Due to the shortage of solid wood as a raw material of plywood and the abundance of oil palm trunk OPT waste in Malaysia, OPT has become one of the potential replacements for timber. There are many recent studies related to quality improvement using thermosetting impregnation, especially with formaldehyde-based resins such as urea formaldehyde UF and phenol formaldehyde PF. Nevertheless, there are very limited studies related to palm trunk plywood using thermoplastic impregnation and formaldehyde-free adhesive. Formaldehyde effects can be avoided by replacing it with a thermoplastic adhesive, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS , to enhance and improve the quality of the plywood manufactured from OPT.
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Due to the shortage of solid wood as a raw material of plywood and the abundance of oil palm trunk OPT waste in Malaysia, OPT has become one of the potential replacements for timber. There are many recent studies related to quality improvement using thermosetting impregnation, especially with formaldehyde-based resins such as urea formaldehyde UF and phenol formaldehyde PF.
Nevertheless, there are very limited studies related to palm trunk plywood using thermoplastic impregnation and formaldehyde-free adhesive. Formaldehyde effects can be avoided by replacing it with a thermoplastic adhesive, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS , to enhance and improve the quality of the plywood manufactured from OPT.
In Malaysia, palm trunk plywood is used currently for non-structural materials such as formworks, cabinets, and packaging material. Hence, the enhanced quality of palm trunk plywood with a formaldehyde-free thermoplastic adhesive could produce a higher quality palm trunk plywood. In , oil palm Elaeis guineensis was introduced to Malaysia as an ornamental plant, and since , the planted area for oil palm has increased at a rapid rate. There were about 1. Oil palm is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia.
The harvesting of oil palm begins two to three years after planting in the field, and it has an economic life of 25 to 30 years, upon which the tree is chopped for replanting. As the first plantations started in the mids, the felling of trees has already begun, with several million trees scheduled for cutting every year for the foreseeable future. Oil palm trunks are normally left to burn or decay in the plantation area.
However, freshly felled trunks, with their high moisture content, cannot easily be burned in the field. It will also cause the oil palm tree to fall down, besides encouraging insect attacks by such as ants, termites, and tree worms. Table 1 shows the various products that have been produced from OPT, such as fiber reinforced concrete, medium density fiberboard MDF , particleboard, laminated veneer lumber LVL , blackboard, and compressed wood.
In addition, there are many studies on manufacturing plywood from OPT. Its use is limited, especially in structural material and other applications.
To realize the potential of palm trunk plywood, further research on quality enhancement through its impregnation by thermoplastic resin is needed.
This work should also include promoting the utilization of the oil palm waste abundance in Malaysia as well as the application of a formaldehyde-free resin for plywood. Malaysia is one of the most important palm oil producers in the world; oil palm trunk has become one of the potential replacements for future timber.
There has been a rapid increase in the plantation area since from , hectares to the current planted area of about 5. With such a large plantation area available, there is a large amount of oil palm biomass. Thus, environmental threats such as air pollution affect the environment.
Oil palm planted area from to Malaysian Palm Oil Board ; a, b, c. Biomass is defined as organic matter derived from living or recently living organisms.
In agriculture, it is simply the organic waste left behind. The oil palm industry generates the largest amount of biomass: 83 million tons in , which is expected to grow to more than million tons by However, the abundance of OPT waste can be used as an alternative raw material for plywood that would help decrease deforestation and reduce the environmental problems related to the disposal of oil palm waste.
The palm family Arecaceae formerly known as the Palmae forms a distinct group of monocotyledon plants Corley and Tinker Because OPT is not truly a woody material, it poses a big challenge for developing products of suitable quality and market acceptability, as has been achieved with rubber wood or other tropical wood.
The three main components of oil palm trunk structures are parenchymatous cells, fibers, and vascular bundles.
Scanning electron microscopy shows the morphological details of dried OPT structures, particularly the parenchyma tissues Fig. Parenchyma tissues are bowl-shaped and provide spaces for resin, which improves the characteristics of an OPT polymer composite.
The parenchyma content decreases in each part of the inner, middle, and outer part of the OPT, while the vascular bundle content increases. Thus, the inner part of the OPT contains the highest moisture content, due to the variation of parenchyma and vascular bundles in each zone.
An individual vascular bundle of OPT consists of fibers, phloem, vessels, parenchymatous tissues, and three wide metaxylem vessels Fig. In Fig. However, the shortage of raw material, namely logs, may hamper future growth within the industry.
Currently, the Malaysian Timber Industry Board MTIB encourages an expansion of palm trunk plywood production and export because of the abundant availability of oil palm trunks and a cheaper selling price compared with timber plywood.
The MTIB is also working on market acceptance and promoting oil palm plywood as an environmentally friendly and green product for the export market Lumper, Plywood is a flat panel from either a soft or hard wood built up of sheets of veneer, called plies, which are united by a bonding agent under pressure that creates a panel with an adhesive bond between plies.
Plywood is always arranged with an odd number of layers, with the grain direction of adjacent layers oriented perpendicular to one another and an adhesive spread on these layers Youngquist As shown in Fig. These are log storage, log debarking and bucking, heating the logs, peeling the logs into veneers, drying the veneers, gluing the veneers together, pressing the veneers in a hot press, plywood cutting, and sanding United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA] A number of adhesives are commonly used in the production of plywood.
