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Warehouse space equipment for the production of fiberglass and asbestos filaments

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Fibreglass reinforced products

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fiberglass Services Chemical Commercial

NCBI Bookshelf. Man-made Vitreous Fibres. Man-made vitreous fibre MMVF is a generic name used to describe an inorganic fibrous material manufactured primarily from glass, rock, minerals, slag and processed inorganic oxides.

The MMVFs produced are non-crystalline glassy, vitreous, amorphous. In this monograph, the terms rock stone wool, slag wool and glass wool are used rather than mineral wool, whenever possible. Man-made vitreous fibres are manufactured by a variety of processes based on the attenuation of a thin stream of molten inorganic oxides at high temperatures. All commercially important MMVFs are silica-based and contain various amounts of other inorganic oxides.

The non-silica components typically include, but are not limited to, oxides of alkaline earths, alkalis, aluminium, boron, iron and zirconium. These additional oxides may be constituents of the raw materials used to make the fibres, or they may be added to enhance the manufacturing process or the product performance. Depending on the process of fibre formation, MMVFs are produced either as wool, which is a mass of tangled, discontinuous fibres of variable lengths and diameters, or as filaments, which are continuous fibres of indeterminate length with diameters having ranges that are more uniform and typically thicker than those of wool.

These categories were: glass filament, glass wool, rock wool, slag wool and ceramic fibres. To reflect developments in the industry, the categories have been expanded and modified somewhat in this monograph, as depicted in Figure 1. The present monograph includes only vitreous fibres, whereas the monograph also included some crystalline ceramic fibres e. In this monograph, the MMVFs evaluated in the ceramic fibre category are wool-type fibres known as refractory ceramic fibres.

Certain characteristics of MMVFs such as their respirability and biopersistence in the lung have been the focus of increased attention and research in recent years, and a number of new fibres with reduced biopersistence have been developed. These fibre characteristics are discussed in detail in section 4.

Examples of more biosoluble fibres include the alkaline earth silicate wools and the high-alumina, low-silica wools. Other newly developed fibres may be less biosoluble and more biopersistent. Finally, the generic names of several categories of MMVFs have been updated in the current monograph i. Within each traditional category of MMVF, the composition of the fibres may vary substantially. Several factors account for the compositional variability of MMVFs:. Typical chemical compositional ranges for classes of MMVFs expressed as oxide mass percentage for the major constituents found in most commercially important MMVFs.

End-use : The end-use of each product requires fibres to have specific chemical and physical characteristics. Each type has its own formulation with a narrow range of variability. The formulations differ considerably from one another because each type is designed for a specific set of performance criteria, such as high strength, high electrical resistivity or resistance to attack by various chemical agents.

Manufacturing requirements : Variations in manufacturing processes and in the availability of raw materials are responsible for much of the compositional variation in glass, rock stone and slag wools. Biopersistence considerations : MMVFs have historically been made with a range of compositions and associated durabilities. Since it was recognized that fibre biopersistence affects the potential effects on respiratory health and that fibre chemistry is an important determinant of biopersistence, the industry has introduced some new, less biopersistent fibre compositions.

To accomplish this, the industry has extended the traditional compositional ranges of MMVFs in several ways: by increasing the content of alkali oxides and borate in glass wools; by substituting alumina for silica or alkaline earth oxides for alumina in rock wools; and by developing high-temperature-resistant compositions based on the alkaline earth silicate AES wools as an alternative to the aluminosilicate compositions of refractory ceramic fibres, in some applications.

The sources for the raw materials include the following TIMA, :. Mined: materials mined or quarried from the earth that have received only minimal physical processing to ensure the required particle size and reasonable chemical homogeneity.

Processed: mined materials that have received minimal chemical processing such as thermal treatment to remove water or carbonate. Recycled: materials that are by-products of the manufacture of MMVFs or other manufacturing processes. Boron oxide is often a major additive, but in recent years, alternative formulations of E-glass without boron oxide have been developed to reduce emissions of boron compounds into the air during production and to lower the cost of raw material.

These boron-free formulations are used in applications other than printed circuit boards or aerospace materials Hartman et al. Other types of glass are also produced as continuous filament. These are used in applications that require specific properties such as high mechanical strength, increased temperature resistance, improved resistance to corrosion, resistance to alkali in cement or low dielectric properties see Table 3.

