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Space building container-type gas stations and equipment for them

Space building container-type gas stations and equipment for them

A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold in the s are gasoline gasoline or gas in the United States and Canada, generally petrol elsewhere and diesel fuel. Fuel dispensers are used to pump gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas , CGH2 , HCNG , LPG , liquid hydrogen , kerosene , alcohol fuel like methanol , ethanol , butanol , propanol , biofuels like straight vegetable oil , biodiesel , or other types of fuel into the tanks within vehicles and calculate the financial cost of the fuel transferred to the vehicle. Fuel dispensers are also known as bowsers in some parts of Australia , [1] petrol pumps in most Commonwealth countries or gas pumps in North America. Besides fuel dispensers, one other significant device which is also found in filling stations and can refuel certain compressed-air vehicles is an air compressor, although generally these are just used to inflate car tyres.

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Content:

Filling station

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A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold in the s are gasoline gasoline or gas in the United States and Canada, generally petrol elsewhere and diesel fuel.

Fuel dispensers are used to pump gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas , CGH2 , HCNG , LPG , liquid hydrogen , kerosene , alcohol fuel like methanol , ethanol , butanol , propanol , biofuels like straight vegetable oil , biodiesel , or other types of fuel into the tanks within vehicles and calculate the financial cost of the fuel transferred to the vehicle.

Fuel dispensers are also known as bowsers in some parts of Australia , [1] petrol pumps in most Commonwealth countries or gas pumps in North America. Besides fuel dispensers, one other significant device which is also found in filling stations and can refuel certain compressed-air vehicles is an air compressor, although generally these are just used to inflate car tyres.

Also, many filling stations incorporate a convenience store , which like most other buildings generally have electricity sockets; hence plug-in electric vehicles can be recharged. The convenience stores found in filling stations typically sell candy , soft drinks , snacks and, in some cases, a small selection of grocery items, such as milk.

Some also sell propane or butane and have added shops to their primary business. Conversely, some chain stores , such as supermarkets , discount stores , warehouse clubs , or traditional convenience stores, have provided filling stations on the premises.

The term "gas station" is widely used in the United States, Canada and the Anglophone Caribbean , where the fuel is known as "gasoline" or "gas" as in "gas pump". In some regions of Canada, the term gas bar is used. Elsewhere in the English-speaking world, mainly in the Commonwealth , the fuel is known as "petrol", and the term "petrol station" or "petrol pump" is used.

Similarly, in Australia, the term "service station" "servo" describes any petrol station. In Japanese English , a commonly used term is gasoline stand , although the abbreviation SS for s ervice s tation is also used.

In Indian English , it is called a petrol pump or a petrol bunk. In some regions of America and Australia, many filling stations have a mechanic on duty, but this is uncommon in other parts of the world.

The first filling station was the city pharmacy in Wiesloch , Germany , where Bertha Benz refilled the tank of the first automobile on its maiden trip from Mannheim to Pforzheim back in Shortly thereafter other pharmacies sold gasoline as a side business.

Since the Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event. The first "posto de gasolina" of South America was opened in Santos, Brazil, in It was located on Ana Costa Avenue, in front of the beach, in a corner that is located by the Hotel Atlantico. The increase in automobile ownership after Henry Ford started to sell automobiles that the middle class could afford resulted in an increased demand for filling stations.

The world's first purpose-built gas station was constructed in St. Louis, Missouri in at South Theresa Avenue. The second gas station was constructed in by Standard Oil of California now Chevron in Seattle, Washington, at what is now Pier Reighard's Gas Station in Altoona, Pennsylvania , claims that it dates from and is the oldest existing gas station in the United States. On its first day, the station sold 30 gallons of gasoline at 27 cents per gallon. This was also the first architect-designed station and the first to distribute free road maps.

Maryland officials said that on September 26, , RS Automotive in Takoma Park, Maryland became the first filling station in the country to convert to an EV charging station. In Russia, the first filling stations appeared in , when the Imperial Automobile Society signed an agreement with the partnership "Br.

By about filling stations functioned in major cities across the country. In the mids in Moscow there were about stations. A significant boost in retail network development occurred with the mass launch of the car " Zhiguli " at the Volga Automobile Plant , which was built in Tolyatti in Gasoline for other than non-private cars was sold for ration cards only.

