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Industry fabrication equipment for ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy

Industry fabrication equipment for ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy

The iron and steel industry and the non-ferrous metal industry are highly material and energy intensive industries. Considerable amounts of the mass input become outputs in the form of releases to air and residues. The most relevant emissions are those to air. Ores and concentrates contain quantities of metals other than the prime target metal, and processes are designed to obtain pure target metal and recover other valuable metals as well.

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Source Group 2 Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metal Production

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Production of Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals and Metal Products

The iron and steel industry and the non-ferrous metal industry are highly material and energy intensive industries. Considerable amounts of the mass input become outputs in the form of releases to air and residues. The most relevant emissions are those to air. Ores and concentrates contain quantities of metals other than the prime target metal, and processes are designed to obtain pure target metal and recover other valuable metals as well.

These other metals tend to concentrate in the residues from the process, and in turn, these residues form the raw material for other metal recovery processes.

Lastly, filter dusts can be recycled within the same plant or used for the recovery of other metals at other non-ferrous metal installations, by a third party or for other applications.

Primary metallurgical processes are understood to be those aimed at obtaining metals such as iron, copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, etc. Secondary metallurgical processes utilize scrap metals, often coated with plastics, paints, used batteries for lead productions , oils, etc. Table II. With relevance to the provisions of Article 5, sources in these categories can be classified as follows:.

An example of elaborating a source inventory and release estimate for this source group is included in the example inventory 3. Sinter plants are associated with iron manufacture, often in integrated iron and steel mills.

The sintering process is a pre-treatment step in the production of iron where fine particles of metal ores are agglomerated by combustion. Waste gases are usually treated by dust removal in a cyclone, electrostatic precipitator, wet scrubber or fabric filter. Besides input-related measures, disruptions to flame front propagation, i.

Revised or newly added emission factors are highlighted in red. Emission factors for other unintentional POPs are listed in Annex Detailed information on how default emission factors have been derived can also be found in Annex Class 1 includes plants with high use of waste, including cutting oils or other chlorinated contaminants, and limited process control and no or limited air pollution control system.

Class 2 should be applied for those plants that show good combustion control and have little use of waste, in particular cutting oils. Very low technology sintering plants may have higher emissions. Any plants found with poor combustion controls and very limited air pollution control systems should be noted for future examination.

Coke is produced from hard coal or brown coal by carbonization heating under vacuum. Coke is removed and quenched with water.

The major use of coke is in the iron and steel industry. No data are available to estimate releases from the production of charcoal from wood.

This process can be carried out in many small units, which taken together may represent a considerable production. For initial estimates of emissions, the emission factors given in this section for simple plants should be applied class 1. Class 1 should be applied to facilities where no dust removal device is in use. Class 2 should be used for plants using technology such as an afterburner and dust removal equipment.

The iron and steel industry is a highly material intensive industry with raw materials such as ores, pellets, scrap, coal, lime, limestone in some cases also heavy oil and plastics and additives and auxiliaries. It is also highly energy-intensive. More than half of the mass input becomes outputs in the form of releases to air and solid wastes or by-products. The most relevant emissions are those to air, with the emissions from sinter plants dominating the overall emissions for most pollutants see source category 2a.

In this section, all processes used in the manufacture of iron and steel are covered. For the purpose of the Toolkit, a categorization can be done according to the type of input material: blast furnaces BF are used only for the production of pig iron and are fed with iron ores from either sintering plants or pelletizing plants.

Blast furnaces do not utilize scrap. The hot-dip galvanizing process is included in this section since its objective is to protect steel from corrosion. Five types of furnaces are commonly used to melt metals in foundries: cupola, electric arc, induction, reverberatory, and crucible. Class 1 includes all iron and steel making processes such as electric arc furnaces and open hearth furnaces , except basic oxygen furnaces and blast furnaces, using dirty scrap containing cutting oils or plastic materials and plants with scrap preheating and relatively poor controls; Class 2 includes all iron and steel making processes such as electric arc furnaces and open hearth furnaces , except basic oxygen furnaces and blast furnaces, using dirty scrap or clean scrap or virgin iron that are fitted with some after-burners and fabric filters for gas cleaning; Class 3 includes electric arc furnaces using dirty scrap or clean scrap or virgin iron and efficient gas cleaning with secondary combustion and fabric filters sometimes in combination with a rapid water quench , and basic oxygen furnaces; Class 4 should be used for blast furnaces with air pollution control systems.

