It offers improved appearance in higher grades of face veneers and minimizes "checking". Cabinets, furniture and architectural interiors all benefit from ArmorCore's advantages. ArmorCore should be specified as a core when a panel needs to have the weight, structural value and screw holding ability of veneer core, and the uniformly flat and dense surface of MDF. ArmorCore is also specified in very low humidity areas to minimize veneer "checking". Both one-step and two-step constructions are available. Two-step construction provides more critical thickness tolerances and minimizes the telegraphing of imperfections from the veneer innerplies.
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- Lining, Sheathing & Sarking Boards
- Laminates, veneers and plywood offer durability and style
- Oriented strand board: Opportunities and potential products in China
- Environmentally-Friendly High-Density Polyethylene-Bonded Plywood Panels
- Oriented strand board: Opportunities and potential products in China
- WELCOME TO AAMODA: Plywood suppliers | Plywood Manufacturers in Hyderabad
Lining, Sheathing & Sarking BoardsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Plywood working machinery Manufacturing plywood boards use our machinery
Sawdust is a tiny piece of wood that fall as powder from wood as it is cut by a saw . In other words, sawdust is basically a waste of small particles available in saw-milling industries, pulp plant and paper industries as well as wood processing industries particularly, in the southern part of Nigeria in a quite large volume in form of heaps and mostly burnt off resulting in the environmental pollution .
Sawdust is generally considered as a timber-industrial waste that pollutes the environment  but can become a valuable commodity either as a raw material in manufacturing industries for wood boards, light construction materials such as shelves, notice boards, wall and roof sheeting for mobile houses, as an insulator in the refrigerating system and cold conservation of in Energy industries as fuel burned directly or indirectly to produce wood gas, briquette, pellet, etc.
Some aspects of the technologies used for the mentioned above shall form part of the discussions in this paper. Sawdust possesses characteristics similar to wood but due to the fact that it is in particles, some structural properties have been altered. It can however recover this so that it can be used again as wood. Consequently, in utilizing sawdust as a source of energy, its heating value can be compared with that of other fuels.
It has a very low thermal conductivity and hence used as insulating material so as to reduce heat losses through conductor. High pressure and temperature are essential to agglomerate to make a very dense briquette without a binder.
The technological development of sawdust proves its positive use, for instance, it is a requirement for improvement in various forms in different kinds of materials, chemicals such as methanol  ; as a fuel for instance, it can be burnt directly to obtain heat in three distinct ways  :. Most researchers agreed that all readily recovered waste being generated at present could be absorbed by the industry either for energy supply or for additional raw material for processing chipboards and fine board .
Therefore all prime timber is likely to find a ready market for the foreseeable future. For instance, a number of pulp plants in the United States already use their processed wastes to produce other chemicals and beverages quality alcohol.
The increasing costs, crisis and depletion of energy from convectional sources over past few years have reawakened interest in the development of alternative sources of energy.
Apart from the fact that most of these conventional energy sources are non-renewable, world energy planners have realized that these sources alone would be inadequate to meet the increasing need of the world both now and the future.
This led to greater attention being paid to the development of wood gas from sawdust which otherwise would be wasted. The technological development of sawdust brought about briquettes which are good alternatives for using wood as fuel .
The specific energy content of the wood waste and charcoal are 16, Sawdust is beneficial also as insulating materials in the refrigerating system and in cold conservation.
Application of modern technology in the areas of pulp and paper making, particle board, water board, oriented strand board plywood has resulted in several benefits such as availability of high quality product for making materials such as shelves, wall and roof sheathings, light construction materials and employment opportunities for the populace to mention a few.
Several structural wood panels such as mentioned above shall be the focus of this paper under the manufacturing industry. Sawdust is a useful factor in agricultural industry in making fertilizer called sawdust compost as well as food in chicken brooders.
Several million tons of sawdust and other wood residues are produced annually in the Southwest Nigeria. While most of this is burned, an increasing amount is being used for mulches, growers of small fruit, and nurserymen.
It is also find an increasing use as litter in barns and feed lots, and as a soil conditioner in general agriculture. Usage has been largely on a trial and error basis, usually with good results. Like other highly carbonaceous organic matter, however, sawdust under certain conditions can cause a deficiency of available nitrogen in soils and thus retard plant growth. Certain woods or bark also contain tannins and other extractives that may have more or less toxic influence on plants and soil microorganisms.
