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Canned and Preserved SeafoodVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Canning Fish in Jars
The safety of seafood products varies considerably and is influenced by a number of factors such as origin of the fish, microbiological ecology of the product, handling and processing practices and preparations before consumption.
Taking most of these aspects into consideration, seafood can conveniently be grouped as shown below modified from Huss Lightly preserved fish products i. This group includes salted, marinated, cold smoked and gravad fish. Fermented fish, i. Typically, the products are stored at ambient temperature.
Semi-preserved fish i. Mildly heat-processed pasteurised, cooked, hot smoked fish products and crustaceans including pre-cooked, breaded fillets. However, the safety of seafood products and -processing cannot be studied in isolation. A large number of hazards are related to the pre-harvest situation or the raw material handling and must be under control, when the raw material is received at the processing factory.
Most fish and shellfish are still extracted form a wild population, but aquaculture is a very fast growing food production system as outlined in Chapter 2. While there are specific safety aspects associated with wild fish caught in the high sea, the intensive husbandry in aquaculture pose new and increased risks.
It is imperative that the HACCP principles are extended beyond the factory-gate and applied throughout the total food production chain from harvest to the consumers' plate.
In a general hazard analysis of the pre-harvest conditions for fish and shellfish and the procedures for handling the raw material before being received at the processing plant a number of significant hazards can be identified:. Pathogenic bacteria from the aquatic or general environment may be present in low numbers in all fish and shellfish at the time of harvest see section 5.
This is not a significant hazard as it is unlikely that these pathogens will be there in sufficient numbers to cause disease - even if the fish are eaten raw. For fish to be eaten raw or used as raw material in products that are not heat-treated, this situation is a significant hazard that must be controlled. High numbers of e. This is a significant hazard for fish and shellfish to be eaten raw due to the low MID Minimum Infective Dose for some of these organisms.
The preventive measures for these hazards are control and monitoring of harvest areas for faecal pollution see section The presence of viruses in the harvest area is of particular concern in molluscan shellfish because:. Thus, the presence of virus is a significant hazard in molluscan shellfish and fish to be eaten raw.
The preventive measure is control and monitoring of harvesting areas for faecal pollution section Contamination of fish and shellfish with natural toxins from the harvest area can cause serious consumer illness.
The toxins accumulate in fish when they feed on marine algae, where the toxins are produced. They occur in fish from the tropical and subtropical area ciguatera and in shellfish worldwide see section 5. In order to determine if ciguatera fish poisoning CFP is a significant hazard, some guidance can be provided by the historical occurrence of the toxin and knowledge about the safety of the reefs from which the fish has been obtained.
The preventive measures for the presence of toxins in shellfish are control and classification of shellfish harvesting areas section As a result, shellfish harvesting is only allowed from "safe" waters. Significant elements in this system is the requirement, that all shellfish containers bear a tag that identifies the type and quantity of shellfish, the harvester, harvest location and date of harvest. The preventive measure for CFP is to ensure that incoming fish have not been caught in an area for which there is a CFP advisory or for which there is knowledge that CFP is a problem.
It is therefore a post-harvest hazard, but very often a pre-receiving hazard introduced during handling on board the fishing vessel or during transportation to the plant after landing. The preventive measure is rapid chilling of fish immediately after capture. It is reasonably likely that parasites will be present in significant numbers of wild caught fish species - and certain aquaculture fish if they are fed on an unheated processing waste or by-catch fish. Thus, parasites should be considered a significant hazard and a preventive measure to eliminate parasites must be identified during processing of any particular fish products.
Concern for this hazard primarily focus on fish harvested from fresh water, estuaries and near shore coastal waters and on fish from aquaculture. Without proper control it would be reasonably likely to expect that unsafe levels of chemicals could be present in the fish, thus representing a significant hazard.
Apart from a few acutely toxic chemicals such as mercury, most chemicals are of medium severity from a health perspective. The preventive measure is the presence of government controlled monitoring programme see section Only approved agrochemicals and veterinary drugs should be used and only according to manufacturers' instructions.
Correct withdrawal times must be observed. One of the great problems in ensuring the safety of seafood products is that processors often have no control and no information about the history of the raw material. This is a serious weakness and every effort to overcome this problem must be carried out. The significant hazards associated with the raw material must be identified and controlled before the raw material is received at the factory.
The receiving step is the first CCP in any seafood processing, and the monitoring procedures will mainly be to check documents certificates of origin, harvester, date and location of harvesting, copies and results of government monitoring programs, etc.
The molluscan shellfish are harvested by being raked or trawled from the bottom oysters, mussels or dug from the sand at low tide clams and cockles. After harvesting, the shellfish are sorted size , washed and packed in bags or crates or just left in a pile on deck. The shellfish may be transported and sold live to the consumer or they may be processed shucked raw or by use of heat.
The heat applied in processing is only enough to facilitate shucking by causing the animal to relax the adductor muscle, and has no effect on the microbial contamination of the animals. The shucked meat is washed, packed and sold fresh, frozen or further processed and canned. Most molluscs oysters, mussels, clams, cockles grow and are harvested in shallow, near-shore estuarine waters.
