The large variety of natural materials being offered on the exhibition floor, as well as presentations focusing on consumer demands, demonstrated how the industry is evolving to meet current consumer preferences including:. Ancient cultures used fragrant ointments, unguents and oils to keep skin and hair soft, youthful and healthy, while off-setting ever present malodors. Many of the strong and alluring scents extracted from botanical and animal sources, often combining cosmetic and medicinal properties, are still used today and form the base of natural perfumery. Distillation as another technique to enrich natural fragrances has also been known for thousands of years 2 , but only with the systematic application of steam-distillation techniques by Indian and Spanish-Arab chemists in the 12th century C. Thus it is generally accepted that the first ethanol-based fragrances emerged about years ago 3,4.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
Non-Alcoholic Solvents in Multifunctional FragrancesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How To Make Perfume At Home
The large variety of natural materials being offered on the exhibition floor, as well as presentations focusing on consumer demands, demonstrated how the industry is evolving to meet current consumer preferences including:. Ancient cultures used fragrant ointments, unguents and oils to keep skin and hair soft, youthful and healthy, while off-setting ever present malodors. Many of the strong and alluring scents extracted from botanical and animal sources, often combining cosmetic and medicinal properties, are still used today and form the base of natural perfumery.
Distillation as another technique to enrich natural fragrances has also been known for thousands of years 2 , but only with the systematic application of steam-distillation techniques by Indian and Spanish-Arab chemists in the 12th century C.
Thus it is generally accepted that the first ethanol-based fragrances emerged about years ago 3,4. The high volatility of ethanol, its low cost when produced in a petrochemical setting, c and its miscibility with water, allows for the creation of a plethora of fragrance products. It is here where the ancient traditions of oil-based perfumery have blossomed, as visits to the perfume bazaars in Dubai, Marrakech, Dacca or Kuala Lumpur amply demonstrate.
With the introduction of cosmetic-grade medium-chain BBHCs as an alternative, nature-derived, non-alcoholic fragrance carrier, another chapter in the history of perfumery can be written.
Alcohol, on the other hand, lacks cosmetic qualities. In fact, many consumers feel that ethanol has a drying, even irritating or stinging effect on their skin. Vegetable oils and natural fats, while harmless towards the skin microbiome, have their own limitations as fragrance carriers due to their intrinsic chemical and physical characteristics. First and foremost, there is the issue of limited oxidative stability. Chemically, natural oils and fats are glycerin esters of mostly medium-chain fatty acids of eight to 18 carbon atoms a.
Exposed to air, these double bonds can react with oxygen, leading to often malodorous end products rancidity that can easily overpower the intended fragrance in a formula. Consequently, natural oil-based fragrances are best prepared fresh. Physically, oils and fats share high viscosities and very low volatility, which account for their tendency to leave residues on fabrics. In perfumery practice, that lack of volatility warrants special production technologies and generally translates into less radiance of oil-based scents, making them more intimate in comparison to alcoholic perfumes.
And of course, oils as fragrance carriers create an oily skin-feel that may be disliked for esthetic or medical reasons, for example in cases of acne-prone skin. New BBHC-based materials, including highly purified fractions with well-defined physical properties 8 , or sophisticated blends that match the properties of a particular silicone ingredient 9 , are increasingly becoming available. As such, their current spectrum of applications includes skin-emollients and make-up removers, sunscreens, and hair care products.
Unlike oils, they are stable, largely odorless, and do not leave any residue or stain on skin or fabric. In contrast to alcohol, they do not have any negative effects on the skin. In fact, they share with silicones a particular silky skin feel that is highly prized among consumers. Employing BBHCs as carrier solvents, therefore, allows for the development of modern fragrances with the added and desirable qualities of a safe and versatile cosmetic product. These are water-clear, colorless liquids of relatively low viscosity and distinctly lower vapor pressure than their short-chain relatives, n-hexane or petrol ether, or ethanol for that matter T As a result, these liquids take longer to evaporate at ambient temperature.
These properties are identical for petrochemistry- or biology-derived alkanes. Medium-chain alkanes have been an integral part of skincare since the 19th century, especially in hydrating and emollient applications for sensitive skin, such as baby creams and lotions.
Fragrances based on BBHCs would naturally share these advantages, providing an enduring emollience that lasts over the lifetime of the scent.