Class 1 includes cold air cupolas or hot air cupola or rotary drum furnaces without fabric filters or equivalent for gas cleaning; Class 2 includes rotary drum furnaces with fabric filters or wet scrubbers; Class 3 includes cold air cupolas with fabric filters or wet scrubbers; Class 4 includes hot air cupolas and induction furnaces fitted with fabric filters or wet scrubbers. Class 1 includes facilities without air pollution control systems; Class 2 includes facilities with good air pollution control systems but without a degreasing step; Class 3 includes facilities with both air pollution control systems and a degreasing step.

Primary copper may be produced by two different technologies depending on the type of minerals treated, either oxides or sulfides, and from primary concentrates and other materials either by pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical routes BREF Hydrometallurgical methods are applied to treat oxidized minerals, i. Typically, sulfurized minerals are treated by the pyrometallurgical route.

Sulphidic minerals are first treated in a concentration plant, operated at room temperature, and then the concentrates are pyrometallurgically refined in primary copper smelters. The concentrates to be smelted consist basically of copper and iron sulfides and are low in chlorine ppm. The stages involved are roasting, smelting, converting, refining, and electrorefining.

Secondary copper is produced by pyrometallurgical processes and is obtained from scrap or other copper-bearing residues such as slags and ashes. Since used copper can be recycled without loss of quality, secondary copper production is an important sector. However, in the absence of measured data, there will be no default emission factor provided for this class.

Class 1 should be applied to thermal processing of mixed materials where furnaces are equipped with simple fabric filters, no or less effective air pollution control systems. Class 2 will be used where thermal processing of scrap copper materials is carried out in furnaces that are well controlled and fitted, with afterburners and fabric filters.

The scrap should undergo some sorting and classification prior to processing to minimize contaminants. Class 4 addresses the smelting and casting of copper and copper alloys. Class 5 should be taken for primary Cu, well controlled plants with some secondary feed materials. Class 6 includes primary copper smelters that use clean raw materials and use either the base smelting process or the flash smelting. The releases from primary copper smelters that recycled secondary materials such as copper scrap or other residues can be estimated by applying the emission factor for class 5.

Aluminum Al can be produced from aluminum ore, most commonly bauxite primary production , or from scrap secondary production. In primary aluminum production, the mined aluminum ore e.

The use of pre-baked anodes represents the most modern process. Primary aluminum production is generally thought not to be a significant source of unintentionally produced POPs. Class 1 should be used for plants with simple or no dust removal equipment. Class 2 should be used for plants that have scrap pre-treatment, afterburners and dust control e.

Class 3 should be used where high efficiency controls are in place consisting of scrap cleaning, afterburners, fabric filters with lime and specific dioxin treatment activated carbon injection. Class 4 applies to the drying of Al shavings and turnings in rotary drums or similar equipment.

Class 5 applies to thermal de-oiling of turnings in rotary kilns with afterburners and fabric filters. Class 6 refers to primary aluminum production by electrolysis and ingot smelting. Emissions from direct smelting are low and not considered further SCEP Considerable quantities of lead are recovered from scrap materials, in particular vehicle batteries. A variety of furnace designs are used, including rotary furnaces, reverberatory, crucible, shaft, blast and electric furnaces. Continuous direct smelting processes may be used.

Class 1 Secondary lead production from scrap containing PVC, no air pollution control system. Class 4 Pure primary lead production. Zinc may be recovered from ores through a variety of processes. The co-occurrence of lead and zinc ores means that there may be a considerable overlap between these two sectors. Crude zinc may be produced in combination with a lead ore blast furnace or be recovered from the slag from such processes in rotary kilns. A variety of scrap materials may be used for zinc recovery as well as secondary raw materials such as dusts from copper alloy production, electric arc steel-making e.

The zinc production process from secondary raw materials can be done in a zinc recovery rotary kiln Waelz kiln , which is up to 95 m long with internal diameters of around 4. Melting of zinc may occur with the addition of fluxes including zinc and magnesium chlorides. Class 1 Rotary kiln with no air pollution control system. Class 3 Secondary zinc production with comprehensive air pollution control systems e. Class 4 Zinc melting and primary zinc production.