Thus there is a strong possibility that the live animals may be contaminated with sewage-derived pathogens pathogenic bacteria, viruses as well as those from the general environment. Also biotoxins and chemicals can be present. Due to the filter feeding of molluscs, a high concentration of disease agents may be present in the animals and therefore constitutes a serious hazard. During processing further contamination with pathogens bacteria, virus may take place including growth of bacteria if time and temperature conditions are favourable.
As most molluscs are traditionally eaten raw or very lightly cooked, this will further increase the risk. Although molluscan shellfish constitutes less than 0.
Available surveillance data suggests that seafood-borne diseases due to unknown aetiologies, such as unspecified hepatitis and certain Vibrio species V. In England and Wales, 17 general outbreaks of gastroenteritis in and were associated with consumption of shellfish Anon. Five outbreaks were associated with small round structured viruses SRSV. Astrovirus, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning DSP and salmonellae were each associated with one outbreak. In another five outbreaks, a viral aetiology was suspected and in four outbreaks no pathogen was identified.
Viruses were also the most significant cause of shellfish-associated diseases in New York State Lipp and Rose Norwalk virus and gastrointestinal virus small round structured virus were the most common cause of disease. Thus a number of significant hazards can be identified as shown in Table 9. Contamination with pathogens bacteria, viruses, biotoxins, chemicals from the harvesting area. For this reason, molluscs to be eaten raw should be provided with a warning label to inform consumers of the risk.
This aspect is included in the prerequisite programme. Therefore, the only two critical control points to be identified and included in the HACCP plan are 1 the receiving step where it is possible to exercise control of the source of the molluscs, and 2 the labelling step, where it can be checked that the raw consumption warning is on the label.
No molluscs from closed areas must enter the plant. However, in the hazard analysis some of these hazards can be excluded. As already stated, contamination of raw fish with indigenous pathogenic bacteria is unlikely to be high enough to provoke disease and therefore not a significant hazard.
Growth of these bacteria and of histamine producing bacteria is a potential hazard, but it is very unlikely in a product to be eaten raw.
For this to happen the fish must be kept for some time at elevated temperatures and in this case also spoilage organism will grow. Since the latter will grow much faster than the pathogens the fish is likely to spoil or be unfit for raw consumption before sufficient growth of pathogens and histamine producing bacteria has taken place. The results of a general hazard analysis are shown in Table 9.
Contamination of fish with non-indigenous bacteria, viruses, biotoxins or environmental chemical contaminants heavy metals, pesticides, drugs in aquaculture. There are serious weaknesses in a monitoring program as outlined in Chapter 11, and no effective CCP can be identified for the control of ciguatera.
This certificate must ensure that the fish were not harvested in waters that are closed to fishing or in any way contaminated with unwanted compounds i. Refreeze material not properly frozen.
The hazard analysis of these products is fairly straightforward and uncomplicated. The animals are in most cases caught in the sea or freshwater, handled and processed without any use of additives or chemical preservatives and finally distributed with chilling or freezing as the only means of preservation. As the product will be cooked before consumption, it is very unlikely that this low level of pathogens will cause any disease.
Even if any growth has taken place in the raw fish to be cooked, it is unlikely to produce any disease. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses are therefore not significant hazards, which need to be controlled. In contrast the biotoxin ciguatoxin and tetrodotoxin are heat stable and cooking the fish before consumption is not likely to eliminate this hazard. In areas where this hazard is likely to occur see section 5. Similarly the biogenic amines histamine are resistant to heat, and if present in the raw fish it is likely to cause disease.
Production of histamine in raw fish is therefore a significant hazard that must be controlled see also section 5. Parasites are common in fish, but normal household cooking will kill the parasites, and their possible presence is therefore not a significant hazard. Chemical contamination of fish is unlikely and not a significant hazard except for aquaculture fish and fish from coastal areas subject to industrial pollution see section 5. Table 9.
Thus, the significant safety hazards are:. Presence of biotoxins. This hazard only applies to fish from warm waters with a history of causing ciguatera Ciguatera fish poisoning, CFP and to puffer fish. Sorting of the catch to exclude puffer fish. Making sure that the fish have not been caught in an area for which there is a CFP advisory or for which there is knowledge of a CFP-problem.
Further chilling towards the freezing point is desirable to prevent long-term low-temperature development of histamine. Control of temperature is part of the prerequisite programme.
