industrialized countries, more furniture production, which is labour intensive, has shifted to Far Eastern countries.

It is likely that this movement will continue unless more automated equipment can be developed. Most furniture manufacturers are small enterprises. The woodworking industry in the United States is responsible for manufacturing household, office, store, public building and restaurant furniture and fixtures.

The woodworking industry falls under the US Bureau of the Census Standard Industrial Classification SIC Code 25 equivalent to International SIC Code 33 and includes: wood household furniture, such as beds, tables, chairs and bookshelves; wood television and radio cabinets; wood office furniture, such as cabinets, chairs and desks; and wood office and store fixtures and partitions, such as bar fixtures, counters, lockers and shelves.

Because production lines for assembling furniture are costly, most manufacturers do not supply an exceptionally large range of items.

Manufacturers may specialize in the product manufactured, the product group or the production process EPA For the purposes of this article, the processes of the woodworking industry will be considered to start with the reception of converted timber from the sawmill and continue until the shipping of a finished wood article or product. The woodworking industry produces furniture and a variety of building materials, ranging from plywood floors to shingles. This article covers the main stages in the processing of wood for the production of wooden products, which are machine working of natural wood or manufactured panels, assembly of machined parts and surface finishing e.

Figure 1 is a flow diagram for wood furniture manufacturing, which covers nearly the whole range of these processes. Some furniture manufacturing facilities may purchase dried lumber, but others perform drying onsite using a drying kiln or oven, fired by a boiler.

Usually wood waste is the fuel. Once the lumber is dried, it is sawed and otherwise machined into the shape of the final furniture part, such as a table leg. In a normal plant, the wood stock moves from rough planer, to cutoff saw, to rip saw, to finish planer, to moulder, to lathe, to table saw, to band saw, to router, to shaper, to drill and mortiser, to carver and then to a variety of sanders.

In many instances, the design of furniture pieces requires bending of certain wooden parts. This occurs after the planing process, and usually involves the application of pressure in conjunction with a softening agent, such as water, and increased atmospheric pressure.

After bending into the desired shape, the piece is dried to remove excess moisture. Wood furniture can either be finished and then assembled, or the reverse. Furniture made of irregularly shaped components is usually assembled and then finished.

The assembly process usually involves the use of adhesives either synthetic or natural in conjunction with other joining methods, such as nailing, followed by the application of veneers. Purchased veneers are trimmed to correct size and patterns, and bonded to purchased chipboard. After the surface has dried, a solution of glue or resin is applied and allowed to dry.

The raised fibres are then sanded down to form a smooth surface. If the wood contains rosin, which can interfere with the effectiveness of certain finishes, it may be derosinated by applying a mixture of acetone and ammonia. The wood is then bleached by spraying, sponging or dipping the wood into a bleaching agent such as hydrogen peroxide. Surface finishing. Surface finishing may involve the use of a large variety of coatings. These coatings are applied after the product is assembled or in a flat line operation before assembly.

Coatings could normally include fillers, stains, glazes, sealers, lacquers, paints, varnishes and other finishes. The coatings may be applied by spray, brush, pad, dip, roller or flow-coating machine. Coatings can be either solvent based or water based. Paints may contain a wide variety of pigments, depending on the desired colour. Woodworking manufacturing has many of the hazards to safety and health that are common to general industry, with a much larger proportion of extremely hazardous equipment and operations than most.

Consequently, safety requires constant attention to safe work habits by employees, vigilant supervision, and maintenance of a safe work environment by employers. Sawing machines. Employees should be made aware of the safe operating practices necessary for the proper use of various woodworking saws see figure 2 and figure 3.

When feeding a table saw, hands must be kept out of the line of the cut. When ripping with the fence gauge near the saw, a push stick or suitable jig must be used to complete the cut. See figure 4. The saw blade must be positioned so as to minimize its protrusion above the stock; the lower the blade, the less chance for kickbacks.

It is good practice to stand out of the line of the stock being ripped. A heavy leather apron or other guard for the abdomen is recommended. Freehand sawing is always dangerous. The stock must always be held against a gauge or fence. See figure 3. The saw must be appropriate for the job. For instance, it is an unsafe practice to rip with a table saw not equipped with a non-kickback device. Kickback aprons are recommended.