The properties of brass vary with the proportion of copper and zinc and with the addition of small amounts of other elements, such as aluminum, lead, tin, or nickel.

In general, brass can be forged or hammered into various shapes, rolled, etc. Brass can be produced by either re-melting the brass scrap or melting stoichiometric amounts of copper and zinc together. In principle, either one or both can be primary or secondary metal. Bronze is a hard yellowish-brown alloy of copper and tin, phosphorus, and sometimes small amounts of other elements. Bronze is harder than copper and brass.

Bronze is often cast to make statues. Most bronze is produced by melting the copper and adding the desired amounts of tin, zinc, and other substances. The properties of the alloy depend on the proportions of its components. Brass and bronze can be produced in simple, relatively small melting pots or in more sophisticated equipment such as induction furnaces equipped with air pollution control systems.

Class 1 should be used for plants which are more elaborated than class 2 furnaces, e. Class 2 should be used for simple smelting furnaces equipped with some flue gas abatement technology, e. Class 3 includes induction furnaces using mixed scrap and equipped with fabric filters. Class 4 includes more sophisticated equipment such as induction ovens with APCS.

The production of magnesium from ores is largely based on either electrolysis of MgCl 2 or chemical reduction of oxidized magnesium compounds. The raw materials used are dolomite, magnesite, carnallite, brines or seawater depending on the process.

Since the dawn of time, mankind has been shaping things from metal. From the Copper age, to the Bronze Age, and on into the Iron Age, man has been perfecting the craft of metalworking and metal casting.

Non-ferrous alloys do not contain iron in appreciable amounts. Common materials are aluminum, brass, copper and titanium. Non-ferrous castings can be made using sand casting process, investment process, or metal mold process including low pressure permanent mold process and high pressure die casting process HDC. HDC is typically used to produce small to medium size and large volume products. Most popular non-ferrous metals casted for industrial applications are aluminum alloys, copper based bronze and brass alloys, Zinc and magnesium alloys, etc.

Understanding Ferrous Vs. Non-Ferrous Metals

Read this blog to learn more about ferrous and non-ferrous metals as well as some of the metals that make up those categories. Ferrous metals have greater carbon content and the majority are magnetic which makes them useful for motor and electrical applications. These metals are sought after for their flexible strength and durability. Ferrous metals are also commonly used for construction materials, industrial uses, large-scale piping, automobiles transportation and a lot of everyday tools and utensils. Below is a list ferrous metals used in metal fabrication. Steel is one of the most used materials for metal fabricators. Steel has the most versatile options and can be used anywhere from construction to machinery.

Examples of Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals

Within the metal world, there are a number of different terms to know that mean a whole host of things. At Wasatch Steel, we can help you with all these kinds of definitions and terms when you employ our steel services. Humans first discovered and began using non-ferrous metals in ancient times, and this discovery actually marked a major historical transition. Most historians mark the period where copper was discovered — around 5, BC — as the final days of the Stone Age and the early beginnings of the Copper Age, which would later be followed by the Bronze Age when bronze alloy was discovered. Ferrous metals, on the other hand, were discovered in about 1, BC through iron production — and again, this marked the start of the Iron Age. For more on ferrous versus non-ferrous metals, or to learn about any of our steel services or buy our steel online, speak to the pros at Wasatch Steel today.

The simple answer is that ferrous metals contain iron and non-ferrous metals do not. The more in-depth answer is that ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals each have their own distinctive properties.

That means each type of ferrous and non-ferrous metal has different qualities and uses. Ferrous Metals Ferrous metals contain iron, and are known for their strength. Think steel, stainless steel, carbon steel, cast iron. Ferrous metals are used in both architectural and industrial fabrication, such as skyscrapers, bridges, vehicles, and railroads. Thanks to their magnetic properties, ferrous metals are also used in appliances and engines. Ferrous metals also have a high carbon content, which generally makes them prone to rust. The exceptions are stainless steel, because of chromium, and wrought iron because of its high pure iron content. Some examples of non-ferrous metals are aluminum, aluminum alloys, and copper, which are often used in industrial applications such as gutters, roofing, pipes, and electrical.

