A conductor is a material that is able to conduct electricity with minimal impedance to the electrical flow. It is commonly a metal. A conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. In metallic conductors such as copper or aluminum, the movable charged particles are electrons. Positive charges may also be mobile, such as the cationic electrolyte s of a battery or the mobile protons of the proton conductor of a fuel cell.
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The Capacitance Electronic Disc CED is an analog video disc playback system developed by RCA , in which video and audio could be played back on a TV set using a special needle and high-density groove system similar to phonograph records. First conceived in , the CED system was widely seen as a technological success which was able to increase the density of a long-playing record by two orders of magnitude. Sales for the system were nowhere near projected estimates. The format was commonly known as " videodisc ", leading to much confusion with the contemporaneous LaserDisc format.
LaserDiscs are read optically with a laser beam, whereas CED discs are read physically with a stylus similar to a conventional gramophone record. The two systems are mutually incompatible. RCA began videodisc research in , in an attempt to produce a phonograph-like method of reproducing video. Research and development was slow in the early years, as the development team originally comprised only four men,  but by , the CED team at RCA had produced a disc capable of holding ten minutes of color video a portion of the Get Smart episode "A Tale of Two Tails", re-titled "Lum Fong".
The first CED prototype discs were multi-layered, consisting of a vinyl substrate, nickel conductive layer, glow-discharge insulating layer and silicone lubricant top layer. However, failure to fully solve the stylus and disc wear and complexity of manufacturing forced RCA to search for simpler solutions to the problem for constructing the disc. The final disc was crafted using PVC blended with carbon to allow the disc to be conductive. To preserve stylus and groove life, a thin layer of silicone was applied to the disc as a lubricant.
CED videodiscs were originally meant to be sold in jackets and handled by hand similar to audio records, but during testing, it was shown that exposure to dust caused skipped grooves. It was learned that if dust was allowed to settle on the discs, then the dust would absorb moisture from the air and cement the dust particle to the disc surface, causing the stylus to jump back in a locked groove situation.
Thus, an idea was developed in which the disc would be stored and handled in a caddy from which the CED would be extracted by the player so that exposure to dust would be minimized. A catalog of approximately 50 titles was released at the same time. Models with random access hit the market in Several problems doomed the new CED system before it was even introduced.
From an early point in the development of the CED system, it was clear that VCRs and home videotape—with their longer storage capacity and recording capabilities—would pose a threat to the system. Once finally released, sales for the new CED players were slow; RCA had expected to sell , players by the beginning of , but only about half that number had been sold, and there was little improvement in sales throughout and The extremely long period of development—caused in part by political turmoil and a great deal of turnover in the high management of RCA—also contributed to the demise of the CED system.
RCA had originally slated the videodisc system for a release. However, the discs were still not able to hold more than thirty minutes of video per side, and the nickel-like material used to make discs was not sturdy enough to put into manufacturing.
Signal degradation was also an issue, as the handling of the discs was causing them to deteriorate more rapidly than expected, baffling engineers. RCA attempted to cut the prices of CED players and offer special incentives to consumers such as rebates and free discs, but sales only slightly improved. RCA management realized that the system would never be profitable and announced the discontinuation of production of CED players on April 4, Shortly after this announcement, however, the sale of discs declined sharply, prompting RCA to abandon disc production after only two years, in CED players were intended to be "low-cost".
They also had a pause feature, though it blanked the screen rather than displaying a still image; many players featured a "page mode", during which the current block of four successive frames would be repeatedly displayed. Since CEDs were a disc-based system, they did not require rewinding.
Early discs were generally monaural , but later discs included stereo sound. Monaural CED discs were packaged in white protective caddies, while stereo discs were packaged in blue protective caddies. Other discs could be switched between two separate mono audio tracks, providing features such as bilingual audio capability. Each side of a CED disc could be split into up to 63 "chapters", or bands.
Unlike its laser-based counterparts, the chapters in a CED are based on minutes of the film, not scenes. Novelty discs and CED-based games were produced whereby accessing the chapters in a specified order would string together a different story each time.
However, only a few were produced before the halt of CED player manufacturing. In comparison with LaserDisc technology, CEDs suffered from the fact that they were a phonograph-related contact medium: RCA estimated that the number of times a CED could be played back, under ideal conditions, was Since the CED system used a stylus to read the discs, it was necessary to regularly change the stylus in the player to avoid damage to the videodiscs, while worn and damaged discs also caused problems for consumers.
When a disc began to wear, video and audio quality would severely decline, and the disc would begin to skip. However, playing the disc several times would generally solve this problem. Unlike VHS tapes, CEDs required a disc flip at some point during the course of almost all films as only sixty minutes of video could be stored per side 75 mins on UK PAL discs due to the slower rotation speed ; if a feature ran over two hours, it would be necessary to spread the feature over two discs.
Less significant disadvantages include lack of support for freeze-frame during pause, since CEDs scanned four frames in one rotation versus one frame per rotation on CAV LaserDisc, while computer technology was not advanced enough at the time to outfit the player with a framebuffer affordably.