This type of payment system stopped in the midst of " Perestroika " in the early s. Since the saturation of automobile filling stations in Russia is insufficient and lags behind the leading countries of the world, there is a need to accommodate new stations in the cities and along the roads of different levels.

Most filling stations are built in a similar manner, with most of the fueling installation underground, pump machines in the forecourt and a point of service inside a building. Single or multiple fuel tanks are usually deployed underground. Local regulations and environmental concerns may require a different method, with some stations storing their fuel in container tanks, entrenched surface tanks or unprotected fuel tanks deployed on the surface.

Fuel is usually offloaded from a tanker truck into the tanks through a separate valve, located on the filling station's perimeter. Fuel from the tanks travels to the dispenser pumps through underground pipes. For every fuel tank, direct access must be available at all times. Most tanks can be accessed through a service canal directly from the forecourt.

Older stations tend to use a separate pipe for every kind of available fuel and for every dispenser. Newer stations may employ a single pipe for every dispenser.

This pipe houses a number of smaller pipes for the individual fuel types. Fuel tanks, dispenser and nozzles used to fill car tanks employ vapor recovery systems, which prevents releases of vapor into the atmosphere with a system of pipes.

The exhausts are placed as high as possible. A vapor recovery system may be employed at the exhaust pipe. This system collects the vapors, liquifies them and releases them back into the lowest grade fuel tank available. The forecourt is the part of a filling station where vehicles are refueled. Fuel dispensers are placed on concrete plinths, as a precautionary measure. Additional elements may be employed, including metal barriers. The area around the fuel dispensers must have a drainage system.

Since fuel sometimes spills on the ground, as little of it as possible should penetrate the soil. Any liquids present on the forecourt will flow into a channel drain before it enters a petrol interceptor which is designed to capture any hydrocarbon pollutants and filter these from rainwater which may then proceed to a foul sewer , stormwater drain or to ground.

If a filling station allows customers to pay at the register, the data from the dispensers may be transmitted via RS , RS or Ethernet to the point of sale, usually inside the filling station's building, and fed into the station's cash register operating system.

The cash register system gives a limited control over the fuel dispenser, and is usually limited to allowing the clerks to turn the pumps on and off.

A separate system is used to monitor the fuel tank's status and quantities of fuel. With sensors directly in the fuel tank, the data is fed to a terminal in the back room, where it can be downloaded or printed out. Sometimes this method is bypassed, with the fuel tank data transmitted directly into an external database. The underground modular filling station is a construction model for filling stations that was developed and patented by U-Cont Oy Ltd in Finland in Afterwards the same system was used in Florida, US.

Above-ground modular filling stations were built in the s in eastern Europe and especially in Soviet Union, but they were not built in other parts of Europe due to the stations' lack of safety in case of fire.

The construction model for underground modular filling station makes the installation time shorter, designing easier and manufacturing less expensive. As a proof of the model's installation speed an unofficial world record of filling station installation was made by U-Cont Oy Ltd when a modular filling station was built in Helsinki, Finland in less than three days, including groundwork.

The safety of modular filling stations has been tested in a filling station simulator, in Kuopio , Finland.

These tests have included for instance burning cars and explosions in the station simulator. In the United States and Canada, there are generally two marketing types of filling stations: premium brands and discount brands.

Premium brand stations accept credit cards , often issue their own company cards fuel cards or fleet cards and may charge higher prices. In some cases, fuel cards for customers with a lower fuel consumption are ordered not directly from an oil company, but from an intermediary.

Many premium brands have fully automated pay-at-the-pump facilities. Premium gas stations tend to be highly visible from highway and freeway exits, utilizing tall signs to display their brand logos. Discount brands are often smaller, regional chains or independent stations, offering lower prices on gasoline. Most purchase wholesale commodity gasoline from independent suppliers or from the major petroleum companies.

At some stations such as Vons , Costco , BJ's Wholesale Club , or Sam's Club , consumers are required to hold a special membership card in order to be eligible for the discounted price, or pay only with the chain's cash card , debt card or a credit card issuer exclusive to that chain. In some areas, such as New Jersey, this practice is illegal, and stations are required to sell to all at the same price. Some convenience stores, such as 7-Eleven and Circle K , have co-branded their stations with one of the premium brands.