C-glass is resistant to acids and is used in composites that come into contact with mineral acids and as a reinforcement material in bituminous roofing sheet. AR-glass is used for cement reinforcement and differs from other glasses in that it contains zirconium oxide, which provides resistance to corrosion by alkalis. S-glass is a high-strength glass developed in the s for applications such as rocket motor cases.

S-glass is difficult and costly to make and is therefore limited to highly technological uses Loewenstein, ; Hartman et al. In principle, many different chemical elements could be present in glass.

However, in commercial glass manufacturing, the number of oxides used is limited by their cost. Almost all of the glass products manufactured have silicon dioxide, silica SiO 2 , as the single largest oxide ingredient, measured by weight or volume, in the final composition. To form a glass, a glass-forming compound, or glass former, is required. A glass former is a compound that, in its pure form, can be melted and quenched into the glassy state.

In principle, the oxide glass formers can be boric oxide B 2 O 3 , phosphorus pentoxide P 2 O 5 or even germanium dioxide GeO 2 , but SiO 2 is the major commercial glass former because it is readily available in a variety of inexpensive forms that can be mixed and processed into a glass TIMA, Although SiO 2 is the principal ingredient, it is necessary to modify the composition using other oxides, commonly referred to as either intermediate oxides or modifiers.

There is no sharp distinction between the intermediates and modifiers. However, oxides such as aluminium oxide, alumina Al 2 O 3 , titanium dioxide, titania TiO 2 and zinc oxide ZnO are often classified as intermediates, while oxides such as magnesium oxide, magnesia MgO , lithium oxide, lithia Li 2 O , barium oxide, baria BaO , calcium oxide, calcia CaO , sodium oxide, soda Na 2 O and potassium oxide K 2 O are usually classified as modifiers. Sometimes, the modifiers are called fluxes, while the intermediate oxides are referred to as stabilizers TIMA, Glasses containing a large fraction of fluxes permit reaction of the raw materials to occur at relatively low temperatures, but such glasses tend to have lower chemical resistance.

As an example, a sodium silicate glass with a large fraction of sodium oxide is soluble in water and, in fact, such compositions are manufactured as soluble silicates or water-soluble glasses. The intermediate oxides help impart to a silicate glass a higher degree of chemical resistance, and they control, together with the fluxes, the viscous character of the melt, which is especially important in fiberization TIMA, Most glass wool has been used for a variety of insulation applications.

An additional category has been used to group those glass fibres produced by flame attenuation for special applications. Typical modern rock stone and slag wools are composed of calcium magnesium aluminium silicate glass. Alternatively, they can be melted in an electric or gas-heated furnace. For rock stone wool, the procedure is carried out using a mixture of various natural and synthetic rock sources to yield the desired composition.

In the manufacturing of both rock stone and slag wool, one raw material is normally the main component, and other materials are added to make up for a particular deficiency in that raw material. If, for example, the main component is too rich in acid oxides such as silica, then limestone or a slag rich in calcium oxide is added.

In slag wool production, iron-ore blast-furnace slag is the primary component, while in rock stone wool production, basalt is usually the primary raw material. In rock stone and slag wool produced from materials melted in a cupola with coke as fuel, all the iron oxide is reduced to ferrous oxide FeO. During the spinning process, a surface layer may form in which the iron is oxidized to ferric oxide Fe 2 O 3.

The production of slag wool in Europe began in the s using slags of various types and continued until the mids. After the Second World War, most plants began using rock rather than slag as the raw material and currently most European plants continue to melt rock.

In the USA, the production of rock stone wool dominated from about until the late s when several of the rock stone wool plants converted to iron-ore blast-furnace slag, a waste-product in the production of pig iron because the use of slag was more economical. While the use of slags other than iron-ore blast-furnace slag was once quite widespread, this is no longer the case.

Slag formed during the reduction of iron ore to pig iron is now the primary raw material used in the USA to make slag wool. Since the mids, the slag wool industry in the USA has relied entirely on blast-furnace slag with small amounts of additives such as phosphate-smelter slag and natural materials like silica gravel, limestone, nepheline syenite and, for certain dark coloured wools, small amounts of an essentially arsenic-free copper slag.

