Combining transparency, durability and design, sustainable habitat glass contributes to the aesthetic appearance and energy efficiency of residential and tertiary buildings while also improving user comfort. The performance of glazed walls depends on three criteria: thermal insulation, input of natural light and control of solar gain. Effective thermal insulation ensures occupant comfort in summer and winter, and eradicates the cold wall effect. CLIMATOP LUX triple-glazing combines the thermal insulation of triple-glazing while allowing the same solar gain as high energy efficiency double-glazing: its energy performance is similar to that of a solid wall. Glazing provides architects with a wide range of possibilities for designing extensively glazed, transparent facades that are also energy-efficient.
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INSULATING GLASS MANUFACTURING AND QUALITY CONTROLVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: See how Quality Double Glazing units are made at our manufacturing centre at Morley Glass in Leeds,
Polished cast mirror glass and drawn window glass were the most common types of glass used in houses in the s and early s, until the rise of double glazing. The British glass manufacturer Pilkington developed a new production process to create glass with a smooth and uniform surface, called float glass.
The first example of double vitrage in an apartment building in Brussels was published in the architectural press. The first example of Thermopane double glazing in an apartment building in Brussels was published in the architectural press. Glaverbel advertised the application of Thermopane glazing in renovations. From the s onwards, strips of aluminium were used to maintain the space between the two panes of glass in double glazing.
The production of window glass in Belgium started in in a factory in the valley of the Sambre. From this small start, the number of glass companies increased steadily, while they also became larger, more professional, and better equipped. The most striking feature of the glass industry in the post-war period, however, was not quantity but its versatility: an increasing range of products became available between and , from regular window glass and mirror glass, to decorative cast glass, safety glass, coloured glass, insulating glass, etc.
The decorative and architectural possibilities were seemingly endless, while the list of extra functions that glass could fulfil became longer and longer e. Each of the major companies had its own range of products for all these types of glass, resulting in a multitude of different brands although often with similar properties on the market.
One of the most popular products that came up during the post-war period and went through a remarkable development was double glazing: still a somewhat expensive feature in the early post-war period, double glazing gradually became a standard, established building material. Although the appearance and forms of glass are quite diverse, most glass products contains the same raw materials, plus a small amount of additives such as magnesium, iron oxide, carbon, lead oxide and sodium sulphate to enhance certain characteristics e.
Recycled glass can also be added, in order to save energy and raw materials. The production of glass is a labour and energy intensive process, and the process can be manipulated in various ways to create different types of glass e. The historical methods to produce glass blowing and casting glass have evolved and continued to be used to create special types of glass. In addition, they were supplemented by new methods to produce drawn glass and float glass.
While being pulled upwards, the ribbon cooled and was finally cut into flat pieces or sheets of glass. Drawn sheet glass could have a wavy or striped surface, or fine bubbles trapped in the sheet. During the s, the British glass manufacturer Sir Alastair Pilkington developed a new production process to create a smooth and uniform surface.
In the Pilkington, or float glass, process, melted glass was poured onto a bath of melted metal, usually tin. The glass flowed on the bath of tin and was flattened by its own weight, creating a very flat sheet with a uniform thickness, perfectly smooth on both sides.
After being cooled down further, the sheet was cut into pieces. The thickness of the glass depended on the flow speed of the melted glass and the speed of the rollers. Both the draw and the float processes were commonly used in the post-war period to produce transparent glass for windows. Although traditional drawn glass was of a lower quality than float glass, it was still produced after the large-scale spread of float glass began in One can easily distinguish between examples of glass made by these processes: glass that was made by hand or by early machine processes like the draw process inevitably showed imperfections and striations which, of course, also adds to the historic character of the architecture , while modern glass from the s onwards had no or few distortions.