These include protein extracted from plants and animals, for which the typical ingredients are water, dried blood, soya flour, lime, sodium silicate, and caustic soda, and phenol-formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde glues, which are thermosetting glues. Both protein and urea-formaldehyde are mainly interior glues, with less water resistance, that are used almost exclusively in the hardwood plywood industry.
However, the adhesives used in plywood have become a point of concern, as both urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde are carcinogenic in very high concentrations. Due to health concerns, researchers have developed new formaldehyde-free adhesives for the plywood industry that are environmentally friendly and harmless to human health.
Recently, Tang et al. Therefore, formaldehyde-free adhesives should be further explored and developed in the plywood industry. Resin impregnation is used to improve the quality of plywood manufactured from OPT Fig. Impregnation can be defined as any technique using pressure or non-pressure to fill a wood substance with an inert material, resulting in a desired performance change Hill The material occupies space within the cell wall and blocks microspores, thus increasing dimensional stability, reducing wood hygroscopicity and protecting the wood from decay and termites.
Because the treatment significantly improves the appearance and properties, it can be used for making high quality OPT plywood. To improve the poor properties of OPT, palm trunk veneer has been made by resin impregnation Table 2. Previous researchers used formaldehyde-based resins and adhesive for plywood manufacturing Table 2. Consequently, formaldehyde causes health problems such as irritation of the skin, eyes, nose, and throat, and high levels of exposure may cause some types of cancers USEPA Hence, formaldehyde-free adhesives should be developed to overcome these concerns.
In the variables studies, the lay-up pattern has been shown to have a more dominant influence on the bending strength and bond integrity than the adhesive spread rate.
Oil palm trunk plywood, made from outer layer veneers, has a marked influence on the properties of plywood. Thus, the lay-up arrangement should be emphasized for better quality palm trunk plywood. The physical properties of palm trunk plywood are influenced by the resin concentration and veneer moisture content, while the mechanical properties and bonding performance of the pre-impregnated palm trunk plywood are influenced by the pressing time Hoong and Paridah There is a clear positive correlation between the density and pressing pressure.
Increased pressing pressure enhances the bonding strength in both dry and water boiled proof WBP test conditions. There are limited studies related to palm trunk plywood using thermoplastic adhesives. However, palm trunk LVL is suitable for indoor purposes and dry conditions. These studies will enhance the production of high quality palm trunk plywood as well as prompt the replacement of formaldehyde-based resins.
Wahab, N. Tahir, P. Abdul Khalil, H. Abdullah, A. DOI: Abdullah, C. Ahmad Shamim, M. Ahmad, Z. Awalludin, M. Brady, B. Buddi, T. Corley, R. Blackwell Science Ltd. Dungani, R. Engineered Wood Products Association of Australasia. Feng, L. Hashim, R. Hill, C. Hoong, Y. Husin, M.
Ibrahim, Z. Journal of Applied Sciences 14 11 , — Jumhuri, N. Khalil, H. Koay, A. Lamaming, J. Loh, Y. Mahat, N. Oil Palm Planted Area as at December Ramle, S. Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities Malaysia.
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Oriented strand board: Opportunities and potential products in China
HSN code is used by more than countries as a basis for their customs tariffs. HSN code is used for classifying the goods and services. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Cement Bonded Particle Board; b. Jute Particle Board; c. Rice Husk Board; d.
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This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve your user experience. You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Beta This is a new way of showing guidance - your feedback will help us improve it. Medium Density Fibreboard MDF is an engineered wood-based sheet material made by bonding together wood fibres with a synthetic resin adhesive. MDF is extremely versatile and can be machined and finished to a high standard.
Twenty years later, the industry was thriving, with over 50 mills producing the product. Opportunity for sheathing-grade OSB is very limited in the current Chinese market, whereas industrial opportunities for specialty OSB products to replace plywood have great potential. OSB producers must designate the right OSB products for the Chinese market and cost-effectively manufacture those differentiated products to meet specifications for various end-applications. The technological development for making structural-use OSB, shortage of peeler logs, and availability of abundant wood resources for OSB, building code approvals, and growing demand for structural panels have together made OSB gradually accepted in the construction sheathing market Montrey and Utterback In , OSB production slightly exceeded plywood production for the first time. The OSB production volumes in and were 18, and 19, million ft 2 , respectively, and the OSB consumption volumes in North America for those two years were 18, and 19, million ft 2 , respectively Anonymous a and a. The production and consumption of sheathing-grade OSB should continually recover and grow in North America if the US housing industry recovers to the level in early Europe has become the second major producer and consumer of OSB.
HSN code for Wood & Wood Products 44-49
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The potential use of wood residues for energy generation 6. In mechanical wood processing the greater part of the thermal energy requirements can be met from the available residues, in fact, the sawmilling industry has the potential to produce both a surplus of heat and electricity and therefore could support other energy deficient conversion processes in an integrated complex producing, for example, lumber, plywood and particleboard or, in the rural areas, to supplying energy for the needs of the surrounding community.
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