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Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Music is older than language, and for most of human history music holds our culture together. The pipe instrument is one of the most popular musical instruments of all time. Built on the foundation of previous flute and flute-like acoustic metamaterial models, we herein report the experimental results of the inverse Doppler effects discovered in two common pipe instruments - recorder and clarinet.
Our study shows that the inverse Doppler effects can be detected at all seven pitches of an ascending musical scale when there is a relative motion between a microphone observer and abovementioned two pipe instruments source.
The calculated effective refractive indices of these two pipe instruments are negative and varying across a set of pitches, exhibiting a desired characteristic of broadband acoustic metamaterials. This study suggests that recorder and clarinet may be the earliest man-made acoustic metamaterials known so far, offering a new explanation why pipe instruments have enjoyed wide popularity in Europe and Asia over the past hundreds and thousands years.
This newly discovered phenomenon would also offer a clue into designing next-generation smart broadband double-negative acoustic metamaterials with varying refractive index. The Doppler effect is a fundamental phenomenon in wave propagation. In , Doppler first generalized the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to its source 1 , 2. Nowadays, this phenomenon is utilized in many fields, including space technology, traffic control, disease diagnosis, to name a few 3 , 4 , 5 , 6.
In the s, Pendry et al. In , Smith et al. Since then the research of left-handed materials boomed, resulting in electromagnetic metamaterials 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 being one of the mostly studied area. In , Liu et al. The resonant frequency of each unit is primarily determined by its geometry and size. In , Fang et al. This type of metamaterial is composed of Helmholtz resonators of which the group and phase velocities are opposite in direction near the resonant frequency.
It was further showed that the dynamic bulk modulus of this metamaterial calculated based on a homogeneous medium model is negative at the resonant frequency We demonstrated slab focusing and negative refraction effects using this double-negative metamaterial. The mass density and modulus of the fabricated metamaterial are both negative in all directions over a broad band of frequencies. More importantly, the inverse Doppler shifts were detected at all frequencies, matching well with the calculated results derived from effective refractive index.
We found that the Doppler effect in this medium altered from regular to inverse then back to regular throughout the relative motion between the observer and source Flutes, as one of the earliest known instruments, dated back to years ago 25 , or perhaps earlier 26 , thanks to its simple construction, light weight and euphonious tones.
Although our ancestors were unware of the operating principles of a resonator, they did notice that sound pitches produced by a flute were somehow related to the arrangement of holes as well as the instrument length. It is now well-known that the tube length and opening manner of a flute determine its resonant frequency.
However, little attention has been paid to the sound effect caused by the relative motion between a flute and the audience. Previously, using a standard acoustic test method, we observed the inverse Doppler effect associated with a flute at a variety of pitches Specifically, the received frequency detected by the observer a moving microphone decreases as it approaches the stationary source a flute.
Conversely, when the observer moving away from the source, the detected acoustic signal shifts towards higher frequencies. At an appropriate speed, the inverse Doppler effects were observed at all seven pitches corresponding to an ascending musical scale produced by either the blow hole or finger holes of the flute, in spite of their differences in sound intensity and frequency.
Higher pitch is associated with a greater shift in frequency. In this paper, the inverse Doppler effects of sound pitches produced by the blow holes of a recorder and a clarinet are presented. The aim is to expand our previous conclusion about the attractive metamaterial properties of a flute into other popular pipe instruments. This generalization would provide a new direction for designing the basic units of next generation smart broadband acoustic metamaterials.
A schematic diagram of the Doppler shift experiment is shown in Fig. We used a flexible tube connected with an electric air pump to blow steady air stream into the blow hole to ensure continuous acoustic waves coming out from the pipe instrument. For the sake of simplicity, the pipe instrument is secured at a fixed location. A microphone is placed next to its blow hole to detect the sound signal produced by this stationary source. The fundamental frequency of this signal is used as the baseline in our frequency shift analysis.
A second microphone is mounted on a 1-D motorized translation stage moving towards and away from the source at a constant speed. This microphone serves as the observer in this experiment. Note that abovementioned two microphones receive the acoustic signal produced by the instrument at the same time.
Based on the waveform captured by the stationary microphone, through the LabVIEW Signal Express Software, we can then calculate the frequency of the source at a given pitch, namely the baseline frequency. Similarly, using the waveform detected by the moving microphone, we can obtain the shifted frequency when there is a relative motion between the source and observer. The data processing of the Doppler shift for the pipe instruments is the same as that for the metamaterial samples presented in The black curve is the waveform detected by the stationary microphone, while the red curve refers to the waveform captured by the moving microphone.