Not only the production process, but also the treatment of glass underwent some important changes over the years. Depending on the production process, glass needed to be grinded to make it perfectly flat and polished to make it transparent. While this treatment used to be executed manually, during the first half of the 20th century a transition was made to mechanical treatment. In the early days, the treatment was carried out on one side at a time, but during the post-war period, machines were developed to polish both sides of the glass panes at once.
In addition to regular blown, cast, drawn, and float glass, many other types of glass have been developed, based on particular production techniques or combing sheets of glass with another material.
Examples include double glazing, insulating glass, safety glass, coloured and opaque glass, and cast figured glass. It defined eight main categories: mirror glass, window glass, cast glass, blown glass, glass blocks, special types of sheet glass, processed glass, and glass treatments.
Each category included a number of sub-categories. For example, coloured glass, opaque glass, and athermic glass were special types of sheet glass; safety glass and insulating glass were examples of processed glass. Flat sheets of polished cast mirror glass and drawn window glass were the most common types of glass used in house building, until the rise of double glazing in the post-war period. Contrary to what the terminology implies, both are transparent although rough mirror glass and grounded mirror glass are translucent.
The difference between them is that window glass is polished by fire, while mirror glass is polished mechanically. Mirror glass existed in thicknesses between 2 and 40 mm commonly between 3.
The maximum length and width of sheets was related to the thickness for instance, the maximum width of an 8 mm sheet of mirror glass was 3. Theoretically, lengths up to 6 m were possible, yet difficult to achieve in practice. Cast glass was still in use in the post-war period for particular decorative applications.
By casting molten glass paste onto a table with a rough or textured surface, the resulting glass was imprinted with a pattern in relief.
Because of the imprint, this cast glass — called patterned glass or figured glass — lost transparency but remained translucent and still transmitted almost as much light as transparent glass.
Another way to get the relief printing was by pressing the glass between two rollers onto which a pattern had been imprinted. A large variety of patterns or figures were used, from hammered, crenated, and ribbed to custom designs. Glass was also made in shapes other than flat, for example in corrugated sheets and blocks. Glass blocks were produced in various shapes mostly square or round , sizes e.
Manufacturers claimed these blocks were fire resistant and easy to clean. The combination of glass blocks and in situ concrete called translucent concrete was still very popular in the post-war period.
Belgian firms such as V. By mixing specific ingredients into glass during the manufacturing process, special types of mirror glass, window glass, or cast glass could be created, e. For instance, metal oxides could be added in small or large quantities to create coloured glass, translucent or opaque glass.
Athermic glass was sheet glass of which the chemical composition was adjusted to absorb sunrays. Athermic glass, which had a very light and soft blue, green or grey tint, was especially popular for glazing in office buildings, libraries, and working spaces. Three main types of processed glass can be distinguished: safety glass, double glazing, and insulation glass. Production of safety glass began at the beginning of the 20th century when multiple sheets of glass were combined using a celluloid foil, pvb-film or resin, to create laminated safety glass.
Although this involved two panes of glass, multi-layered and laminated glass are not double glazing — this term applies only to two or more panes of glass with a layer of dry air or gas between them. Tempered glass, invented in by the French glass company Saint-Gobain, was a specific type of safety glass. Tempered glass was thus not easy to break, and when it broke, it did so in innumerable, very little pieces with no sharp edges.
Double glazing was one of the most common glass products used in housing construction in the post-war period. It was first commercially produced by the Libbey-Owens-Ford glass company in the early s, under the brand name Thermopane.
In Belgium, the first double glazing was produced in ; from the s onwards it became commonly available. Double glazing became very popular because of its insulation capacities, both thermal and acoustic.
Double glazing also enhanced the acoustic properties of windows: while single glass retained 20 decibels, double glazing stopped 40 decibels. As for the composition of double glazing, the glass panes were usually between 3 and 10 mm thick, while the layer of air could be almost 20 mm. The theoretically largest size for double glazing in the s was 6 m by 3 m. The separation between the two panes initially was assured by a lead or copper band and soldering.