While longer-chain BBHCs are odorless, the shorter cosmetic-grade C-8 to C congeners have a characteristic, albeit weak, slightly citrusy scent of their own, reminiscent of fresh laundry. This natural scent might be welcome in certain fragrance contexts such as aftershave or body spray applications, but can also be easily masked without great effort.
The chemical reactions involved are simple chemical conversions of oils and fats, or biomass e. As such certifications convey a distinct commercial product advantage, most BBHC ingredients carry them at this time.
Odorant molecules are lipophilic in nature, meaning they prefer to interact with and dissolve in non-polar matrices such as oils and fats, or solvents such as hydrocarbons, certain esters, ethers or alcohols. Short-chain alkanes, such as hexane and petrol ether are widely used to extract fresh botanical materials at relatively low temperatures under conditions that keep the often chemically sensitive fragrant constituents intact.
These highly volatile solvents are then evaporated and recycled, leaving fragrant waxy masses behind, the so-called concretes. Elaborate extraction and washing processes with ethanol, known as lavage , followed by low-temperature concentration yield the absolute , which until today comprises the highest fragrance concentration among natural perfume ingredients However, a fundamental problem with this processing sequence is the high flammability of the short-chain hydrocarbons and of ethanol as well.
A sophisticated explosion-proof manufacturing environment is essential, which poses challenges to producers in terms of capital expenditure and guaranteed worker safety. Highly fragrant extracts can be obtained by exposing fresh botanicals, such as flowers or herbs directly to medium-chain alkanes. The fragrance of these liquids, albeit lighter in character than either those of a concrete or absolute , captures the scent of the living flower extraordinarily well.
This is especially true in the cases of jasmine and the white and yellow butterfly gingers, the latter being a resurrection of the scent of the legendary Longoza absolute from the Madagascan island of Nosy Be In the same way, crude botanical extracts such as supercriticalfluid extracts SFEs from liquified carbon dioxide 12 or the concretes can be further extracted with medium-chain alkanes to give refined products called neo-absolutes.
In contrast to traditional absolutes , the fragrance character of these products is much closer to that of the natural botanical source, especially for such classics as jasmine or tuberose, as no additional heat treatment for the removal of ethanol is involved. In this regard, these materials are modern versions of the classic lavage before it is concentrated down to the absolute , and which has always been considered as having the more true-to-nature scent compared to the latter BBHCs can be employed in the manufacturing of natural fragrance materials in much the same way as their short chain relatives, and yet offer several important advantages.
In contrast with the latter, the lower vapor pressures and volatilities of BBHCs render them essentially non-explosive under normal extraction conditions T At the industrial scale, this translates into increased work safety and lower capital expense. To offset the slightly lower extraction power of BBHCs relative to hexane or petrol ether, small amounts of polarity-modifiers can be added, such as volatile, nature-derived ethers or esters, that allow for fine-tuning of solvating selectivity towards fragrance components of particular interest or value.
With such solvent combinations, low-temperature single-batch extractions are very straightforward. However, dynamic extraction processes can be designed where successive batches of fresh plant material are exposed to a continuous flow of solvent, which becomes slowly enriched with fragrant components until a desired concentration is achieved.
Two examples illustrate the simplicity of raw material extraction with medium-chain alkanes see side panel. In contrast to products from traditional extraction processes, BBHC extracts display excellent emollient and film-building properties when applied to the skin, due in large part to the presence of co-extracted waxes and fats, i plus the fact that the solvents themselves are excellent skincare emollients.
As such, they can be directly used in downstream blending and formulating, often without the need for costly solvent removal and refining. For creators of novel multifunctional fragrance materials, the selective enrichment of scent molecules by medium-chain alkanes, while leaving behind most colored components and other unwelcome impurities, is a serendipitous quality. The images were taken before the separation of the BBHC extracts upper phase from the often deeply colored residues at the bottom of the vials.
The undesirable components are usually more polar than the fragrant molecules and are co-extracted when using solvents of higher polarity, such as ethanol or supercritical-fluid carbon dioxide or solvents used in the preparation of classical concretes , namelyhexane and petrol ether.
This leads to a dilution of the fragrant molecules by non-fragrant impurities. By eliminating such impurities, the medium-chain alkanes can result in a more concentrated fragrance, which has interesting economic implications for perfume production, as discussed further below.
The large variety of BBHCs enables the creation of custom solvent blends that can be fine-tuned towards the enrichment of particular fragrance components, either directly from a botanical matrix or from extracts, such as concretes , absolutes or SFEs.
