A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing or both of animal milk — mostly from cows or buffaloes , but also from goats , sheep , horses , or camels — for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm mixed farm that is concerned with the harvesting of milk. Terminology differs between countries. For example, in the United States , an entire dairy farm is commonly called a "dairy". The building or farm area where milk is harvested from the cow is often called a "milking parlor" or "parlor".
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Meat & Dairy Industries Overproduce Despite Plummeting DemandVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What intensive farming means -- for the animals and for the environment. (BBC Countryfile)
The environmental impact of meat production varies because of the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. All agricultural practices have been found to have a variety of effects on the environment. Some of the environmental effects that have been associated with meat production are pollution through fossil fuel usage, animal methane, effluent waste, and water and land consumption.
Meat is obtained through a variety of methods, including organic farming , free range farming , intensive livestock production , subsistence agriculture , hunting , and fishing. Meat is considered one of the prime factors contributing to the current sixth mass extinction.
Globally it is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases GHG and one of the leading causal factors in the loss of biodiversity , and in developed and emerging countries it is perhaps the leading source of water pollution. Livestock have been estimated to provide power for tillage of as much as half of the world's cropland.
On August 8, , the IPCC released a summary of the special report which asserted that a shift towards plant-based diets would help to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Changes in demand for meat may change the environmental impact of meat production by influencing how much meat is produced. It has been estimated that global meat consumption may double from to , mostly as a consequence of increasing world population, but also partly because of increased per capita meat consumption with much of the per capita consumption increase occurring in the developing world.
For example, global per capita consumption of pork has increased recently almost entirely due to changes in consumption within China , while global per capita consumption of ruminant meats has been declining. In comparison with grazing , intensive livestock production requires large quantities of harvested feed, this overproduction of feed can also hold negative effects. The growing of cereals for feed in turn requires substantial areas of land.
It takes seven pounds of feed to produce a pound of beef live weight , more than three pounds for a pound of pork, and less than two pounds for a pound of chicken.
For example, production of a pound of beef cattle live weight may require between 4 and 5 pounds of feed high in protein and metabolizable energy content, or more than 20 pounds of feed of much lower quality. Where grain is fed, less feed is required for meat production. This is due not only to the higher concentration of metabolizable energy in grain than in roughages, but also to the higher ratio of net energy of gain to net energy of maintenance where metabolizable energy intake is higher.
Free-range animal production requires land for grazing, which in some places has led to land use change. According to FAO, "Ranching-induced deforestation is one of the main causes of loss of some unique plant and animal species in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America as well as carbon release in the atmosphere. Land quality decline is sometimes associated with overgrazing , as these animals are removing much needed nutrients from the soil without the land having time to recover.
Rangeland health classification reflects soil and site stability, hydrologic function, and biotic integrity. This led the BLM to infer that a similar percentage would be obtained when such evaluations were completed. Sheet and rill erosion is within estimated soil loss tolerance on Environmental effects of grazing can be positive or negative, depending on the quality of management,  and grazing can have different effects on different soils  and different plant communities.
In some cases, ecosystem productivity may be increased due to grazing effects on nutrient cycling. Virtual water use for livestock production includes water used in producing feed. Irrigation accounts for about 37 percent of US withdrawn freshwater use, and groundwater provides about 42 percent of US irrigation water. Rainfed agriculture, which cannot deplete its water source, produces much of the livestock feed in North America. Corn maize is of particular interest, accounting for about In the Western United States , many stream and riparian habitats have been negatively affected by livestock grazing.
This has resulted in increased phosphates , nitrates , decreased dissolved oxygen, increased temperature, turbidity , and eutrophication events, and reduced species diversity.
US Bureau of Land Management. At a global scale, the FAO has recently estimated that livestock including poultry accounts for about The indirect effects contributing to the percentage include emissions associated with the production of feed consumed by livestock and carbon dioxide emission from deforestation in Central and South America, attributed to livestock production.
Using a different sectoral assignment of emissions, the IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that agriculture including not only livestock, but also food crop, biofuel and other production accounted for about 10 to 12 percent of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions expressed as year carbon dioxide equivalents in  and in The authors state this is because of the need to replace animal manures by fertilizers and to replace also other animal coproducts, and because livestock now use human-inedible food and fiber processing byproducts.
In the US, methane emissions associated with ruminant livestock 6. This is because degradation of methane nearly keeps pace with emissions, resulting in a relatively little increase in atmospheric methane content average of 6 Tg per year from through , whereas atmospheric carbon dioxide content has been increasing greatly average of nearly 15, Tg per year from through Mitigation options for reducing methane emission from ruminant enteric fermentation include genetic selection,   immunization, rumen defaunation , outcompetition of methanogenic archaea with acetogens ,  introduction of methanotrophic bacteria into the rumen,   diet modification and grazing management, among others.