The rock stone wool plants use basaltic rock, limestone, clay and feldspar, together with the additives mentioned above TIMA, Refractory ceramic fibres are produced by melting a combination of alumina Al 2 O 3 and silica SiO 2 in approximately equal proportions or by melting kaolin clay. For example, the chemical composition is one of the factors that determine the maximum feasible end-use temperature.

As for all MMVFs, the fibre length, diameter and bulk density — controllable to some degree by the manufacturing method and chemical composition — also affect key physical properties of the refractory ceramic fibres, e.

The basic composition of refractory ceramic fibres has not changed appreciably since their initial formulation in the s Environmental Resources Management, , but modifications to the composition such as raising the content of alumina and the addition of zirconium dioxide and other materials create fibres that tolerate higher maximum end-use temperatures.

In recent years, the industry has developed newer fibres that have similar properties to older products, but are more biosoluble. Some examples of these newly developed fibres are the alkaline earth silicate AES wools and high-alumina, low-silica wools.

Producers of refractory ceramic fibres and other MMVFs have developed new fibre compositions designed to withstand high end-use temperatures, but with significantly lower biopersistence than the older types. Although these new fibres can be produced in the same furnaces as are used to manufacture refractory ceramic fibres, their chemistry differs substantially from that of refractory ceramic fibres; they are new fibres rather than a modification or hybrid of refractory ceramic fibres.

These new products, termed AES fibres, were first commercialized in Another product introduced in the early s is the high-alumina, low-silica stone wool known as HT wool. The traditional raw materials for the production of rock stone wool are the rock types basalt or diabase dolerite in a mixture with the fluxing agents limestone or dolomite. Briquettes or form stones artificial rocks often bound together by cement can now be used instead of natural rocks.

The distribution of fibre diameters in MMVFs varies with the fibre type and the manufacturing process employed. Because they are amorphous i. Continuous glass filament is produced by a continuous process of drawing through the calibrated holes of the bushings at constant speed, thus leading to a very narrow variation in the filament diameter.

In any given product, the diameter of the fibres differs little from the mean or nominal diameter. Filaments are divided into 19 classes by a letter designation from B to U corresponding to a range of mean diameters as shown in Table 4. Small quantities of C filaments are produced in North America, and small quantities of B filaments are produced in Japan. Table 5 lists the fibres that have been tested in animal carcinogenicity studies. List of fibres tested in the animal carcinogenicity studies performed after and reported in this monograph.

The post-production processing of continuous glass filament does not cause any change in diameter. However, in a recent study, examination of dust from highly chopped and pulverized continuous glass filament by microscopy demonstrated the presence of small amounts of respirable dust particles, a small number of which had aspect ratios equal to or greater than The fibre formation processes used to manufacture wools produce fibres with diameters that vary much more within a given wool product than within a continuous glass filament product.

The diameters within a vitreous wool product have an approximately log-normal distribution. The preparation of a bulk fibre sample for measurement by microscopy typically breaks the fibres into shorter lengths. Under these circumstances, it is not meaningful to report the number of fibres in various ranges of diameters.

Instead, either the total length of fibres falling within each diameter range is measured, or fibres are sampled for measurement of their diameters in proportion to their lengths the intercept method Schneider et al. Table 6 lists typical length-weighted mean fibre diameter and standard deviation and the shot content for various wool products.

We manufacture and fabricate FRP in a range of colors and shapes, giving architects options for creating compelling structures. Polyesters are subject to water infiltration and vinylesters, though stronger than polyesters, are not as strong as epoxy. Water Activated Fiberglass Wrap If you can wrap it, you can repair it!

Fiberglass, also known as glass wool or fibrous glass, contains tiny fibers made of glass and other materials. When workers sand, cut, chop, saw or trim Fiberglass, it produces dust that contains fibers. These fibers can come into contact with the skin and get into the eyes, putting workers at risk for serious health effects. Supervisors should ensure that workers know how to protect themselves from these risks. Large fiberglass fibers have the potential to irritate the eyes, skin and upper respiratory tract.