However, a "page mode" was available on many players that would allow those four frames to be repeated in an endless loop. CED players were manufactured by four companies—RCA, Hitachi , Sanyo , and Toshiba —but seven other companies marketed players manufactured by these companies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Capacitance Electronic Disc
The silicon in sand is purified and melted into solid cylinders that get sliced into one-millimeter thick wafer discs. The discs are polished, printed with circuit designs, and cut into the tiny individual semiconductor chips that get embedded into our devices. The next generation of smarter and more powerful machines will rely on even more sophisticated semiconductors to achieve new capabilities. The pace of change is dizzying. The American semiconductor industry dominates the field with close to half of the global market share. Some industry leaders thrive by maintaining a high degree of vertical integration, but most have achieved a competitive edge by developing reliable value chains that leverage industry clusters located in different regions, while also tapping into the expertise of thousands of small, niche firms inside and outside the United States. Closer to the end users are companies that have achieved efficiencies in manufacturing, assembling, testing, packaging and distributing semiconductors.
In cases where these groupings correspond with major groups, the major group heading is also in italics. The assembly of products from component parts is considered to be Manufacturing, except in cases where the activity is appropriately classified under Construction. The assembly and installation of machinery and equipment in mining, manufacturing, commercial and other business establishments is classified under the same group of Manufacturing as the manufacture of the item installed. Excluded is the assembly on site of prefabricated, integral parts of bridges, water tanks, storage and warehouse facilities, railway and elevated pedestrian bridges, and lift, escalator, plumbing, sprinkler, central heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, lighting and electrical wiring systems for buildings and mines and all kinds of structures which are construction activities if undertaken as a specialised activity. Establishments specialising in the installation of household appliances, such as stoves and ranges, refrigerators, washing machines and driers, are classified under the appropriate retail trade group. The manufacture of specialised components and parts of and accessories and attachments to machinery and equipment is, as a general rule, classified under the same group as the manufacture of the machinery and equipment for which the parts and accessories are intended.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How it's made - Electric cables
The Capacitance Electronic Disc CED is an analog video disc playback system developed by RCA , in which video and audio could be played back on a TV set using a special needle and high-density groove system similar to phonograph records. First conceived in , the CED system was widely seen as a technological success which was able to increase the density of a long-playing record by two orders of magnitude. Sales for the system were nowhere near projected estimates. The format was commonly known as " videodisc ", leading to much confusion with the contemporaneous LaserDisc format. LaserDiscs are read optically with a laser beam, whereas CED discs are read physically with a stylus similar to a conventional gramophone record. The two systems are mutually incompatible. RCA began videodisc research in , in an attempt to produce a phonograph-like method of reproducing video. Research and development was slow in the early years, as the development team originally comprised only four men,  but by , the CED team at RCA had produced a disc capable of holding ten minutes of color video a portion of the Get Smart episode "A Tale of Two Tails", re-titled "Lum Fong".
Reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries. Contains statistical data on materials and minerals and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Includes chapters on approximately 90 commodities and over countries.
Она много читала о таких вирусах - смертоносных программах, в которые встроено излечение, секретный ключ, способный дезактивировать вирус.
Танкадо и не думал уничтожать главный банк данных - он хотел только, чтобы мы обнародовали ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Убийца шагнул к. Беккер поднялся над безжизненным телом девушки. Шаги приближались. Он услышал дыхание. Щелчок взведенного курка. - Adids, - прошептал человек и бросился на него подобно пантере. Раздался выстрел, мелькнуло что-то красное.
Но это была не кровь.
Dream or nightmare: Why India should postpone its electric vehicle plans for ten years
У правительств должно быть право собирать информацию, в которой может содержаться угроза общественной безопасности. - Господи Иисусе! - шумно вздохнул Хейл. - Похоже, Стратмор здорово промыл тебе мозги. Ты отлично знаешь, что ФБР не может прослушивать телефонные разговоры произвольно: для этого они должны получить ордер. Этот новый стандарт шифрования означал бы, что АНБ может прослушивать кого угодно, где угодно и когда угодно.
- Ты прав - и так и должно быть! - сурово отрезала Сьюзан.
Двадцать тысяч! - крикнул Беккер. - Мне срочно нужно в аэропорт. Наконец парень посмотрел на. - Scusi? - Он оказался итальянцем. - Аегорortо. Per favore. Sulla Vespa. Venti mille pesete.
Она вцепилась Беккеру в плечо, заставив его подняться - как раз в тот момент, когда губы старика шевельнулись. Единственное сорвавшееся с них слово фактически не было произнесено.
Управлять всей информацией в мире. И ТРАНСТЕКСТ больше не нужен. Никаких ограничений - только свободная информация. Это шанс всей вашей жизни.
Сьюзан была ошеломлена. ТРАНСТЕКСТ еще никогда не сталкивался с шифром, который не мог бы взломать менее чем за один час. Обычно же открытый текст поступал на принтер Стратмора за считанные минуты. Она взглянула на скоростное печатное устройство позади письменного стола шефа.
Сьюзан застыла в полутора метрах от экрана, ошеломленная увиденным, и все называла имя человека, которого любила. ГЛАВА 115 В голове Дэвида Беккера была бесконечная пустота.