To obtain information and fundamental knowledge on these and other problems arising in connection with agricultural uses of wood wastes. It is well known that mulching can increase crop yields, but it is essential that mulches be low-cost, readily available materials. In addition, it is desirable that materials used should not require costly applications of nitrogenous fertilizers during the process of decomposition.
Most of our soils are greatly in need of organic matter because the usual crop rotations seldom maintain soil humus at high level as desirable. Wood residues should be utilized for humus maintenance wherever it is economically feasible to do so.
Although the emphasis is on sawdust, this material reacts much as do chips, shavings, and bark, except that decomposition is more rapid in the more finely divided material. Sawdust mulches: Improve structure and aeration of heavy soils. Increase water absorption and penetration. Conserve moisture through weed control and reduced evaporation.
Technological advancement is an important desirable and necessary ingredient of economic and social growth but the environmental consequences can be unpleasant. For example burning sawdust in an open space causes atmospheric pollution landing leading to the problem of acidic rain and the emission of carbon iv oxide which is of concern as greenhouse gas .
Sawdust seriously affects the soil and water, being a very dangerous threat to the environment. It has three major negative effects on the soil, these include: reduction of the hydrogen content of the soil when used as mulch and reduces soil phosphorous when incorporated. Soil acidity increases and therefore unsuitable for crop germination unless it is composted not good to be used as a fertilizer.
Sawdust pollutes the soil with phenol compound. All together these effects reduce the soil productivity . Sawdust reuse is promoted by waste legislation. There is no specific legislation regarding sawdust but there is legislation for wastes in general. As a by-product of timber industry, sawdust is considered by the environmental authorities as a recyclable waste.
Sawdust and other biomass materials such as palm kernel shell, rice bran, alfalfa straw, olive pits, wheat straw, rice husks, walnut shells, sunflower straw, soybean stalks. Maize cabs, maize stalk etc. There are various types of binding agents; these include starch, tar, pitch, thermoplastic resin. These pellets burn at higher temperatures than untreated wood; resulting in more complete burning and less ash residual .
Subsequently, the mixtures of sawdust, biomass materials and the binding agents are then molded into small block cubes and cured by drying out the water content in a drying oven. These cubes are called the briquettes which can then be burned in a special stove for cooking. A screw press was used for destruction of the cell walls to generate heat and a high pressure which is the prerequisite for briquetting of sawdust consequent of the force needed to overcome the natural springiness of these materials i.
The process whereby there is a considerable reduction in the volume of the loose sawdust and its aggregates by the application of compressive stress and thereafter leading to its agglomeration so that the product remains in the compressed state is referred to as densification . If the material is compacted with low to moderate pressure 0.
As the pressure is increased there will be a stage when the cellulose cell wall of the constituent will collapse . After the densification the material remains as solid until it serves its function well as a fuel.
The densification also reduce the moisture content, increase the bulk density, increase the calorific value of the fuel and as well as improving the handling and transporting characteristics.
The handling characteristics depend on the following properties:. Gasification of sawdust is the process by which sawdust is burnt with limited supply of air or oxygen. Sawdust gas is composed of carbon ii oxide, carbon iv oxide, hydrogen and methane. The liquid and the gas are combustible and are potential fuel or fuel feedstock except carbon iv oxide. The typical composition from gasification in air, omitting water vapour is as shown in the Table 1 below.
There are some variations, in general the composition of the gas largely independent of the composition of the feedstock because the end product is a mixture of simple gases. In some cases, if there is significant sulphur content in the feedstock hydrogen sulphide may be generated. This can be easily removed by passing the gas through water. Furthermore, if the air supply is replaced by pure oxygen as it is in the proxy process, the nitrogen content is eliminated and the energy density can be as high.
Table 1. Typical composition from gasification of sawdust in air. Another route to produce the higher BTU gas is by hydro gasification where hydrogen is added to react with the carbon ii oxide to give hydrocarbons. The fact that sawdust consists of predominantly carbohydrates cellulose and hemicellulose , the technology of hydrogenation and carbon ii oxide is readily adaptable to converting sawdust to oil.