The static frequency and moving frequencies including approaching and departing are also labeled in Fig. Massive data processing demonstrated that the results of frequency shift are identical during the whole approaching region, so is that during the receding region.
It is found for all of the pitches that, the received signal shifts towards lower frequencies when the observer approaching the source. As the observer moving away from the source, the received frequency increases. Hence, the inverse Doppler effect is observed in the sound waves produced by the recorder. Besides, the faster the moving speed is, the larger the frequency shift is.
Measured Doppler shift results of the recorder for different pitches at different moving speeds. When the moving microphone approaches the source, the detected frequencies are reduced by 1.
We systematically studied the Doppler shift of the recorder in terms of pitch frequency and phonation position. To further analyze the Doppler behavior pertain to a recorder, Fig. Take pitch 4 for example, the measured baseline frequency is This frequency is lowered to Once passed, it shifts higher to The frequency shift in departing is 1.
In theory, the absolute value of frequency shift and refractive index are independent of the direction of motion at a given speed, as is verified in Fig.
It is also worth noting that the seven pitches tested here forms a complete ascending scale. The inverse Doppler effects are observed over this entire broad band of frequencies. Therefore, the recorder itself is a type of broadband acoustic metamaterial.
Measured Doppler shift results of the recorder for individual pitches i. The black square and red circle refer to the frequency shift results of approaching and receding processes, respectively, which are measured at the speed of 0.
The blue triangle and cyan inverted triangle indicate the frequency shift results of approaching and receding processes, respectively, which are measured at the speed of 0. The static frequencies of the recorder at the speeds of 0.
The positive values mean the detected frequency is larger than source frequency, and the negative values imply the contrary situation. The waveform detected by the stationary microphone is shown in black, while the red curve refers to the waveform captured by the moving microphone.
As seen, received signal shifts towards lower frequencies when the observer approaching the source. In contrast, as the observer departing from the source, the received frequency increases. Hence, the clarinet also exhibits the interesting characteristic of the inverse Doppler effect. Measured Doppler results of the clarinet for different pitches at different moving speeds. When the moving microphone approaches the source, the detected frequencies are reduced by When the moving microphone approaches the source, the detected frequencies are reduced by 7.
When the moving microphone approaches the source, the detected frequencies are reduced by 6. The inverse Doppler effects are observed across all seven frequencies of a musical scale. Therefore, the clarinet is also a type of acoustic metamaterial. Measured Doppler shift results of the clarinet for individual pitches i. The static frequencies of the clarinet at the speeds of 0. The experimental results demonstrated that the inverse Doppler effects and negative refraction can be detected in a flute — a musical instrument has enjoyed popularity for centuries in Asia and Europe In addition to flute, recorder and clarinet which we have studied thus far, several other pipe and wind instruments including Xun, Sheng as shown in Fig.
Photographs of two Chinese traditional pipe instruments. Our observations suggest that, in the process of playing music, the motion states of instrument can be divided into three categories, namely the state of stationarity, medium-speed movement, and high-speed movement.
The stationarity state will not give rise to the phenomenon of Doppler effect. The speeds of 0. Therefore, we chose 0. In a typical stage performance, the location of a pipe instrument player relative to the audience is constant. These body movements may include reciprocating motions along the horizontal, vertical, front and back, and even curvilinear directions.
During the experiments, the pipe instruments are still and the microphone moves. On the contrary, during the musicians playing the recorder and clarinet, the pipe instruments move and the audience is still.
