Plywood and laminated wood are both made of layers laminae of wood glued together. The basic difference is that in plywood the grain of alternate layers is crossed, in general at right angles, whereas in laminated wood it is parallel. Plywood is a panel product manufactured by gluing one or more veneers to both sides of a central veneer layer or a lumber-strip core. Most plywood is all-veneer; lumber-core plywood is produced only in small quantities. Lumber cores are made by the lateral gluing of strips of wood.
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Sudoma Sawmill is a deep wood processing manufacturing enterprise
Traditionally, furniture factories have been located in Europe and North America. With the increased cost of labour in industrialized countries, more furniture production, which is labour intensive, has shifted to Far Eastern countries.
It is likely that this movement will continue unless more automated equipment can be developed. Most furniture manufacturers are small enterprises. The woodworking industry in the United States is responsible for manufacturing household, office, store, public building and restaurant furniture and fixtures. The woodworking industry falls under the US Bureau of the Census Standard Industrial Classification SIC Code 25 equivalent to International SIC Code 33 and includes: wood household furniture, such as beds, tables, chairs and bookshelves; wood television and radio cabinets; wood office furniture, such as cabinets, chairs and desks; and wood office and store fixtures and partitions, such as bar fixtures, counters, lockers and shelves.
Because production lines for assembling furniture are costly, most manufacturers do not supply an exceptionally large range of items.
Manufacturers may specialize in the product manufactured, the product group or the production process EPA For the purposes of this article, the processes of the woodworking industry will be considered to start with the reception of converted timber from the sawmill and continue until the shipping of a finished wood article or product.
Earlier stages in the handling of wood are dealt with in the chapters Forestry and Lumber industry. The woodworking industry produces furniture and a variety of building materials, ranging from plywood floors to shingles. This article covers the main stages in the processing of wood for the production of wooden products, which are machine working of natural wood or manufactured panels, assembly of machined parts and surface finishing e.
Figure Some furniture manufacturing facilities may purchase dried lumber, but others perform drying onsite using a drying kiln or oven, fired by a boiler. Usually wood waste is the fuel. Once the lumber is dried, it is sawed and otherwise machined into the shape of the final furniture part, such as a table leg.
In a normal plant, the wood stock moves from rough planer, to cutoff saw, to rip saw, to finish planer, to moulder, to lathe, to table saw, to band saw, to router, to shaper, to drill and mortiser, to carver and then to a variety of sanders.
In many instances, the design of furniture pieces requires bending of certain wooden parts. This occurs after the planing process, and usually involves the application of pressure in conjunction with a softening agent, such as water, and increased atmospheric pressure.
After bending into the desired shape, the piece is dried to remove excess moisture. Wood furniture can either be finished and then assembled, or the reverse. Furniture made of irregularly shaped components is usually assembled and then finished. The assembly process usually involves the use of adhesives either synthetic or natural in conjunction with other joining methods, such as nailing, followed by the application of veneers.
Purchased veneers are trimmed to correct size and patterns, and bonded to purchased chipboard. After assembly, the furniture part is examined to ensure a smooth surface for finishing. After the surface has dried, a solution of glue or resin is applied and allowed to dry. The raised fibres are then sanded down to form a smooth surface. If the wood contains rosin, which can interfere with the effectiveness of certain finishes, it may be derosinated by applying a mixture of acetone and ammonia.
The wood is then bleached by spraying, sponging or dipping the wood into a bleaching agent such as hydrogen peroxide. Surface finishing. Surface finishing may involve the use of a large variety of coatings. These coatings are applied after the product is assembled or in a flat line operation before assembly. Coatings could normally include fillers, stains, glazes, sealers, lacquers, paints, varnishes and other finishes. The coatings may be applied by spray, brush, pad, dip, roller or flow-coating machine.
Coatings can be either solvent based or water based. Paints may contain a wide variety of pigments, depending on the desired colour. Woodworking manufacturing has many of the hazards to safety and health that are common to general industry, with a much larger proportion of extremely hazardous equipment and operations than most. Consequently, safety requires constant attention to safe work habits by employees, vigilant supervision, and maintenance of a safe work environment by employers.
Sawing machines. Employees should be made aware of the safe operating practices necessary for the proper use of various woodworking saws see figure When feeding a table saw, hands must be kept out of the line of the cut.