Moreover, this is accomplished at a considerably lower production cost than fractional distillation. The use of BBHCs to selectively extract fragrant molecules from a complex mixture can have the added benefit of removing harmful impurities such as allergens and irritants. To illustrate this point, F - 7a shows the successful removal of allergenic aldehydes from a commercially available, IFRA-compliant oakmoss absolute by extraction with a BBHC.
Unfortunately, this technique has its limitations. Cold-pressed bergamot essential oil contains compounds of the furo-coumarin type also known as Psoralenes that are potent photo-sensitizers, leading to sunlight-induced dermatitis. Consequently, such oils are restricted by IFRA to 0. When a further concentration of fragrance molecules is desirable, it is possible to exploit the behavior and changing solvating powers of different BBHCs at lower temperatures to accomplish this by the selective precipitation of impurities.
Many impurities in a fragrance will become insoluble at low temperatures and precipitate, which makes their removal straightforward. Compared to costly vacuum distillation, the selective precipitation of impurities offers an inexpensive path to purify and concentrate fragrance components, either from natural matrices e. While all three solvents are still liquid at this temperature, a commercially available blend of C to C hydrocarbons left vial best excludes the large amount of non-fragrant coconut fat which was present in the original extract but has now precipitated out.
Consequently, the supernatant in the left vial contains the fragrant components in their highest concentration; once separated from the precipitate by cold-filtration or aspiration, it smells like freshly baked macaroons. In contrast, BBHC-based perfumes do not require or benefit from prolonged cold storage, as the carrier is chemically inert and thus not amenable to reactions with the scent molecules in the concentrate.
A brief hour chilling of BBHC-based fragrance concentrates at a temperature just above the crystallization temperature of the alkane blend, followed by filtration or centrifugation, is all that is needed to obtain stable products which will not change their fragrance impression over time.
A further characteristic of BBHC-based preparations is that dilution with more of the same alkane or alkane blend results in a more dilute but otherwise unaltered fragrance. This contrasts with alcoholic scents that are brought to their final concentration through dilution with water, where the diminished solubility of crucial scent components at lower alcohol concentration can lead to a different scent impression. In contrast, an eau de cologne-equivalent in BBHCs will have precisely the same, albeit weaker, scent as a more concentrated extrait.
F illustrates the gain in simplicity and efficiency of extractions with BBHCs in direct comparison to traditional process sequences:. For the manufacturers of natural fragrance materials, as well as for the creative perfumer, this opens new pathways towards proprietary all-natural scents and multi-functional beauty products with top note characteristics rivaling those of synthetic blends. After over-night chilling the alcohol-based product is deeply colored and turbid, while the hydrocarbon solution is clear and only lightly colored; all ballast materials have collected at the bottom of the vial, making a final separation straightforward and inexpensive.
After less than a minute there was no residue, save for the strong yet very elegant fragrance. After five minutes on the skin, both fragrances developed a citrusy amber note, which evolved into a very feminine muskiness after an additional 30 minutes.
After 3, 12 and - in case of A - 24 hours, the jasmine-musk theme was still clearly dominant with the chocolate notes becoming increasingly noticeable in B. Six female volunteers were asked to compare the two fragrances in terms of 13 sensory characteristics. Most interestingly, the non-alcoholic version B was rated unanimously as much too strong compared to the alcoholic version A. Only after further diluting the BBHC blend to 7. Thus it could be demonstrated that the hydrocarbon-based perfume had changed the original scent profile towards a brighter onset that warranted further dilution, and yet upon skin application behaved just like a classical alcoholic fragrance in the sense of olfactory progression from top- through heart-note and finally dry-down, and in a development time frame that is well within the range for any high-end perfume.
When version B was incorporated into an alkane-based body mist formulated as a water-in-oil emulsion , a final concentration of only 0. At this point, a satisfying explanation for the differing scent impressions created by the two preparations is not available. In practical terms, however, the higher sensorial impact of alkane-based fragrance compositions points towards a possible economic advantage, as the concentration of sometimes very expensive natural ingredients can be lowered without compromising the olfactory effect.
This may be due to the co-extraction by ethanol of more polar or higher molecular weight components of the initial fragrance concentrate that possess fixative properties. When desired, the fixation of BBHC perfumes can be achieved by the addition of stable, nature-derived, high-molecular-weight components that are soluble in the hydrocarbon solvent base, colorless and odorless, safe in a cosmetic context, and do not alter the skin feel.