From the s onwards, strips of aluminium were used to maintain the space between the two panes. Double glazing needed to be absolutely airtight: moisture between the panes condensed and made the windows translucent instead of transparent. There was no way to repair double glazing once condensation had formed between the panes, other than replacing it.
Within the category of double glazing, new technologies and high performance glazing germinated in the post-war period. For instance, already in the mids, it was possible to use tempered glass instead of ordinary window glass, mirror glass, or cast glass for Thermopane glazing. Three, or even four or five, panes of glass were used by Glaver to create triple, quadruple and quintuple glazing from the early s, the second half of the s, and the late s onwards respectively.
Insulating glass, which also enhances the thermal insulating capacities, included a layer of glass fibres between two panes of glass, hermetically sealed at the edges. However, the fibre layer made the glass translucent instead of transparent. For instance, by applying a very thin coat of metal to one side of the glass infrared rays were reflected. Other examples were non-reflecting glass, glass that conducted electricity, engraved glass, frosted glass, and enamelled glass.
The latter was a specific type of opaque glass: a layer of coloured enamel was applied to the glass and thermally treated to assure a complete vitrification.
This glass resisted mechanical and thermal shocks, and atmospheric agents, very well; and needed little maintenance. For these reasons, it was ideal for sandwich panels in curtain walls or parapets. And as it enabled lively colour schemes, enamelled glass fitted perfectly with the optimistic, modernistic architectural style of the s. Throughout history, Belgium has been an important manufacturer of glass.
Glass factories were first established in Belgium around the middle of the 19th century, after which many small factories followed. During the early 20th century, the need for a mechanized and rationalized industry, together with the difficult economic climate, led to a reorganization of the sector. Some important mergers in the early s led to three main companies, which were still leading companies in the s, namely Univerbel, Glaver, and Glaceries de la Sambre.
In the post-war period, the company had its headquarters in Charleroi and factories in Zeebrugge, Gilly, and Lodelinsart. Among the most important types of glass produced by Univerbel were drawn glass Univerbel, enamelled glass Colorbel, and double glazing Polyverbel.
Glaver was created in , also by merging several companies. Glaver became one of the major glass manufacturers in the world, with an annual production of almost , tons in the early post-war period. Glaver produced almost every type of glass, including window glass L. The third important company was Glaceries de la Sambre, created in also out of a merger.
In the post-war period the company was mainly known for its production of double glazing Polyglass, solar glass Filtrasol, two-sided polished glass Duplex, and tempered, enamelled glass Panoroc. During the post-war period, more precisely in the s, a second important reorganization of the glass industry was necessary: responding to the new scale of the post-war industry and economy, Glaver and Univerbel merged into Glaverbel in , while Glaceries de la Sambre was taken over by Glaceries de Saint-Roch in , without changing much in the product range.
The size of the new Glaverbel company raised the market position of Belgian flat glass sheets even more. At the end of the s, Glaverbel employed over 10, employers and had annual sales of 5. The new company produced a full range of the glass products used in the building industry: drawn window glass, polished mirror glass, cast glass, enamelled glass, solar glass, insulating glass, etc.
Before the merger, Glaver and Univerbel both produced most types of glass, so choices had to be made in the reorganization.
Jonathan P. Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes.
glass and glazing
Designed and organized to give students the specific information they require, this is an essential reference for anyone studying architectural interiors. New topics include accessible design basics, computing technologies, fire-resistive construction, fire protection systems, security and communications systems, interior equipment, evidence-based design, and climate considerations. In addition, this second Student Edition offers more material on residential design, is packed with more than 1, informative illustrations, and includes the latest coverage for students to find real help understanding the critical material they need for the core classes required by all curriculums. Expert advice and details for designing interior project types including commercial, residential, healthcare, retail, hospitality, educational, performance, and museum spaces, as well as existing building interiors. Like Interior Graphic Standards Professional Edition , this student edition's Second Edition provides essential specification and detailing information for working inside the structural shell, covering interior partitions and floor systems, updated lighting practices, furnishings, equipment, and wall, floor, and ceiling finishes. Interior Graphic Standards : Student Edition.