The conversion of cellulose to liquid material requires high pressure hydrogenation and to a bitumen-like material, this requires treatment with caustic at elevated temperatures and pressures. Water is needed because it supplies the hydrogen for the reaction and also for the hydrolysis of the high- molecular weight carbohydrate present.
It also acts as a solvent and vehicle for the reaction. It decreases the extent of polymerization of some of the highly reactive water soluble intermediates. The separation of the oil and water phases during the product recovery step is sometimes encountered by emulsions.
The extraction can be done using acetone or benzene depending on the temperature at which the reaction occurs. The solvent can then be separated by a rotary evaporated heater in a hot water bath. All wood-based structural panels are composite materials. There are a lot of wood panels that can be made from sawdust, these include: Particle board, Oriented strand board, water board, plywood, etc.
Wood dust in the form of flakes, shavings, chips fibres mixed with resin and other binding agents. This mixture is laid down in a mat which is hot-pressed to increase the density of the mat and to cure the adhesive. The sawdust particles may be oriented to some degree to provide some directionally of strength properties along and across the panels.
Particles may be laid down in orthogonal layers similar to plywood veneer. Different types of particles may be used in the same panel to improve surface properties and create a more layered particle product .
In order to overcome the problem associated with spring back and stabilization of the material hot pressing of the sawdust can be carried out for consolidating the particle board to the required thickness and density. It has a direct effect on the product quality and the production efficiency. The function of hot-pressing is to consolidate the material to a desirable panel density and thickness.
Modern plants use single-opening or continuous presses for adhesive and furnish to be bonded together to overcome the spring back and heat stabilize the panel for the targeted thickness and density . Production of better panel thickness, controlled density profiles and lower losses in sanding and trimming are assured than for multi opening presses .
In the designing of unit, efforts were made to use simple manufacturing and engineering techniques to produce units which will serve as a model and which is relatively cheap and easily available. The dimension of the reactor unit is based on a portable unit that will compose 2 kg of sawdust biomass at each feeding rate.
The specific value of heat content cannot be ascertained. But assertion can be made during the oxygen gasification of wood. The volume of the producer gas that can be produced during oxygen gasification of sawdust is the addition of the two principal constituents: Carbon ii oxide CO and hydrogen H 2 by percentage of the total volume of gas produced per feeding rate of 2 kg of sawdust.
A specific value cannot be ascertained due to the following conditions:. The height and the circumference of the reactor can be calculated using the following assumption:. The diameter to be 0.
Twenty years later, the industry was thriving, with over 50 mills producing the product. Opportunity for sheathing-grade OSB is very limited in the current Chinese market, whereas industrial opportunities for specialty OSB products to replace plywood have great potential. OSB producers must designate the right OSB products for the Chinese market and cost-effectively manufacture those differentiated products to meet specifications for various end-applications. The technological development for making structural-use OSB, shortage of peeler logs, and availability of abundant wood resources for OSB, building code approvals, and growing demand for structural panels have together made OSB gradually accepted in the construction sheathing market Montrey and Utterback
Laminates, veneers and plywood offer durability and style
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Oriented strand board: Opportunities and potential products in China
Wood is one of the most significant structural materials used throughout human history. As documented by the earliest artifacts of human activity, wood has been associated with activities of hunting and gathering, early development of agriculture, and the foundations of civilization, as well as its obvious use as a fuel for fire. Archaeological studies of virtually every known civilization confirm the use of wood for a wide range of items and attest to wood's intimate involvement with human evolution and its progress through time. As a structural material, wood has some rather remarkable properties.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Manufacturing plywood boards: then and now
Thermoplastic films exhibit good potential to be used as adhesives for the production of veneer-based composites. This work presents the first effort to develop and evaluate composites based on alder veneers and high-density polyethylene HDPE film. The effects of these variables on the core-layer temperature during the hot pressing of multiplywood panels using various adhesives were also studied. UF and PF adhesives were used for the comparison. The findings of this work indicate that formaldehyde-free HDPE film adhesive gave values of mechanical properties of alder plywood panels that are comparable to those obtained with traditional UF and PF adhesives, even though the adhesive dosage and pressing pressure were lower than when UF and PF adhesives were used. The obtained bonding strength values of HDPE-bonded alder plywood panels ranged from 0. The wood-based composites sector plays an important role in national economies in many countries. Plywood is widely used for different applications, such as construction, furniture manufacturing, means of transportation, packaging, decorative purposes, and many others.