Conventional Western instruments are designed and manufactured to play music in the standard tuning system of tone equal temperament. As a result, they are inadequate for realizing the abundance of alternative tunings that musicians may wish to explore. Experimenting with other tuning systems requires a customized microtonal instrument, or for the musician to develop a specialized playing technique. With growing interest among musicians in alternative tuning systems, customers—rather than manufacturers—may wish to dictate the tuning for fabrication of their own bespoke instruments.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Manufacturing processes and metals industries, including renewable energy technologies, play key roles in these transitions. Solar photovoltaics, wind power, and energy storage systems offer viable alternatives to fossil fuels—but they also have environmental, economic, and social impacts. The goals, said Roundtable co-chair Lynn Scarlett , The Nature Conservancy, were examining the sustainability implications of material demands and manufacturing processes associated with renewable energy technologies; mobilizing, encouraging, and catalyzing the use of scientific knowledge; and stimulating additional research. The Roundtable plans for future workshops on sustainability issues related to consumer products and infrastructure.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: An Introduction to Electronic Wind Instruments
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The Government today released a new categorization of industries based on their pollution load. The exercise of Re-categorization was being carried out for last one year. The old system of categorization was creating problems for many industries and was not reflecting the pollution of the industries. The new categories will remove this lacuna and will give clear picture to everyone. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change MoEFCC has developed the criteria of categorization of industrial sectors based on the Pollution Index which is a function of the emissions air pollutants , effluents water pollutants , hazardous wastes generated and consumption of resources. The Pollution Index PI of any industrial sector is a number from 0 to and the increasing value of PI denotes the increasing degree of pollution load from the industrial sector. Further, wherever possible, splitting of the industrial sectors is also considered based on the use of raw materials, manufacturing process adopted and in-turn pollutants expected to be generated. The newly introduced White category of industries pertains to those industrial sectors which are practically non-polluting, such as Biscuit trays etc. The purpose of the categorization is to ensure that the industry is established in a manner which is consistent with the environmental objectives. The new criteria will prompt industrial sectors willing to adopt cleaner technologies, ultimately resulting in generation of fewer pollutants. Another feature of the new categorization system lies in facilitating self-assessment by industries as the subjectivity of earlier assessment has been eliminated.
3D printing for custom design and manufacture of microtonal flutes
Copper is used extensively, particularly in electrical wiring. Although overall only a small amount is used in coinage, it nevertheless means that we touch copper every time we handle a coin. Copper forms alloys more freely than most metals, and with a wide range of alloying elements, including zinc, tin, nickel and aluminium. These metals are added to increase strength and improve resistance to wear and corrosion, but they also affect the colour of the alloy. In the UK, copper is mainly used to make semi-finished products called semis which are made from the refined metal, either as pure copper or as copper alloys. They can be in the form of wire, rod, bar, plate, sheet, strip, foil or tube.
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A research team from Autodesk and Dartmouth College has developed a new interactive design tool called " Printone ," which provides users with the ability to create functional 3-D printed wind instruments in any shape or form using interactive sound simulation feedback. The team designed 16 free-form wind instruments to play different melodies, including: a star that can play "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star," a bunny that can play "Little Peter Rabbit;" a snowman that can play "Jingle Bells;" and a dragon that can play "Puff the Magic Dragon. To learn more about how Printone works, please see the following video. You can transform almost any shapes you like into instruments and play your favorite melody," says study co-author, Nobuyuki Umetani , head of the Design and Fabrication group at Autodesk. A wind instrument's sound is created by the player blowing air into the instrument, which creates a vibration of air known as the acoustic resonance-- the interaction between sound waves and the internal geometries of the instrument. To date, most traditional wind instruments have taken on tube-like shapes for which the resonance is well understood, as creating free-form instruments manually has long been considered a challenge. Through Printone, users can make a wind instrument out of any shape and are able to select the target notes that they want the instrument to have. After the user inputs a three-dimensional shape into the platform, the tool creates a hollow acoustic cavity. The user then selects the area where they will blow into the instrument easily known as "the fipple" and chooses the position and size of finger holes. The scale of the object can also be changed to hit the target range of notes.
The lightweight WindMaster RA is constructed from aluminium and carbon fibre and is available with either a 20Hz or optional 32 Hz data output rate. Optional analogue inputs and outputs are available with either 12 or 14 bit resolution. The WindMaster RA right angled 3D sonic anemometer offers an alternative head design where an omni-directional measurement concept is desired while minimising any mechanical influence in the vertical wind plane to provide users with the least disturbed wind measurement for non-stationary measurement applications with a known predominant wind direction. This right angled 3D sonic anemometer is ideally suited to the measurement of air turbulence around bridges, buildings, wind turbine sites, building ventilation control systems including clean rooms and component fabrication plants, meteorological and flux measurement sites.
This is a list of notable wind turbine manufacturers and businesses that manufacture major wind turbine components. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Renewable energy portal Energy portal.
At Wilmington Instrument Company, we have been providing calibration services and custom calibration tools to some of the most demanding industries for over 70 years. We are metrology professionals, offering comprehensive services that are geared to meet the real-world needs of our customers. We provide more than calibration and maintenance of measuring instruments; our team can design and fabricate complete application specific engineering solutions.
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