When ripping with the fence gauge near the saw, a push stick or suitable jig must be used to complete the cut. See figure The saw blade must be positioned so as to minimize its protrusion above the stock; the lower the blade, the less chance for kickbacks. It is good practice to stand out of the line of the stock being ripped.
A heavy leather apron or other guard for the abdomen is recommended. Freehand sawing is always dangerous. The stock must always be held against a gauge or fence. The saw must be appropriate for the job. For instance, it is an unsafe practice to rip with a table saw not equipped with a non-kickback device. Kickback aprons are recommended. The dangerous practice of removing a hood guard because of narrow clearance on the gauge side can be avoided by clamping a filler board to the table between the gauge and the saw and using it to guide the stock.
Employees must never be permitted to bypass guards. Combs, featherboards see figure Crosscutting long boards on a table saw should be avoided because the operator is required to use considerable hand pressure near the saw blade. Also, boards extending beyond the table may be struck by people or trucks.
Long stock should be crosscut on a swing pull saw or radial arm saw with adequate supporting bench. Work that should be done on special power-feed machines should not be done on general-purpose hand-fed machines. To set a gauge of a table saw without taking off the guards, a permanent mark should designate the line of cut on the table top. It is considered safe practice to bring equipment to a complete stop before adjusting blades or fences, and to disconnect the power source when changing blades.
A brush or stick should be used to clean sawdust and scrap from a saw. A table saw is also called a variety saw because it can perform a wide variety of sawing functions. For this reason the operator should have a variety of guards, because no one guard can protect from every function. Cutting machines.
Cutting machines can also be hazardous if not adequately guarded and always used with respect and alertness. Cutting tools should be kept well sharpened and correctly balanced on their spindles.
The router shown in figure Other routers may have a ring guard, a round guard that encircles the router bit. The purpose of guards is to keep the hands away from the cutting bit. Computer numerical controlled CNC routers may have several bits and are high production machines. However, another problem is the high amount of wood dust. The exposed portion of the knives behind the fence should also be guarded. The shaper is a potentially very dangerous machine see figure If the shaper knives become separated from the above and below collars on the arbor, they can be thrown with great force.
Also, stock must often be held close to the knives. Featherboards can be used to hold the stock down against the table. Ring or saucer guards should be used whenever possible. A saucer guard is a round, flat, plastic disk that is mounted horizontally on the arbor above the shaper knives. A lathe should be guarded by a hood guard because there is a danger of the stock being thrown from the machine.
It is good practice for the hood to be interlocked with the motor so the lathe cannot be run unless the hood guard is in place. A ripsaw should have anti-kickback fingers installed to prevent the stock from reversing its direction and striking the operator. Also, the operator should wear a padded apron to lessen the impact if a kickback does occur. Because the radial arm saw blade can be tilted sideways, a guard must be used which will not lie into the blade. Sanding machines. Machined stock pieces are sanded down using belt, jitterbug, disc, drum or orbital sanders.
Nip points are created in sanding belts. Often these nip points can be guarded with a hood which will also be part of a dust exhaust system.
Machine guarding. Miscellaneous machine safety concerns. Most woodworking machines create the necessity of the operator and helper wearing eye protection. It is common practice for employees to blow dust off of themselves with compressed air.
They should be cautioned to keep air pressure below 30 psi and to avoid blowing into eyes or open cuts. Machines that produce wood dust should be equipped with dust-collecting systems. If the exhaust system is inadequate to dispose of the wood dust, the operator may need to wear a dust respirator.
Other studies indicate that wood dust may prove an irritant to the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and throat. Some toxic woods are more actively pathogenic and may produce allergic reactions and occasionally pulmonary disorders and systemic poisoning. See table Silver fir Pinaceae Dermatitis; conjunctivitis-rhinitis; asthma Acacia spp.
Afrormosia elata Harms.
Dry not waney board. Used for laminated beam, finish materials, furniture board, planed stock production. Used for housekeeping needs and rough works. Production About company Sales Map Contacts. Rus Eng.
Account Options Sign in. National Committee on Wood Utilization U. Department of Commerce. Selected pages Page Page How wood loses its moisture in seasoning.