Environmentally-Friendly High-Density Polyethylene-Bonded Plywood Panels
Paperboard is a thick paper -based material. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard, paperboard is generally thicker usually over 0. Paperboard can be easily cut and formed, is lightweight, and because it is strong, is used in packaging.
Continuing Education. Learning Objectives - After reading this article, you will be able to:. Doors are a critical part of every building, and there are a plethora of options to satisfy a variety of needs. Today's marketplace is flooded with so many choices in types and styles of wood doors that selecting the right door for a given situation can often be a time-consuming and perplexing process. Yet properly specified doors go a long way to achieving the aesthetic, functional, safety, and environmental requisites that enhance the look and durability of a commercial space. Architects and design professionals who are researching, comparing, selecting, and specifying wood doors should be equipped with an understanding of the basic anatomy of a door, and the function of all constituent parts as well as a knowledge of industry standards that must be met. This article will serve as a primer on wood doors, their components, and construction methods and how to achieve optimum results from the perspective of performance, aesthetic, and environmental concerns. Architectural wood doors are assembled products comprised of multiple components, each with its own purpose. All doors consist of:. Depending on the door construction process, two additional components may be included.
Oriented strand board: Opportunities and potential products in China
Plywood is made by glueing together thin sheets of wood veneer. The thickness of an individual sheet is 0. The sheets are composed so that the directions of the grain of the superimposed sheets are usually perpendicular to each other. In birch plywood board, there is usually an odd number of sheers at least three , so the direction of grain of the surface sheets is always the same. In conifer plywood sheets, the number may also be even. In glueing, weather-resistant phenolic resin adhesive is normally used. In terms of colour, it is considerably darker than veneering wood. Some plywood products are classified in surface material emissions class M1.
WELCOME TO AAMODA: Plywood suppliers | Plywood Manufacturers in Hyderabad
Every woodworking unit desires to make better use of the wood waste generated during the manufacturing process and utilize the precious wood that takes decades to grow. This article discusses methods of converting wooden end-cuts and side-cuts into attractive gift articles and novelties. There are mainly four types of wood wastes generated in factories, namely:. The techniques used and investment required for the waste recovery project depends on its scale. A uniform size can be easily cut from such segregated lots.
We can deliver mechanisations for different kind of production lines according to the needs of the customers. Our areas of expertise include e. For optimising cross cut saw lines we can deliver the whole line consisting of the destacker, scanner, cross-cutting saw and very fast special stackers. For automation of finger jointing line we deliver devices to improve the capacity and ergonomics of the line.
Sawdust is a tiny piece of wood that fall as powder from wood as it is cut by a saw . In other words, sawdust is basically a waste of small particles available in saw-milling industries, pulp plant and paper industries as well as wood processing industries particularly, in the southern part of Nigeria in a quite large volume in form of heaps and mostly burnt off resulting in the environmental pollution . Sawdust is generally considered as a timber-industrial waste that pollutes the environment  but can become a valuable commodity either as a raw material in manufacturing industries for wood boards, light construction materials such as shelves, notice boards, wall and roof sheeting for mobile houses, as an insulator in the refrigerating system and cold conservation of in Energy industries as fuel burned directly or indirectly to produce wood gas, briquette, pellet, etc.
Interiors are ever changing and, thanks to the almost limitless options in surface treatments, the possibilities in terms of design are endless. High pressure laminate also known as HPL is one of the few surface materials that perfectly combines robust durability with stylish versatility, perfect for all designs in any given space. Recently, new and innovative designs have been introduced, thus putting this material to good use and enhancing aesthetics. One of the best things about laminate is its versatility — as architects, designers and clients can get the look of real wood or stone by using laminates at a fraction of the cost of the original material.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Affiliation s. Sawdust is a tiny piece of wood that fall as powder from wood as it is cut by a saw . In other words, sawdust is basically a waste of small particles available in saw-milling industries, pulp plant and paper industries as well as wood processing industries particularly, in the southern part of Nigeria in a quite large volume in form of heaps and mostly burnt off resulting in the environmental pollution .