After the Gulf Oil company was sold to Chevron, northeastern retail units were sold off as a chain, with Cumberland Farms controlling the remaining Gulf Oil outlets in the United States. Some countries have only one brand of filling station. In Mexico, where the oil industry is state-owned and prices are regulated, the country's main operator of filling stations is Pemex.

In Malaysia, Shell is the dominant player by number of stations, with government-owned Petronas coming in second. In Indonesia, the dominant player by number of stations is the government-owned Pertamina , although other companies such as Total and Shell are increasingly found in big cities such as the capital Jakarta or Surabaya.

The "Big Four" supermarket chains, Morrisons , Sainsburys , Asda and Tesco , all operate filling stations, as well as some of the smaller supermarkets such as The Co-operative Group and Waitrose. Indian Oil operates approximately 15, filling stations in India.

In British Columbia and Alberta, it is a legal requirement that customers either pre-pay for the fuel or pay at the pump. The law is called "Grant's Law" [26] and is intended to prevent "gas-and-dash" crimes, where a customer refuels and then drives away without paying for it.

In other provinces, payment after filling is permitted and widely available, though some stations may require either a pre-payment or a payment at the pump during night hours. In the Republic of Ireland, most filling stations allow customers to pump fuel before paying. Some filling stations have pay-at-the-pump facilities. Most service stations allow the customer to pump the fuel before paying; this is particularly the case in the smaller towns and cities in ANZ. In recent years, some service stations have required customers to purchase their fuel first.

It is quite common for customers to hand the cash to the attendant on the forecourt if they are paying for a set amount of fuel and have no change. Some supermarkets have their own forecourts which are unmanned and payment is pay-at-pump only. Customers at the supermarket will receive a discount voucher which offers discounted fuel at their forecourt.

The amount of discount varies depending on the amount spent on groceries at the supermarket, but normally starts at 4 cents a litre. A large majority of stations allow customers to pay with a chip and pin payment card or pay in the shop. Many have a pay at the pump system, where customers can enter their PIN prior to refuelling. Pre-payment is the norm in the US and customers may typically pay either at the pump or inside the gas station.

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Storage tanks are containers that hold liquids, compressed gases gas tank; or in U. A "pressure vessel", which is not typically labeled or regulated as a storage tank or mediums used for the short- or long-term storage of heat or cold. The usage of the word tank for reservoirs is uncommon in American English but is moderately common in British English. In other countries, the term tends to refer only to artificial containers.

Storage tank

Он распорядился установить жучок в личном компьютере Стратмора - чтобы контролировать его электронную почту, его внутриведомственную переписку, а также мозговые штурмы, которые тот время от времени предпринимал. Если Стратмор окажется на грани срыва, директор заметит первые симптомы.

Но вместо признаков срыва Фонтейн обнаружил подготовительную работу над беспрецедентной разведывательной операцией, которую только можно было себе представить. Неудивительно, что Стратмор просиживает штаны на работе. Если он сумеет реализовать свой замысел, это стократно компенсирует провал Попрыгунчика. Фонтейн пришел к выводу, что Стратмор в полном порядке, что он трудится на сто десять процентов, все так же хитер, умен и в высшей степени лоялен, впрочем - как .

Мы должны позвонить ему и проверить. - Мидж, он же заместитель директора, - застонал Бринкерхофф.  - Я уверен, у него все под контролем. Давай не… - Перестань, Чед, не будь ребенком. Мы выполняем свою работу.

Но Цифровая крепость никогда не устареет: благодаря функции меняющегося открытого текста она выдержит людскую атаку и не выдаст ключа. Новый стандарт шифрования.

Это была правда. Банк данных АНБ был сконструирован таким образом, чтобы никогда не оставался без электропитания - в результате случайности или злого умысла. Многоуровневая защита силовых и телефонных кабелей была спрятана глубоко под землей в стальных контейнерах, а питание от главного комплекса АНБ было дополнено многочисленными линиями электропитания, независимыми от городской системы снабжения. Поэтому отключение представляло собой сложную серию подтверждений и протоколов, гораздо более сложную, чем запуск ядерной ракеты с подводной лодки.