Timber processing factory
Account Options Sign in. The Lumber Industry: Conditions in production and wholesale distribution including wholesale prices. United States. Bureau of Corporations. Selected pages Page
One of the basic materials of human civilization, wood still plays a central role in 21st-century life. It's used in home construction and furnishing, in transportation, and in the manufacturing of countless consumer products. It's also used, in the form of wood pulp a fibrous material made from processed wood chips , to produce paper, paper products, and fabric. And in large parts of the world, particularly in Africa, wood remains an important source of fuel for cooking and heating. Unfortunately, wood is also a major driver of deforestation. But because wood is used in so many different ways, the relationship between wood products and deforestation is complicated. Some wood products, such as fuelwood and timber, largely drive forest degradation—which is often the precursor to deforestation. Others, such as pulp and paper, may come from deforestation in Southeast Asia or from plantation forests around the world. And while some wood products can be traced back to unsustainable sources, well-managed wood is a renewable resource. Much of the wood we use comes from plantation forests, but a significant portion of it is extracted from natural forests.
New $200M wood products plant ramps up production in Charlotte region
The company's production facilities are located in Eastern Siberia as well as in the northern and southern regions of Germany. The company has sales offices in Europe and China. Ilim Timber ranks top among the leaders of the global sawmill industry in terms of efficiency and production volumes.
Western sawmills produce broad range of products in Factory and Shop Grades. These grades are especially suited for remanufacture to obtain clear cuttings. Factory and Shop Grade lumber products are intended specifically for remanufacture into such items as doors, windows, furniture, frames, mouldings, boxes and cabinetry. Factory Lumber Grades are priced according to the portion of recoverable clear cuttings inherent in the piece. Factory Grades can be developed in most species. Each species has characteristics, which make it preferable for certain end uses. For grading purposes, Western Hemlock is included, along with the true firs, in the Hem-Fir species group because these species share almost identical characteristics in color, grain, strength, workability and appearance. Western Wood Species Book Vol. Western Wood Products Association represents softwood lumber manufacturers in the 12 Western states and Alaska. ALL Rights Reserved.
Traditionally, furniture factories have been located in Europe and North America. With the increased cost of labour in industrialized countries, more furniture production, which is labour intensive, has shifted to Far Eastern countries. It is likely that this movement will continue unless more automated equipment can be developed. Most furniture manufacturers are small enterprises. The woodworking industry in the United States is responsible for manufacturing household, office, store, public building and restaurant furniture and fixtures. The woodworking industry falls under the US Bureau of the Census Standard Industrial Classification SIC Code 25 equivalent to International SIC Code 33 and includes: wood household furniture, such as beds, tables, chairs and bookshelves; wood television and radio cabinets; wood office furniture, such as cabinets, chairs and desks; and wood office and store fixtures and partitions, such as bar fixtures, counters, lockers and shelves. Because production lines for assembling furniture are costly, most manufacturers do not supply an exceptionally large range of items. Manufacturers may specialize in the product manufactured, the product group or the production process EPA For the purposes of this article, the processes of the woodworking industry will be considered to start with the reception of converted timber from the sawmill and continue until the shipping of a finished wood article or product. Earlier stages in the handling of wood are dealt with in the chapters Forestry and Lumber industry.
Wood , the principal strengthening and nutrient-conducting tissue of trees and other plants and one of the most abundant and versatile natural materials. Produced by many botanical species, including both gymnosperms and angiosperms , wood is available in various colours and grain patterns. It is strong in relation to its weight, is insulating to heat and electricity , and has desirable acoustic properties. As a material, wood has been in service since humans appeared on Earth. Today, in spite of technological advancement and competition from metals , plastics , cement , and other materials, wood maintains a place in most of its traditional roles, and its serviceability is expanding through new uses. In addition to well-known products such as lumber , furniture, and plywood, wood is the raw material for wood-based panels, pulp and paper , and many chemical products.
Descriptions of manufacturing processes 1. This analysis had to identify the amount, type and quality of energy required so as to identify possible energy savings compatible to the respective cost-benefit analysis.
Lumber wholesale from the manufacturer. Sudoma sawmill processes cubic meters of saw logs per year and produces thermally modified, impregnated, planed and brushed softwood and birch lumber. Modern european equipment. The sawmill is equipped with modern production equipment of leading world manufacturers.
Our Wood Is Green. HempWood is the most eco-friendly lumber product on the planet. No Deforestation. HempWood is made without destroying trees.
Стратмор наморщил лоб и прикусил губу. Мысли его метались. Он, конечно, с легкостью мог набрать код лифта и отправить Сьюзан домой, но она нужна ему .