Die Basics 101: Metals used in stamping (Part 1 of 2)

To process, design, and build a successful stamping die, it is necessary to fully understand the behavioral characteristics of the specific material to be cut and formed. For example, if you are forming series aluminum and you follow the same process you use for deep drawing steel, the operation most likely will fail—not because aluminum is bad, it's just different from steel. Each metal has its own unique mechanical characteristics.

Ferrous and non-ferrous foundries specialize in melting and casting metal into desired shapes. Foundry products are most often used in automobiles, plumbing fixtures, train locomotives, airplanes and as metal pieces in other kinds of equipment. Independent foundries are classified under SIC code ; however, many specialty or smaller production foundries often operate within larger plants classified under other SIC codes.

The market for non-ferrous metals has diversified and is facing several challenges and opportunities. In particular, global changes in communication, electrification, digitalization, and the shift to green energy sources require new solutions to current and future metals. Additionally, tighter environmental regulations as well as limitations and changes in raw materials will also lead to new solutions. That is why SMS group has broadened its expertise in processing, supplies, and services for non-ferrous metal production lines. The SMS group team is developing process lines in the field of battery and electronic scrap recycling, refining and smelting furnaces, slag conditioning processes, and hydro- and pyro-metallurgical process combinations. Our extensive process know-how provides a solid base for our road map to full digital solutions. In addition, certain innovative and proven solutions, as applied in the steel industry, are being adapted to the non-ferrous world with significant benefits for our clients. We have also developed effective measures to produce all these metals with zero CO 2 emissions.

Primary nonferrous metals, nec 3C 3econdary nonferrous metals 33 Copper and steel basic industries CC 3ron and steel basic industries C3 Non-ferrous products except machinery and equipment nec CC Manufacture of fabricated.

Non-ferrous metals

With their light weight, non-magnetic characteristics, and a higher resistance to corrosion and rust than ferrous metals, they are found in anything from jewellery and electronic applications to construction and the automotive industry. Throughout the world the automotive industry is thriving, and lightweight, non-ferrous metals are a large part of that. Aluminium is increasingly useful bearing in mind the rigorous laws relating to emissions and fuel efficiency. As a light metal, it is an excellent replacement for the traditional steel, ensuring manufacturers reduce the weights of their vehicles with ease. Because of the toxicity of lead, traditional uses like paint and water pipes have now declined. However, it is still used for lead-acid car batteries to great effect.

The Difference Between Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metal

Stop wasting time on admin! Order your sheet metal fabrication online. Immediate pricing and short lead times all over the UK. What is the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals? They compose a large part of the overall metals in use today. This is made possible by their properties that suit many different industries and use-cases. Non-ferrous metals, on the other hand, do not include iron. This distinction is made because it brings along a certain characteristic change that non-ferrous metals do not provide. Ferrous metals may include a lot of different alloying elements.

CAMM Metals Blog

American Industrial Company AIC is an industry leading fabricator of precision, high-quality non-ferrous metal stampings with over thirty years of experience. With expertise in a wide range of industries, AIC can help you with all your stamping projects, producing high quality results that match your every requirement and specification. At AIC, we are experts in all forms of stamping, including forming, bending, progressive, blanking, coining, piercing, and shallow draw.

Scrap metal is classified as either ferrous or non-ferrous scrap. Both non-ferrous and ferrous metals have been used by humans since ancient times. Copper was the first metal to be forged, and then other non-ferrous metals, including silver and gold. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, another non-ferrous metal.

Their names are derived from ferrum, the Latin word for iron. Whether a metal is ferrous determines its recycling potential, so the distinction is important. As you would likely guess, ferrous metals contain iron. That property makes most of these metals magnetic.

Like their ferrous cousins, non-ferrous metals such as copper or brass can be recycled as many times as desired with almost no loss of quality. Reusing them conserves already scarce resources, making a vital contribution to environmental protection. The metal specialists at ALBA Group sort these valuable secondary raw materials thoroughly, process them in line with customers' requirements and supply them directly to the international market - closing the material recycling loop. Non-ferrous metals such as aluminium, lead, copper, nickel, tungsten carbide or zinc have a variety of properties and are suitable for a wide range of applications.

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