Saint gobain glass logo. If the glass is broken the film holds the fragments of glass in place, thus reducing the risk of injury. Anyone dealing with such individuals, agencies and recruitment web-sites will be doing so at their own risk and Saint-Gobain Glass India Ltd. Logo Saint-Gobain. Varianta de Nord, nr.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Making an insulated unit
Polished cast mirror glass and drawn window glass were the most common types of glass used in houses in the s and early s, until the rise of double glazing. The British glass manufacturer Pilkington developed a new production process to create glass with a smooth and uniform surface, called float glass. The first example of double vitrage in an apartment building in Brussels was published in the architectural press. The first example of Thermopane double glazing in an apartment building in Brussels was published in the architectural press. Glaverbel advertised the application of Thermopane glazing in renovations. From the s onwards, strips of aluminium were used to maintain the space between the two panes of glass in double glazing. The production of window glass in Belgium started in in a factory in the valley of the Sambre. From this small start, the number of glass companies increased steadily, while they also became larger, more professional, and better equipped. The most striking feature of the glass industry in the post-war period, however, was not quantity but its versatility: an increasing range of products became available between and , from regular window glass and mirror glass, to decorative cast glass, safety glass, coloured glass, insulating glass, etc. The decorative and architectural possibilities were seemingly endless, while the list of extra functions that glass could fulfil became longer and longer e.
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Until the middle of the 20th century, glass panes were produced by drawing or moulding molten glass, and then polishing out the imperfections. In , the float glass process was invented, eliminating the need to polish and therefore reducing the labour required. The float glass process is how Guardian's 25 plants around the world make their glass. Huge agitators crush and then process these materials into a mixture. The result is a chalk-natron-silicate glass. After refining the molten mixture, the molten glass is fed into the conditioning basin and left to cool to approx. As a result, the molten glass smoothly and evenly moulds itself to the surface shape of the liquid tin. Reducing the temperature in the tin bath from approx. Normal float glass has a slightly greenish tint.
The appearance of coated glass and defect detection is described in the EN standard. The defects affecting appearance are specific to the glass substrate e. If a defect specific to the glass substrate is more visible because of the coating, it will be treated as a coating defect. An artificial sky or daylight may be used as the source of illumination. The artificial sky is a plane emitting diffuse light with a uniform brightness and a general colouring index Ra higher than 70 see CIE It is obtained by using a light source whose correlated colour temperature is in the range between 4, K and 6, K. In front of the arrangement of light sources is a light scattering panel, without spectral selectivity.
Architectural Glass Product Categories
The aesthetic, technical and energy properties of AGC glass make its scope of applications practically unlimited: from external glazing to interior decoration and industrial uses. With the richness of the ranges, architects and interior designers alike will find a material that gives shape to their creative inspiration and tames light, while assuring comfort for the building occupants and actively protecting the environment. Market share ranking for main products Float glass Global No. Insulating coated glass reflects heat from the building back into the interior, preventing heat loss and contributing to the comfort of the occupants. These types of glass can be assembled into double or triple glazing.
An insulating glass spacer is placed within the unit to separate the two or more plies of glass. When specifying an insulating glass unit, it is necessary to specify all three; color, material and thickness.
Saint gobain glass logo
It provides solutions to all problems pertaining to houses right from concept to completion. The history of glass goes centuries back where we find the reference of naturally occurring glass during Stone Age period. Glass was then used for making weapons.
Safety & Protection
A floor screed is usually a cementitious material made from a or It may be applied onto either a solid in-situ concrete ground floor slab or onto a precast concrete floor unit. There are many proprietary screeds on the market and information about these can be obtained from the manufacturer.
Building with glass
Bathroom Fixtures. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Learn everything about building construction. Glass has been a fascinating material to humankind since it was first made in about BC.