The dangerous practice of removing a hood guard because of narrow clearance on the gauge side can be avoided by clamping a filler board to the table between the gauge and the saw and using it to guide the stock. Employees must never be permitted to bypass guards. Combs, featherboards see figure 5 or suitable jigs must be provided where standard guards cannot be used. Crosscutting long boards on a table saw should be avoided because the operator is required to use considerable hand pressure near the saw blade.

Also, boards extending beyond the table may be struck by people or trucks. Long stock should be crosscut on a swing pull saw or radial arm saw with adequate supporting bench. Work that should be done on special power-feed machines should not be done on general-purpose hand-fed machines.

To set a gauge of a table saw without taking off the guards, a permanent mark should designate the line of cut on the table top. It is considered safe practice to bring equipment to a complete stop before adjusting blades or fences, and to disconnect the power source when changing blades. A table saw is also called a variety saw because it can perform a wide variety of sawing functions. For this reason the operator should have a variety of guards, because no one guard can protect from every function.

Cutting machines. Cutting machines can also be hazardous if not adequately guarded and always used with respect and alertness. Cutting tools should be kept well sharpened and correctly balanced on their spindles.

The router shown in figure 6 has a brush guard. Other routers may have a ring guard, a round guard that encircles the router bit. The purpose of guards is to keep the hands away from the cutting bit.

Computer numerical controlled CNC routers may have several bits and are high production machines. However, another problem is the high amount of wood dust. The exposed portion of the knives behind the fence should also be guarded. The shaper is a potentially very dangerous machine see figure 8. If the shaper knives become separated from the above and below collars on the arbor, they can be thrown with great force. Also, stock must often be held close to the knives.

Featherboards can be used to hold the stock down against the table. Ring or saucer guards should be used whenever possible. A saucer guard is a round, flat, plastic disk that is mounted horizontally on the arbor above the shaper knives. A lathe should be guarded by a hood guard because there is a danger of the stock being thrown from the machine. See figure 9. It is good practice for the hood to be interlocked with the motor so the lathe cannot be run unless the hood guard is in place.

A ripsaw should have anti-kickback fingers installed to prevent the stock from reversing its direction and striking the operator. See figure Also, the operator should wear a padded apron to lessen the impact if a kickback does occur. Because the radial arm saw blade can be tilted sideways, a guard must be used which will not lie into the blade.

Sanding machines. Machined stock pieces are sanded down using belt, jitterbug, disc, drum or orbital sanders. Nip points are created in sanding belts. Often these nip points can be guarded with a hood which will also be part of a dust exhaust system. Machine guarding. Figure 13 illustrates that the opening between a guard and the point of contact must be decreased as the distance decreases. Miscellaneous machine safety concerns.

Most woodworking machines create the necessity of the operator and helper wearing eye protection. It is common practice for employees to blow dust off of themselves with compressed air.

They should be cautioned to keep air pressure below 30 psi and to avoid blowing into eyes or open cuts. Machines that produce wood dust should be equipped with dust-collecting systems. If the exhaust system is inadequate to dispose of the wood dust, the operator may need to wear a dust respirator.

Other studies indicate that wood dust may prove an irritant to the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and throat. Some toxic woods are more actively pathogenic and may produce allergic reactions and occasionally pulmonary disorders and systemic poisoning.

General Profile Debra Osinsky. Woodworking Processes Jon K.

A technological world leader in processing a wide variety of materials: wood, plastic, glass, stone, metal and composites. The Group companies, operating throughout the world, are reliable partners of leading companies in various market sectors, including the furniture, construction, automotive, aerospace, ship-building and plastic processing industries. SCM Group coordinates, supports and develops a system of industrial excellence in 3 large highly specialized production centers employing more than 4. Stand-alone machines, integrated systems and services dedicated to processing a wide range of materials. Technological components for the Group's machines and systems, for those of third-parties and for the mechanical industry.

У них нет света. Джабба полагает, что… - Вы ему звонили. - Да, сэр, я… - Джаббе? - Фонтейн гневно поднялся.  - Какого черта вы не позвонили Стратмору.