In New Zealand , nearly half of [anthropogenic] greenhouse gas emission is associated with agriculture, which plays a major role in the nation's economy, and a large fraction of this is assignable to the livestock industry. According to a study in the journal Nature , a significant reduction in meat consumption will be "essential" to mitigate climate change, especially as the human population increases by a projected 2. On August 8, , the IPCC released a summary of the special report which said that a shift towards plant-based diets would help to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
Meat production is one of the leading causes of greenhouse gas emissions and other particulate matter pollution in the atmosphere. This type of production chain produces copious byproducts; endotoxin, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and particulate matter PM , such as dust, are all released along with the aforementioned methane and CO 2.
In addition, exposure to PM10 particulate matter 10 micrometers in diameter may produce diseases that impact the upper and proximal airways. In fact, concentrated animal feeding operations CAFOs in proximity to residential areas adversely affect these individuals' respiratory health similarly seen in the farmers. Air pollutants from these operations have caused acute physical symptoms, such as respiratory illnesses, wheezing, increased breath rate, and irritation of the eyes and nose.
Data of a USDA study indicate that about 0. In this context, energy use includes energy from fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric, biomass, geothermal, technological solar, and wind sources. It excludes solar energy captured by photosynthesis, used in hay drying, etc.
The estimated energy use in agricultural production includes embodied energy in purchased inputs. An important aspect of energy use of livestock production is the energy consumption that the animals contribute. Feed Conversion Ratio is an animal's ability to covert feed into meat. The Feed Conversion Ratio FCR is calculated by the taking the energy, protein or mass input of the feed divided by the output of meat provided by the animal.
A lower FCR corresponds with a smaller requirement of feed per meat out-put, therefore the animal contributes less GHG emissions. Chickens and pigs usually have a lower FCR compared to ruminants.
Intensification and other changes in the livestock industries influence energy use, emissions and other environmental effects of meat production. For example, in the US beef production system, practices prevailing in are estimated to have involved 8. Water pollution due to animal waste is a common problem in both developed and developing nations. In the US, a permit for a CAFO requires implementation of a plan for management of manure nutrients, contaminants, wastewater, etc.
The EPA has published 5-year and 1-year data for 32 industries on their ratios of enforcement orders to inspections, a measure of non-compliance with environmental regulations: principally, those under Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act. For the livestock industry, inspections focused primarily on CAFOs. Of the 31 other industries, 4 including crop production had a better 5-year environmental record than the livestock industry, 2 had a similar record, and 25 had a worse record in this respect.
For crop production, the ratio was 0. Of the 32 industries, oil and gas extraction and the livestock industry had the lowest percentages of facilities with violations.
With good management, manure has environmental benefits. Manure deposited on pastures by grazing animals themselves is applied efficiently for maintaining soil fertility. Animal manures are also commonly collected from barns and concentrated feeding areas for efficient re-use of many nutrients in crop production, sometimes after composting.
For many areas with high livestock density, manure application substantially replaces application of synthetic fertilizers on surrounding cropland. Manure was spread as a fertilizer on about Altogether, in , manure was applied on about Manure biogas operations can be found in Asia, Europe,   North America, and elsewhere.
The US EPA estimates that as of July , manure digester systems for biogas energy were in operation on commercial-scale US livestock facilities. Additional factors, such as odor control and carbon credits, may improve benefit to cost ratios. Biomass of mammals on Earth  . Grazing especially overgrazing may detrimentally affect certain wildlife species, e. The growing demand for meat is contributing to significant biodiversity loss as it is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction; species-rich habitats, such as significant portions of the Amazon region, are being converted to agriculture for meat production.
In North America, various studies have found that grazing sometimes improves habitat for elk,  blacktailed prairie dogs,  sage grouse,  and mule deer. One environmental benefit of meat production is the conversion of materials that might otherwise be wasted or turned into compost to produce food. For the marketing year , dried distillers grains used as livestock feed and residual in the US was estimated at Small ruminants [ example needed ] can control of specific invasive or noxious weeds such as spotted knapweed , tansy ragwort , leafy spurge , yellow starthistle , tall larkspur , etc.
These represent alternatives to herbicide use. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Water conservation. Main article: Antibiotic use in livestock.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December Environment portal Agriculture portal. Agroecology Animal-free agriculture Carbon dioxide equivalent tax Cheap meat Cultured meat Economic vegetarianism Semi-vegetarianism Environmental impact of agriculture Environmental impact of fishing Environmental impact of pig farming Environmental vegetarianism Ethical eating Ethics of eating meat Farmageddon book Meat Atlas Food vs.