Accidental freezing of canned foods will not cause spoilage unless jars become unsealed and recontaminated. However, freezing and thawing may soften food. If jars must be stored where they may freeze, wrap them in newspapers, place them in heavy cartons, and cover with more newspapers and blankets. Do not taste food from a jar with an unsealed lid or food which shows signs of spoilage. You can more easily detect some types of spoilage in jars stored without screw bands. Growth of spoilage bacteria and yeast produces gas which pressurizes the food, swells lids and breaks jar seals.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
This section provides practical advice for consumers to help them transport, store and prepare seafood products to ensure safety and maximize quality. There are a number of very good resources for consumers on the safe handling and storage of seafood. The links to the web sites where these resources can be found are provided at the end of this page. If you would like more in-depth information, please go directly to these sites. Safe handling and storage of all food should follow the same basic guidelines that are listed below. However, seafood is more perishable then many food items, and the consumer must pay a little more attention to its careful handling.
Trova questo libro nella versione stampata. Account Options Accedi. Biblioteca personale Guida Ricerca Libri avanzata. Acquista ebook - 6. CRC Press , 1 nov - pagine.
A food service operation needs to have clearly defined storage areas and procedures for several reasons. First, by providing storage facilities it is possible to purchase supplies in quantities large enough quantities to get price breaks. Second, the ability to store supplies on the premises reduces the cost and time needed to order supplies and handle them upon delivery. Third, menu planning is easier when you are aware of the quality, quantity, and types of supplies that are on hand. If there is a run on a particular menu item, it is nice to know there are enough materials on hand to ensure that everyone who orders the item can be served. Not only does space need to be found but security needs to be tight. Many operators are willing to pay a bit extra to suppliers in order to avoid the headaches of keeping track of expensive items such as large quantities of high-quality meat, wines, and spirits. Regardless, there still is a need for storing many types of supplies including dry foods, dairy products, frozen foods, produce, and fresh meats. Storage areas for such items often have design requirements that must be built into the space in order to efficiently handle the specific types of supplies.
Fish and shellfish contain high quality protein and other essential nutrients and are an important part of a healthful diet. Only buy fish that is refrigerated or displayed on a thick bed of fresh ice preferably in a case or under some type of cover. Because the color of a fish can be affected by several factors including diet, environment, treatment with a color fixative such as carbon monoxide or other packaging processes, color alone is not an indicator of freshness. The following tips can help you when making purchasing decisions:.
How well seafood is chilled and stored plays a very important part in protecting and maintaining product quality, while limiting the amount of product spoilage. The seafood handling practices involved will differ slightly between commercial and domestic situations. However, regardless of the situation, ice should be used in the chilling and storing of fresh or wet seafood. Do not soak it, as this may cause contamination. This will prevent raw seafood from contaminating cooked or ready-to-eat product in case of a spillage or accidental contact between the two. The coldest part of the refrigerator will be at the bottom or in a designated chilling zone. The home freezer, like the chest "freezer", should be used only to keep frozen products frozen. They are designed for cold storage, not for the freezing of food. However, home freezing of seafood is popular.
Seafood Handling and Storage
Account Options Connexion. CRC Press , 1 nov. With global fish production falling behind demand, the aquaculture of selected species has become an effective method to augment fish availability. Unlike natural species, however, cultured fish have limited consumer appeal. Value addition techniques can not only help satisfy the rising consumer demand for processed fishery products but also enhance the acceptability of aquacultured fishery products and help many countries develop their international seafood trade. Seafood Processing: Adding Value Through Quick Freezing, Retortable Packaging, Cook-Chilling and Other Methods focuses on novel and emerging technologies leveraged for the value addition of fish and fishery products from marine, freshwater, and aquacultured sources. The book begins with discussions on the current global status of seafood and the special problems faced by the commodity, namely high perishability and environmental hazards, which need to be addressed prior to process development. It also details the bulk handling and chilling of fishery products, devotes chapters to each of the different technologies used to enhance the value addition, describes the nutritional value of fishery products, and provides an appendix that offers specialized information with respect to the industry.
Home Canning and Botulism
Account Options Connexion. Version papier du livre. Seafood : Resources, Nutritional Composition, and Preservation. Zdzislaw E. CRC Press , 25 avr. This must-have resource focuses on marine food composition as it relates to nutrition.
Archived - Seafood
For two centuries, tin cans and jars proved to be an excellent way of preserving foods safely over a long period of time. In the meantime, however, more and more food products are appearing on the market packed in other materials, especially plastics in bag or can format. What advantages do these materials offer? Are they just as safe as the traditional cans, or is the good old tin can era possibly coming to an end?
Smarter Seafood Storage
Account Options Accedi. Biblioteca personale Guida Ricerca Libri avanzata. Trova libro cartaceo. Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food.
Please add gourmetfoodstore news. Follow Us. Open up a can of delicious seafood! At Gourmet Food Store we offer the best canned seafood and conservas your heart desires- including premium ventresca tuna, anchovies from Cantabria, Galician mussels, and much more.
However, considering the fact that fresh or thawed fish lasts for just two days in the refrigerator and cooked fish is good for up to three to four days, preparation techniques that allow for a longer shelf life can significantly help reduce seafood food waste. Enter freezing, canning, and curing—three centuries-old techniques for preserving fish. Read on for tips on how best to safely put them to use to enjoy your fish for weeks and months to come. Freezing Fish : Freezing is the easiest and most common way to preserve fish.