За несколько лет работы ТРАНСТЕКСТА ничего подобного не случалось. Перегрелся, подумал. Интересно, почему Стратмор его до сих пор не отключил. Ему понадобилось всего несколько мгновений, чтобы принять решение. Фонтейн схватил со стола заседаний трубку внутреннего телефона и набрал номер шифровалки.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Wood Working Machine Room

- И тут же доложите. ГЛАВА 34 Сьюзан сидела одна в помещении Третьего узла, ожидая возвращения Следопыта.

Звонок был сделан из страны с кодом один - из Соединенных Штатов. Нуматака удовлетворенно мотнул головой. Хорошая новость. Звонок из Соединенных Штатов. Он улыбнулся. Значит, все правда. - Из какого именно места в Штатах? - спросил. - Они ищут, господин.

Тело Грега Хейла растворилось в темноте, и Сьюзан, инстинктивно поджав ноги, прикрылась пиджаком Стратмора. В шифровалке никогда еще не было так тихо, здесь всегда слышался гул генераторов. Теперь все умолкло, так что можно было различить облегченный вздох раненого чудовища - ТРАНСТЕКСТА, постепенно стихающее шипение и посвистывание, сопутствующие медленному охлаждению.

Что это? - вскрикнула Сьюзан между сигналами. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся! - сказал Стратмор.

- Надо думать. Есть различие, которое мы все время упускаем. Что-то очень простое. - Ой, дорогие мои… - сказала вдруг Соши. Она открыла на экране второе окно и просматривала остальную часть документов Лаборатории вне закона. - В чем дело? - спросил Фонтейн.  - Вы что-то нашли. - Вроде.  - У Соши был голос провинившегося ребенка.

 - Помните, я сказала, что на Нагасаки сбросили плутониевую бомбу. - Да, - ответил дружный хор голосов.

Although in many instances woodworking machinery and equipment may be purchased without the necessary guards Selected commercial names Employees should enter dust silos only when confined space procedures are followed. 4.

Время от времени, когда надо было продлить членство в теннисном клубе или перетянуть старую фирменную ракетку, он подрабатывал переводами для правительственных учреждений в Вашингтоне и его окрестностях. В связи с одной из таких работ он и познакомился со Сьюзан. В то прохладное осеннее утро у него был перерыв в занятиях, и после ежедневной утренней пробежки он вернулся в свою трехкомнатную университетскую квартиру. Войдя, Дэвид увидел мигающую лампочку автоответчика. Слушая сообщение, он выпил почти целый пакет апельсинового сока.

Послание ничем не отличалось от многих других, которые он получал: правительственное учреждение просит его поработать переводчиком в течение нескольких часов сегодня утром. Странным показалось только одно: об этой организации Беккер никогда прежде не слышал. Беккер позвонил одному из своих коллег: - Тебе что-нибудь известно об Агентстве национальной безопасности. Это был не первый его звонок, но ответ оставался неизменным: - Ты имеешь в виду Совет национальной безопасности.

Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы. ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА - ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Тремя этажами ниже Дэвид Беккер заплатил по счету и со стаканом в руке направился через холл на открытую террасу гостиницы.

- Туда и обратно, - пробормотал. Все складывалось совсем не так, как он рассчитывал. Теперь предстояло принять решение. Бросить все и ехать в аэропорт. Вопрос национальной безопасности. Он тихо выругался.

Если вы вызовете службу безопасности, она умрет. Стратмор вытащил из-под ремня мобильник и набрал номер. - Ты блефуешь, Грег. - Вы этого не сделаете! - крикнул Хейл.

На противоположной стороне зала служащая закрывала билетную кассу компании Иберия эйр-лайнз. Беккеру это показалось дурным предзнаменованием. Он подбежал к кассе. - El vuelo a los Estados Unidos.

Выкладывай. - Может быть, все это чепуха, - сказала Мидж, - но в статистических данных по шифровалке вдруг вылезло что-то несуразное.

Офицер полиции этого не знает. - Не имеет понятия. Рассказ канадца показался ему полным абсурдом, и он подумал, что старик еще не отошел от шока или страдает слабоумием.

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