In contrast to ethanol, use of medium-chain alkanes in the preparation of neo-pomades or neo-absolutes enables the perfumer to work with stable pre-formulated solutions of fragrance materials standardized to a given concentration. Such libraries can contain hundreds of standardized fragrance materials, all having the same concentration, density, viscosity, and low coloration as the examples described above.
Moreover, such libraries can be stored in specialized containers multi-well plates , for automation of the blending process.
During the creative blending process, while the ratios of the individual components differ, the concentration of their sum in the increasingly complex blend stays always the same as that of the end product.
Unlike working with a fragrance concentrate, there will be no necessity for dilution and maturation at the end of the process that may alter the overall olfactory profile. Consequently, an idea of what the final composition will smell like, and whether or not this conforms with the requirements of the brief, emerges from the first blending sequence onwards.
Not only does this simplify the creative process, but it also opens up the possibility for its automation see F The consistent physical and chemical characteristics of a BBHC-based fragrance building block allow for the a-priori setting of liquid handling parameters such as pipetting volumes, weighing and blending, which will not change over the duration of the experiment.
Niche perfumes brands have grown in number and in the past few years, there was a significant increase in the number of stores that sell these luxury fragrances. As the trend continues, perfume aficionados must take time to familiarize their selves with niche perfumes, as well as the little-known facts about them. Niche perfumes exude an interesting and special kind of scent that is difficult to find. Yes, they usually come with a high price but nevertheless, perfume aficionados found great value in every drop. Niche perfumers have gotten bolder and daring in trying fresh fusions of fragrances, taking inspirations from events and experiences to inspire others.
How perfumers walk the fine line between natural and synthetic
Official website for Costsco Wholesale. Reproduction is prohibited other than in accordance with the copyright notice, which forms part of these terms and conditions. Find low prices on essential oil diffusers, books, essential oil carrying cases and display racks, glass and plastic bottles, and other great aromatherapy accessories. Free for commercial use No attribution required High quality images.
Fusion Sacree for Women is a bit of M. Herbal Fusion Fragrance, 16 oz. This relationship is becoming something beyond just friendship. Choose from our most coveted scents in an easy-to-tote rollerball form.
The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph EEG. The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta 0. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline.
Complete Guide to Niche Perfumes
There was a time, not all that long ago, when natural cosmetics meant a splash of Jojoba in your body lotion or some Chamomile Tea in your shampoo. For a typical 10 x ft. Description: Light brown coloured base for our beach umbrellas. Packaging Explained.
Затем Сьюзан сунула ноги в туфли и последовала за коммандером. - Какого черта ему здесь надо? - спросил Стратмор, как только они с Сьюзан оказались за дверью Третьего узла. - Как всегда, валяет дурака, - сказала Сьюзан.
Стратмор не скрывал недовольства. - Он ничего не спрашивал про ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Нет. Но если он посмотрит на монитор и увидит в окне отсчета значение семнадцать часов, то, будьте уверены, не промолчит. Стратмор задумался. - С какой стати он должен на него смотреть? - спросил .
Раздался сигнал, после которого надо было оставить сообщение. - Привет, это Дэвид. - Он замолчал, не зная, что сказать. Беккер терпеть не мог говорить с автоответчиком: только задумаешься, а тот уже отключился. - Прости, не мог позвонить раньше, - успел сказать.
Подумал, не рассказать ли ей. Но решил этого не делать. - Позвони коммандеру.
- Почему. Стратмор сощурил. - А ты как думаешь. И уже мгновение спустя ее осенило. Ее глаза расширились. Стратмор кивнул: - Танкадо хотел от него избавиться.
Он чуть ли не бегом бросился к ней, схватил трубку и вставил в отверстие телефонную карту. Соединения долго не. Наконец раздались длинные гудки. Ну давай .
Производственный. Анализ затрат на единицу продукции. - Мидж торопливо пересказала все, что они обнаружили с Бринкерхоффом.
Соши показала на экран. Все сгрудились вокруг нее и прочитали текст: …распространено заблуждение, будто на Нагасаки была сброшена плутониевая бомба. На самом деле в ней использовался уран, как и в ее сестрице, сброшенной на Хиросиму.
Adonde fue? - снова прозвучал вопрос. - Американец. - В… аэропорт. Aeropuerto, - заикаясь сказал Двухцветный.