- У нас есть время, но только если мы поспешим, - сказал Джабба.  - Отключение вручную займет минут тридцать. Фонтейн по-прежнему смотрел на ВР, перебирая в уме остающиеся возможности. - Директор! - взорвался Джабба.  - Когда эти стены рухнут, вся планета получит высший уровень допуска к нашим секретам. Высший уровень.

Услышав имя Дэвида, произнесенное вслух, Сьюзан дала волю своему горю. Сначала она едва заметно вздрогнула, словно от озноба, и тут же ее захлестнула волна отчаяния. Приоткрыв дрожащие губы, она попыталась что-то сказать, но слов не последовало.

Лучше всего - Нетскейп. Сьюзан сжала ее руку.

Сьюзан обмякла, испытав огромное облегчение, и почувствовала, что вновь нормально дышит: до этого она от ужаса задержала дыхание. Предмет в руке Стратмора излучал зеленоватый свет. - Черт возьми, - тихо выругался Стратмор, - мой новый пейджер, - и с отвращением посмотрел на коробочку, лежащую у него на ладони.

Он забыл нажать кнопку, которая отключила звук. Этот прибор он купил в магазине электроники, оплатив покупку наличными, чтобы сохранить анонимность. Никто лучше его не знал, как тщательно следило агентство за своими сотрудниками, поэтому сообщения, приходящие на этот пейджер, как и отправляемые с него, Стратмор старательно оберегал от чужих глаз. Сьюзан опасливо огляделась. Если до этого Хейл не знал, что они идут, то теперь отлично это понял.

Стратмор нажал несколько кнопок и, прочитав полученное сообщение, тихо застонал. Из Испании опять пришли плохие новости - не от Дэвида Беккера, а от других, которых он послал в Севилью.

Agriculture · Construction · Federal Agencies · Health Care · Maritime · Oil and Gas Any powered dispensing nozzles used are of the automatic-closing type. Equipment with permanently mounted fuel containers shall be charged outdoors. shall be in continuous contact with the vapor space (top) of the cylinder.

Атакующие линии рвались вперед, они находились уже на волосок от пятой, и последней, стены, Последние минуты существования банка данных истекали. Сьюзан отгородилась от царившего вокруг хаоса, снова и снова перечитывая послание Танкадо. PRIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI ГЛАВНАЯ РАЗНИЦА МЕЖДУ ЭЛЕМЕНТАМИ, ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫМИ ЗА ХИРОСИМУ И НАГАСАКИ - Это даже не вопрос! - крикнул Бринкерхофф.

 - Какой же может быть ответ. - Нам необходимо число, - напомнил Джабба.  - Шифр-убийца имеет цифровую структуру. - Тихо, - потребовал Фонтейн и повернулся к Сьюзан.

Стратмор невесело улыбнулся: - Наконец ты поняла. Формула Цифровой крепости зашифрована с помощью Цифровой крепости. Танкадо предложил бесценный математический метод, но зашифровал. Зашифровал, используя этот самый метод. - Сейф Бигглмана, - протянула Сьюзан. Стратмор кивнул.

За этой дверью находился один из самых великих людей, которых ей довелось знать. Пятидесятишестилетний коммандер Стратмор, заместитель оперативного директора АНБ, был для нее почти как отец. Именно он принимал ее на работу, именно он сделал АНБ для нее родным домом.

Когда десять лет назад Сьюзан поступила в агентство, Стратмор возглавлял Отдел развития криптографии, являвшийся тренировочной площадкой для новых криптографов, криптографов мужского пола.

- В голосе звонившего по-прежнему чувствовалась нерешительность.  - Ну, тогда… надеюсь, хлопот не. - Отлично. Он обедает там сегодня с одной из наших сопровождающих.

Мы обязаны утроить самое высокое сделанное ему предложение. Мы можем восстановить его репутацию.

Покраснев, Сьюзан сказала, что созрела довольно поздно. Чуть ли не до двадцати лет она была худой и нескладной и носила скобки на зубах, так что тетя Клара однажды сказала, что Господь Бог наградил ее умом в утешение за невзрачные внешние данные. Господь явно поторопился с утешением, подумал Беккер.

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