Fibreglass Pipe

Sourcing from major suppliers, insulRef also covers the spectrum of fabrication work, apart from supply of insulation materials. Rockwool, also known as mineral wool or stone wool is a type of insulation made from actual stone. Rockwool is an excellent insulator, sound baffle and possesses a very high melting point, which allows it to be used in a wide array of products and applications, and commonly used in building construction, industrial plants and in automotive applications. This unique cell structure is inherently water resistant and provides a highly effective vapor barrier will not absorb flammable liquids or vapors. It is also unaffected by common chemicals and by most corrosive environments.

Pathology of Asbestos-Associated Diseases

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Contract No. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of company or product name is not to be considered as an endorsement by the Environmental Protection Agency. Gaskets and Packing.

Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration.

Account Options Fazer login. Obter livro impresso. Comprar livros no Google Play Procure a maior eBookstore do mundo e comece a ler hoje na web, no tablet, no telefone ou eReader. Environmental and Occupational Medicine. William N. Rom , Steven B. The book offers accurate, current information on the history, causes, prevention, and treatment of a wide range of environmental and occupational diseases and includes numerous case studies. This edition includes more information on gene-environment interactions.

Fiberglass

NCBI Bookshelf. Man-made Vitreous Fibres. Man-made vitreous fibre MMVF is a generic name used to describe an inorganic fibrous material manufactured primarily from glass, rock, minerals, slag and processed inorganic oxides. The MMVFs produced are non-crystalline glassy, vitreous, amorphous.

Insulation is found in most all modern buildings, with fiberglass insulation being the most popular type of insulation. Life cycle assessments include the following steps: raw materials acquisition, manufacturing and processing, distribution and transportation, use and maintenance, recycling, and waste management.

The third edition of Pathology of Asbestos-Associated Diseases builds on the success of the previous editions by fully updating knowledge on diagnostic and epidemiologic aspects and presenting important new insights derived from new epidemiologic studies and animal studies. Background information is first provided on the mineralogy of asbestos, occupational and environmental exposure, and asbestos bodies. The various diseases associated with asbestos exposure are then considered in turn, with detailed description and illustration of pathologic features as well as extensive discussion of etiology, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Further chapters are devoted to cytopathology, experimental models of disease, and analysis of tissue mineral fiber content. In addition, the medicolegal issues relating to asbestos-associated diseases are analyzed from the point of view of both the plaintiff and the defendant. This book will be an essential reference for pathologists and an invaluable source of information for pulmonologists, radiologists, and occupational medical practitioners. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Pathology of Asbestos-Associated Diseases. Editors view affiliations Tim D. Oury Thomas A.

Factories using chemicals or heavy equipment are potentially dangerous from the effects of chemical weapons, the space suits worn by astronauts, and the Tyvek is made of submicron denier high- density polyethylene filaments that are still forming a barrier to fiberglass, asbestos, pesticides, and radioactive dust.

Safety in the Workplace With Fiberglass Dust

Fibreglass is a synthetic fibre formed by melting glass in a furnace. The molten material is then forced through small holes to form the filaments or fibre. The coarser fibres are woven to form a cloth which can be used to form fibre reinforced plastics FRP , widely used to manufacture sinks, baths, boats, pools, spas and pipes, or as a reinforcement in building materials. Exposure to fibreglass reinforced products may cause some people to suffer from skin and eye irritation. The inhalation of fibres may irritate the upper respiratory tract. The resin used in FRP requires precautions to be taken to ensure safe handling.

Safety in the Workplace With Fiberglass Dust

Account Options Fazer login. United States. Committee on Education. Prepared statementsContinued. Dr Deborah Partridge Wolfe Director. Statements letters supplemental material etc Comhhueil r. Statements letters supplemental material etc Continued.

The invention relates to the manufacture of mufflers for the exhaust systems of internal combustion engines using flexible fibrous muffler packing material, preferably long or continuous strand fiberglass. Such fiberglass is preliminarily packed into transfer containers or cartridges for shipping, using a discharge apparatus that fluffs and separates individual filaments from multi-filament continuous strands fed from spools. The packing is ejected from the cartridge at the muffler manufacturing site, into a preformed muffler housing, using a piston or pusher with tines extending through the rear of the cartridge.

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Contract No. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of company or product name is not to be considered as an endorsement by the Environmental Protection Agency.

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