Science of the Total Environment. Bibcode : ScTEn. The Anthropocene Review. The Guardian. Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 3 July Pushing all this forward, though, are increased demands for food from a growing global population and specifically our growing appetite for meat and fish.
Agriculture and fishing are the primary causes of the deterioration. Food production has increased dramatically since the s, which has helped feed a growing global population and generated jobs and economic growth.
This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food.
Environmental impact of meat production
The environmental impact of meat production varies because of the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. All agricultural practices have been found to have a variety of effects on the environment. Some of the environmental effects that have been associated with meat production are pollution through fossil fuel usage, animal methane, effluent waste, and water and land consumption. Meat is obtained through a variety of methods, including organic farming , free range farming , intensive livestock production , subsistence agriculture , hunting , and fishing. Meat is considered one of the prime factors contributing to the current sixth mass extinction.
Introduction 1. General environmental impact 1. Overall waste production 1. The Key-indicator 1.
Беккер перевел свои Сейко на местное время - 9. 10 вечера, по местным понятиям еще день: порядочный испанец никогда не обедает до заката, а ленивое андалузское солнце редко покидает небо раньше десяти.
Я человек, - подумал. И с ироничной усмешкой вспомнил: - Без воска. Беккер стоял с закрытыми глазами, а человек в очках в металлической оправе приближался к. Где-то неподалеку зазвонил колокол. Беккер молча ждал выстрела, который должен оборвать его жизнь. ГЛАВА 89 Лучи утреннего солнца едва успели коснуться крыш Севильи и лабиринта узких улочек под. Колокола на башне Гиральда созывали людей на утреннюю мессу.
Никогда еще его не влекло ни к одной женщине. Изящные европейские черты лица и карие глаза делали Сьюзан похожей на модель, рекламирующую косметику Эсте Лаудер. Худоба и неловкость подростка бесследно исчезли.
Это данные о сегодняшней производительности. Взгляни на число дешифровок. Бринкерхофф послушно следил за движениями ее пальца.
ГЛАВА 7 Мозг Сьюзан лихорадочно работал: Энсей Танкадо написал программу, с помощью которой можно создавать шифры, не поддающиеся взлому.
Она никак не могла свыкнуться с этой мыслью. - Цифровая крепость, - сказал Стратмор. - Так назвал ее Танкадо. Это новейшее оружие, направленное против разведслужб. Если эта программа попадет на рынок, любой третьеклассник, имеющий модем, получит возможность отправлять зашифрованные сообщения, которые АНБ не сможет прочесть.
Это означает конец нашей разведки. Но мысли Сьюзан были далеко от политических последствий создания Цифровой крепости. Она пыталась осознать истинный смысл случившегося.
Уничтожение ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Уже несколько лет Танкадо пытался рассказать миру о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, но ему никто не хотел верить. Поэтому он решил уничтожить это чудовище в одиночку. Он до самой смерти боролся за то, во что верил, - за право личности на неприкосновенность частной жизни.
Внизу по-прежнему завывала сирена. - Надо вырубить все электроснабжение, и как можно скорее! - потребовала Сьюзан. Она знала, что, если они не будут терять времени, им удастся спасти эту великую дешифровальную машину параллельной обработки.
Он все протягивал к нам руку - чтобы мы взяли кольцо. Я не хотела брать, но мой спутник в конце концов его. А потом этот парень умер. - А вы пробовали сделать ему искусственное дыхание? - предположил Беккер. - Нет. Мы к нему не прикасались. Мой друг испугался.
- Я только что говорила с Джаббой. Он сказал, что в прошлом году сам установил переключатель. Личный помощник директора отказывался верить ее словам. - Никогда не слышал об .
Лицо Стратмора побагровело. - Мистер Чатрукьян, такое уже случалось. Нет никакого файла, который мог бы заразить ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Чего желаете. - Сеньор Ролдан из агентства сопровождения Белена сказал мне, что вы… Взмахом руки консьерж заставил Беккера остановиться и нервно оглядел фойе.
Сьюзан подумала о Стратморе, о том, как мужественно он переносит тяжесть этого испытания, делая все необходимое, сохраняя спокойствие во время крушения. Иногда она видела в нем что-то от Дэвида. У них было много общего: настойчивость, увлеченность своим делом, ум. Иногда ей казалось, что Стратмор без нее пропадет; ее любовь к криптографии помогала коммандеру отвлечься от завихрений политики, напоминая о молодости, отданной взламыванию шифров.